Gambar Sampul Fisika · j_Bab 10 Fisika Inti dan Radiaktivitas
Fisika · j_Bab 10 Fisika Inti dan Radiaktivitas
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Fisika Inti dan Radioaktivitas257257menganalisis karakteristik inti atom dan radioaktivitas;mendeskripsikan pemanfaatan radiokativitas dalam kehidupan sehari-haridan teknologi untuk kesejahteraan manusia.Setelah mempelajari bab ini, Anda harus mampu:menunjukkan penerapan konsep Fisika inti dan radioaktivitas dalam teknologi dankehidupan sehari-hari.Hasil yang harus Anda capai:Fisika Inti danRadioaktivitasA. Inti AtomB. RadioaktivitasC. Reaksi IntiD. Reaktor Nuklir, BomNuklir, danRadioisotop&?IJH?AC;HKF7A7DI;IK7JKN7D=I7D=7JF;DJ?D=:7B7CA;>?:KF7DCE:;HDI;A7H7D=?D? "7CF?HI;BKHK>7AJ?L?J7IC7DKI?7C;C8KJK>A7D;D;H=?B?IJH?A &?IJH?A:?FHE:KAI?:7H?F;C87D=A?JF;C87D=A?JJ;D7=7B?IJH?A ?#D:ED;I?7F;C87D=A?JB?IJH?A87DN7AN7D=8;H87>7D87A7HIEB7HM7B7KFKD7:7I;87=?7DA;9?BN7D=C;C7D<77JA7D7?HI;87=7?F;D==;H7AJKH8?D *;HC7I7B7>7DN7D=J?C8KB7:7B7>IEB7HJ;HC7IKAIKC8;H:7N77B7CN7D=J?:7A:7F7J:?F;H87>7HK?I;>?D==7IK7JKI77JF7IJ?7A7D>78?I $?A7>7B?D?J;[email protected]:?D;=7H7A?J77A7D8;H7:7:7B7CAH?I?I;D;H=? -7B7>I7JKIEBKI?N7D=:?J7M7HA7D7:7B7>C;C87D=KD*&.(*;C87D=A?J&?IJH?A.;D7=7(KAB?H F7A7>D:7J7>K87=7?C7D797H7DN7KH7D?KC7J7KFBKJED?KC:?K87>C;[email protected]:?;D;H=?B?IJH?A%;D:7B7N7D=:?>7:7F?7:7B7>C7I?>87DN7AF?>7AN7D=C;D;DJ7D=A;8;H7:77D*&.( F7A7>D:7J7>K7B7I7DC;H;A7*7:7878?D?D:77A7DC;CF;[email protected]?J;DJ7D=?DJ?7JEC8;H?AKJH;7AI?H;7AI?N7D=J;[email protected]:?:?:7B7CDN7:7CF7AFEI?J?<:7D:7CF7AD;=7J?<F;D=;C87D=7D;D;H=?DKAB?H Pembangunan PLTN merupakan salah satu solusi timbulnya krisis energi yangsuatu saat akan dialami penduduk Bumi.Bab10Sumber:Energy: Technology and Development,1995
Mudah dan Aktif Belajar Fisika untuk Kelas XII258A. Inti Atom-;F;HJ?N7D=IK:7>D:7F;[email protected]?F7:7787JECJ;H:?H?7J7IF7HJ?A;BF7HJ?A;B;B;C;DJ;HN7?JK?DJ?7JEC:7D;B;AJHED #DJ?7JECJ;H:?H?7J7IFHEJED:7DD;KJHED *7HJ?A;BF7HJ?A;B;B;C;DJ;H?D?C;C?B?A?C7II7N7D=I7D=7JA;9?BI;>?D==7I7JK7DN7D=:?=KD7A7D8KA7DB7>A?BE=H7C7J7K=H7CC;B7?DA7DI7JK7DC7II77JECN7D=:?:;<?D?I?A7DI;87=7?I;F;H:K78;B7IA7B?C7II7I7JK7JEC IC7QC7II7I7JK7JEC IC7  Q P A= IC7 ';0;H:7I7HA7DCE:;B7JECE>H7JECJ;H:?H?7J7I?DJ?7JECN7D=8;HCK7J7DFEI?J?<:7D;B;AJHEDN7D=8;HCK7J7DD;=7J?< B;AJHED8;H=;H7A8;HFKJ7HC;D=;B?B?D=??DJ? /DJKAC;D=;J7>K?I?<7JI?<7JIK7JK?DJ?:?F;HBKA7DF;D=;J7>K7DJ;DJ7D=C7II7IK7JK7JECN7D=:7F7J:?KAKH:;D=7DIF;AJHEC;J;HC7II7 1.Hipotesis Proton Elektron'7II7IK7JK7JEC8KA7DB7>C;HKF7A7DC7II7?DJ?N7D=J;HB?>7JDN7J7C;B7?DA7DC7II77JECD;JH7B '7II7IK7JK7JEC@K=7C;D97AKFC7II7;B;AJHEDN7D=8;H=;H7AC;D=;B?B?D=??DJ? )B;>A7H;D7I7JK7DC7II7A?BE=H7CJ;HB7BK8;I7HKDJKAKAKH7DC7II7IK7JK7JECI;97H7AEDL;DI?ED7B:?J;J7FA7DI7JK7DC7II77JEC*&$  $)) +% *7CK  7CK IC7  Q P A= 7H?F;D=KAKH7DJ;H>7:7FC7II7IK7JK7JECJ;HDN7J7J?:7AI;CK7KDIKHC;C?B?A?C7II7N7D=I7C7M7BKFKD@;D?IDN7I7C7 /DIKHKDIKH?D?B7>N7D=:?I;8KJ )&*&' -7B7>I7JK9EDJE>?IEJEFN7D=F7B?D=I;:;H>7D77:7B7>>?:HE=;D '7II77JEC>?:HE=;D7:7B7>8;HJKHKJJKHKJ   IC7   IC7:7D  IC7N7D=I;97H78;HKHKJ7D:?8;H?D7C7  (&%+*( +$:7D*( * +$ #DJ?JH?J?KC:?I;8KJJH?JED?DJ?:;KJ;H?KC:?I;8KJ:;KJHEDI;:7D=A7D?IEJEFN7D=F7B?D=H?D=7D:?I;8KJFHEJEDN7D=C;C?B?A?C7II77JEC   IC7 $?A7:?B?>7J?DJ?7JEC>7H=7DN7I;B7BKC;D:;A7J?A;B?F7J7D8?B7D=7D8KB7J:7H?C7II77JEC>?:HE=;DN7AD?   IC7 7H?9EDJE>J;HI;8KJ7JEC:;KJH?KCC;C?B?A?C7II7A?H7A?H7 A7B?C7II7FHEJED?DJ?>?:HE=;DI;:7D=A7DC7II7JH?J?KCA?H7A?H7A7B?C7II7FHEJED %;DN7J77D?D?F7:7CKB7DN7C;B7>?HA7DIK7JK7D==7F7D87>M7?DJ?7JECJ;H:?H?:7H?I;@KCB7>7JEC>?:HE=;DN7D=I7B?D=C;D=?A7J A7DJ;J7F?:7H?F;D;B?J?7DB;8?>[email protected]J;HDN7J787>M7C7II7?DJ?I;B7BKB;8?>8;I7H:7H?F7:7C7II77JEC>?:HE=;D -;87=7?9EDJE>7JECI;D=DECEH7JECDN7 D7CKDI;CK7?IEJEFDN78;HC7II7B;8?>:7H?:K7A7B? 7JEC>?:HE=;D %;DN7J77D?D?C;DN;878A7DJ?C8KBDN7IK7JK:K=77D87>M7;B;AJHEDCKD=A?D:7F7J8;H7:7:?:7B7C?DJ?:7D"+(+2;33+36+2'0'8/1549+6/9/1'4:/*'4!'*/5'1:/</:'91+80'1'42'.95'295'2(+8/1;:*'2'3(;1;2':/.'4Tes Kompetensi Awal F7N7D=:?C7AIK::;D=7DDECEH7JEC:7DDECEHC7II7 F7N7D=:?C7AIK::;D=7D?IEJEF?IE87H:7D?IEJED;H?A7D9EDJE>?IEJEF  F7N7D=:?C7AIK::;D=7DF;BKHK>7D F7N7D=:?C7AIK::;D=7DH;7AI?<KI?:7DH;7AI?<?I? F78;:7DN7H;7AI?DKAB?H:7DH;7AI?A?C?7
Fisika Inti dan Radioaktivitas259C;D;JH7BA7D8;8;H7F78K7>FHEJED #D?B7>N7D=:?I;8KJ:;D=7D '&*) )'(&*&%#"*(&% "?FEJ;I?I?D?@K=7:?:KAKD=EB;>IK7JKA;DN7J77D87>M7I?D7H8;J7N7D=:?F7D97HA7DEB;>IK7JK?DJ?7:7B7>F7HJ?A;BN7D=C7II7:7DCK7J7DDN7I7C7:;D=7D;B;AJHED 2.Hipotesis Proton-Neutron*7:7  :K7EH7D=7>B? ?I?A7:7H?$;HC7D8;HD7C7&5:.+:7D+)1+8C;D;CKA7DIK7JK=;@7B7N7D=C;[email protected]:?J?J?AJ;H7D=:7B7CC;D=KD=A7FA7DH7>7I?7?DJ?7JEC ';B7BK?F;H9E877DDN7A;:K77>B??D?C;D;C87A?A;F?D=8;H?B?KC:;D=7DF7HJ?A;B7B<7N7D=:?F;HEB;>:7H?I7CF;BFEBED?KC *;D;C87A7D?D?J;HDN7J7C;D=>7I?BA7DF7D97H7DH7:?7I?N7D=:7F7JC;D;C8KI87>7D87>7D:;D=7DCK:7>A7H;D7H7:?7I?J?:7A8;HCK7J7D 5:.+:7D+)1+8C;D=7D==7FH7:?7I??D?8;HKF7I?D7H=7CC7 (7CKDJ;H:7F7JF;H8;:77D7DJ7H7:7N7J;C8KII?D7H?D?:;D=7D:7N7J;C8KII?D7H=7CC7 *7:7  '3+9.'*=/)1  P C;D=KIKBA7DIK7JK>?FEJ;I?IJ;DJ7D=IJHKAJKH?DJ?7JEC8;H:7I7HA7DF7:7>7I?BF;H9E877D&5:.+:7D+)1+8 ';DKHKJ.'*=/)1H7:?7I?N7D=:?F7D97HA7DEB;>A;F?D=8;H?B?KC7:7B7>IK7JKF7HJ?A;BN7D=J?:7A8;HCK7J7DD;JH7BN7D=:?D7C7A7DD;KJHEDI;HJ7C7CFKC;D;C8KI87>7D87>7D:;D=7DCK:7> (;KJHEDC;C?B?A?C7II7N7D=>7CF?HI7C7:;D=7DFHEJED:7DC;C;HBKA7D;D;H=?I;8;I7H';0KDJKA:7F7JC;D=;BK7HA7DD;KJHED:7H?A;F?D=8;H?B?KC -?D7H=7CC7C;C;HBKA7D;D;H=?I;8;I7H';0KDJKAC;D?C8KBA7D;<;AN7D=I7C7:;D=7DD;KJHED "7I?B;AIF;H?C;DC;[email protected]87>M7D;KJHED8KA7DB7>F7HJ?A;BN7D=IJ78?B@?A78;H7:7:?BK7H?DJ?7JEC (;KJHEDC;BKHK>I;97H7H7:?E7AJ?<C;[email protected]:?FHEJED;B;AJHED:7D?DJ?D;KJHED:;D=7DKCKHH7J7H7J7 C;D?J "7I?BF;H9E877DC;[email protected]C7II7D;KJHEDI;8;I7H  IC77J7KI7C7:;D=7D Q P A= *HEJED:7DD;KJHED7A>?HDN7:?J;H?C7I;87=7?F7HJ?A;B:7I7HN7D=C;C8;DJKA?DJ?7JEC %;:K7DN7:?I;8KJDKAB;ED 3.Partikel Penyusun Inti$KCB7>DKAB;EDN7D=J;H:7F7J:?:7B7C?DJ?IK7JK7JEC:?B7C87D=A7D:;D=7D:7D:?D7C7A7DDECEHC7II7 :7FKD@KCB7>FHEJED:?B7C87D=A7DN7D=8;H7HJ?DECEH7JEC $7:?I;8K7>?DJ?7JEC:7F7J:?B7C87D=A7DI;87=7?8;H?AKJ 2 P %;J;H7D=7DDECEHC7II7@KCB7>D;KJHED:7DFHEJED2B7C87D=KDIKHDECEH7JEC@KCB7>D;KJHED1.;DJKA7D@KCB7>FHEJEDD;KJHED:7DDECEHC7II7:7H?7JEC'='(?A;J7>K?JEC8EHEDJ;H:?H?:7H?FHEJEDDECEH7JEC:7D DECEHC7II7 $7:?@KCB7>D;KJHEDDN7 PD;KJHEDContoh 10.1Eksperimen Rutherford menyatakanbahwa inti atom memiliki diametersekitar 10–15 sampai 10–14 m. Dariteori kinetik dan khususnya analisisEinstein tentang gerak Browman,diameter atom memiliki ukuransekitar 10–10 m. Itu artinya elektronakan terlihat berjarak sekitar 10.000sampai 100.000 kali lipat ukuran intidiukur dari inti atom tersebut (jikainti diibaratkan bola baseball, atomakan memiliki diameter seukurankota yang berdiameter beberapakilometer). Jadi, sebuah atomsebagian besar berupa ruangkosong.Rutherford’s experiments suggestedthat the nucleus must have a radiusof about 10–5 to 10–14 m. From kinetictheory, and especially Einstein’sanalysis of Browman movement, theradius of atoms was estimated to beabout 10–10 m. Thus the electronswould seem to be at a distance fromthe nucleus of about 10,000 to 100,000times the radius of the nucleus itself(if the nucleus were the size of abaseball, the atom would have thediameter of a big city severalkilometers across). So an atom wouldbe mostly empty space.Informasiuntuk AndaInformation for You
Mudah dan Aktif Belajar Fisika untuk Kelas XII260*7:7I;8K7>7JECD;JH7B@KCB7>;B;AJHED;B;AJHEDN7D=C;D=EH8?J:?I;A;B?B?D=?DJ?7JECI7C7:;D=7D@KCB7>DECEHC7II7 )B;>A7H;D7?JKCK7J7DF7:7;B;AJHEDI7C7J;J7F?8;HB7M7D7DJ7D:7:;D=7DCK7J7DI;8K7>FHEJED -?<7JI?<7JKJ7C7IK7JK7JEC:?J;DJKA7DEB;>@KCB7>;B;AJHEDDN7 $7:?C;D;DJKA7D@;D?I7JECDN7 #D:;AIN7D=:?87=?7D87M7>A7:7D=A7:7D=J?:7A:?JKB?II;>?D==7?DJ?:?JKB?I ( (KAB?:7 :7F7J :?AB7I?<?A7I?A7D 8;H:7I7HA7D A;IJ78?B7D :7DA;F7:7J7DDN7:?7B7CI;HJ78;H:7I7HA7DA;I7C77D:7D;H:7I7HA7DA;IJ78?B7DDN7DKAB?:7J;H87=?C;[email protected]:?DKAB?:7IJ78?B:7DH7:?EDKAB?:7 7 (KAB?:7IJ78?BN7?JKDKAB?:7N7D=C;C?B?A?:7DJ;J7F9EDJE>8 ,7:?EDKAB?:7N7?JKDKAB?:7N7D=C;C?B?A?:7DN7D=:7F7J8;HK87> (KAB?:7?D?J?:7AIJ78?B:7DI;97H7IFEDJ7DC;BKHK>C;[email protected]:?DKAB?:7B7?D ,7:?EDKAB?:7J;H:?H?7J7IH7:?EDKAB?:77JECFH?C;HH7:?EDKAB?:77JECI;AKD:;HH7:?EDKAB?:77JECJ;HI?;H:7DH7:?EDKAB?H ;H:7I7HA7D@KCB7>:7DDKAB?:7:7F7J:?=EBED=A7DC;[email protected]:??IEJEF?IEJED?IE87H:7D?IEC;H 7 #IEJEFN7?JK@KCB7>DKAB?:7DKAB?:7N7D=C;C?B?A?I7C7J;J7F?8;H8;:79EDJE>DN7    8 #IEJEDN7?JKDKAB?:7N7D=C;C?B?A?@KCB7>D;KJHEDI7C7J;J7F?DECEHC7II78;H8;:79EDJE>DN7  (9 #IE87HN7?JKDKAB?:7DKAB?:7N7D=C;C?B?A?I7C7J;J7F?8;H8;:7 (KAB?:7?D?KCKCDN7C;HKF7A7DDKAB?:7DKAB?:79;HC?D : #IEC;H?DJ?N7?JKDKAB?:7N7D=C;C?B?A?:7DI7C7I;HJ7I?<7JA?C?7N7D=I7C7J;J7F?J?D=A7J;D;H=?DN78;H8;:7 EDJE> -C;C?B?A?J?=7?IEC;HN7?JK   C C -8 -8 -8*;H>7J?A7D'3('8  /DJKA7JEC>?:HE=;D8?7I7:?JKB?I"?I?D?DECEH7JEC:7DDECEHC7II7I7C7A7H;D7J?:7AJ;H:7F7JD;KJHED #DJ?7JECN7D=J;H:?H?7J7IFHEJED:7DD;KJHED:7F7JC;D;H7D=A7DA;7:77D?IEJEF 4.Stabilitas Inti-J78?B?J7I?DJ?7JEC8;H=7DJKD=A;F7:7@KCB7>FHEJED:7D@KCB7>D;KJHED '3('8  C;CF;HB?>7JA7D>K8KD=7D7DJ7H7@KCB7>D;KJHEDPJ;H>7:7F@KCB7>FHEJEDKDJKAI;CK7DKAB?:7?DJ?7JEC8;I;HJ7?IEJEFDN787?AKDJKA?DJ?IJ78?BC7KFKD?DJ?J7AIJ78?B:;D=7DF;H87D:?D=7D/DJKA?DJ?7JECN7D=IJ78?B8;HB7AK>7B>7B8;H?AKJ 7 #DJ??DJ?7JECN7D=F7B?D=H?D=7DC;C?B?A?@KCB7>FHEJED:7DD;KJHEDN7D=>7CF?HI7C7 8 #DJ?7JECN7D=B;8?>8;H7JC;C;HBKA7DB;8?>87DN7AD;KJHED:7H?F7:7FHEJED #DJ?7JECN7D=F7B?D=8;H7JC;C?B?A?@KCB7>D;KJHEDI;A?J7H 7J7K B;8?>87DN7A 9 %;87DN7A7D:7H??DJ?7JEC?JKC;C?B?A?@KCB7>FHEJED:7DD;KJHED8;HKF78?B7D=7D=;D7F EDJE>DN7F7HJ?A;B7B<7:K7D;KJHED:7D:K7FHEJEDC;C8;DJKAAEC8?D7I?N7D=I7D=7JIJ78?B Gambar 10.1Isotop hidrogenGambar 10.2Diagram kestabilan inti (N-Z)Z = Nhidrogenbiasadeuteriumtritiumprotonneutronelektron14013012010090807060504030201009080706050403020100Nomor proton (Z)Nomor neutron (N)Sumber:Konsep Fisika Modern,1983
Fisika Inti dan Radioaktivitas261/DJKA?DJ?7JECN7D=J?:7AIJ78?B8;HB7AK>7B>7B8;H?AKJ 7 ;I?DJ;=H7I?9;D:;HKD=C;D=>7I?BA7D?DJ?7JEC87HKN7D=B;8?>:;A7JA;=7H?IIJ78?B?J7I:7DJ;HKI8;HB7D=IKD=>?D==7J;H8;DJKA?DJ?IJ78?B 8 #DJ?7JEC:?7J7I=7H?IA;IJ78?B7DC;C?B?A?A;B;8?>7DD;KJHED:7D9;D:;HKD=C;BKHK>:;D=7DC;C7D97HA7DF7HJ?A;B8;J7 9 #DJ?N7D=J;HB;J7A:?I;8;B7>87M7>=7H?IIJ78?B?J7IC;BKHK>I;>?D==7DECEH7JECDN78;HAKH7D= *;H87D:?D=7D@KCB7>D;KJHED:7DFHEJEDDN78;HJ7C87>8;I7H *7:7?DJ?7JEC8;H7J?D?J;[email protected]:?:;D=7DC;C7D97HA7DF7HJ?A;B7B<7 $7:?@?A7?DJ?7JEC:?I;8;B7>A?H?C;BKHK>C;C7D97HA7DF7HJ?A;B8;J7DECEH7JEC?DJ?8;HJ7C87>I7JK:7DDECEHC7II7J;J7F  22EDJE>:7H?F;D7C87>7D?DJ?7JEC7A?87JF;C7D97H7D8;J77:7B7>    (  -H3$?A7?DJ?I;8;B7>A7D7DC;BKHK>7A7DC;C7D97HA7DFEI?JHED (ECEH7JEC?DJ?8;HAKH7D=I7JKI;:7D=A7DDECEH7JECC7II7J;J7F  22*HEJED:7DD;KJHEDN7D=C;C8;DJKA?DJ?7JECC;D=?AKJ?FH?DI?F")#+) B7H7D=7D ?:7B7C?DJ?7JECKDJKAI;J?7FJ?D=A7J;D;H=?N7D=:?F;H8EB;>A7D>7DN7:7F7J:?J;CF7J?:K7FHEJED:;D=7DIF?D:7DI;HJ7:K78K7>D;KJHED:;D=7DIF?D:7D -7C7>7BDN7:;D=7DJ?D=A7J;D;H=?7JECJ?D=A7JJ?D=A7J;D;H=?:7B7C?DJ?:??I?C;DKHKJ7JKH7DJ;HJ;DJK7=7H:?F;HEB;>IKIKD7D;D;H=?C?D?CKC -;87=7?9EDJE>:?F;HB?>7JA7D:?7=H7CJ?D=A7J;D;H=?8;8;H7F7?IEJEF:?7DJ7H7DN7:7D '3('8   C;CF;HB?>7JA7D :?7=H7C J?D=A7J ;D;H=? N7D=:?I;:;H>7D7A7DKDJKA8;8;H7F7?IEJEF8EHED:7DA7H8ED *H?DI?F;AIBKI?C;C87J7I?@KCB7>F;D=>KD?I;J?7FJ?D=A7JF7:7:K7D;KJHED8;HIF?D8;HB7M7D7D:7D:K7FHEJED8;HIF?D8;HB7M7D7D #DJ?C7DJ7FC;C?B?A?AED<?=KH7I?:;D=7D;D;H=?C?D?CKC 5.Energi Ikat Inti*7:787=?7D7M7BJ;B7>:?87>7I87>M7?DJ?7JECJ;H:?H?7J7IFHEJED:7DD;KJHEDN7D=:?I;8KJI;87=7?DKAB;ED -;>7HKIDN7C7II7IK7JK?DJ?7JECC;HKF7A7D@KCB7>C7II7FHEJED:?J7C87>C7II7D;KJHEDN7D=7:7:?:7B7C?DJ?J;HI;8KJ A7DJ;J7F?:7H?F;D=KAKH7DF;D=KAKH7DN7D=:?B7AKA7DC;[email protected]87>M7C7II7IK7JK7JECJ;HDN7J7AKH7D=:7H?@KCB7>C7II7FHEJED:7DD;KJHEDN7D=C;C8;DJKA?DJ?J;HI;8KJ EDJE>DN77:7B7>?DJ?>;B?KC #DJ?>;B?KCJ;H:?H?7J7I FHEJED:7D D;KJHED '7II7>;B?KCI;>7HKIDN7C7II7 QD;KJHED  Q   IC7   IC7C7II7 QFHEJED  Q  IC7     IC7$KCB7>C7II7";  IC7Gambar 10.3Tingkat energi beberapa isotopmantapmantaptidakmantapEmantapmantapneutronproton105B115B125B126C136CESumber:Konsep Fisika Modern,1983
Mudah dan Aktif Belajar Fisika untuk Kelas XII2627H?F;D=KAKH7DJ;H>7:7FC7II7?DJ?>;B?KCJ;HDN7J7C7II7?DJ?>;B?KC7:7B7>  IC7 #D?8;H7HJ?J;H:7F7JA;AKH7D=7DC7II7I;8;I7H   IC7 .;[email protected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ontoh 10.2Sumber:Conceptual Physics,1998Sumber:Physics for Scientist and Engineers,2000Sumber:Conceptual Physics,1998
Fisika Inti dan Radioaktivitas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email protected]:?';0KDJKA 9 KDJKA>7H=7:?7J7I  ;D;H=??A7JDN7JKHKD>?D==7C;D97F7?';0 6.Gaya Inti!7N7?DJ?8;HI?<7JI7B?D=C;DEB7AF7:7@7D=A7K7DI7D=7JF;D:;A:7DI7B?D=C;D7H?AF7:7@7H7ADKAB;EDN7D=7=7A@7K> $?A7J?:7A:;C?A?7DDKAB;ED:7B7C?DJ?7A7DC;DN7JK -?<7JI?<7J=7N7?DJ?7DJ7H7B7?D7 =7N7?DJ?C;C?B?A?FH?DI?F:7I7HN7D=8;H8;:7:;D=7D=7N7=H7L?J7I?C7KFKD=7N79EKBEC88 =7N7?DJ?J?:7A8;H=7DJKD=F7:7CK7J7DB?IJH?AI;>?D==78;I7HDN7=7N77DJ7H7FHEJEDFHEJED7J7KD;KJHED7:7B7>I7C79 =7N7?DJ?8;A;[email protected]F7:7@7H7AN7D=I7D=7JF;D:;AN7?JKI;A?J7H P C7J7K <;HC?: =7N7?DJ?I7D=7J8;I7HI;>?D==7:?F;HBKA7D;D;H=?I;8;I7H';0KDJKAC;C?I7>A7D:K78K7>;B;AJHED Gambar 10.4Grafik energi ikat per nukleonterhadap nomor massa berbagaiinti.Kata Kunci• isotop• hipotesis proton-elektron• hipotesis proton-neutron• nomor atom• nomor massa• nuklida• defek massa• energi ikat inti $;B7IA7D:;D=7DI?D=A7J;<;AF;D==78KD=7DDKAB;EDJ;H>7:7FC7II7?DJ?7JECN7D=J;H8;DJKA .;DJKA7D87DN7AFHEJEDD;KJHED:7D;B;AJHED:7B7C7JEC7JEC8;H?AKJ 7 ;: ,88  -?; C9  B '7II7?DJ? '=7:7B7> IC7 '7II7DKAB;ED8;87I7:7B7>C7II7FHEJED  IC7:7DC7II7D;KJHED  IC7  IC7 ';0Tes Kompetensi Subbab A+80'1'42'.6'*'(;1;2':/.'47 .;DJKA7DIKIKJC7II7DN7:;<;AC7II7 8 .;DJKA7D;D;H=??A7J?DJ?DN7  7 D;H=??A7J(;7:7B7>  ';0 7H?B7>C7II77JECDN7 8 '7D7A7>?DJ?N7D=B;8?>C7DJ7F&?7J7K&?;7J7K; 7H?B7>:;<;AC7II7;D;H=??A7J?DJ?:7D;D;H=??A7JF;HDKAB;EDKDJKA7JECB/A, MeVper nukleonnomor massa A20010005102H6Li9Be11B14N19F75As125Te4He12C20Ne35Cl56Fe89Y110Cd141Pr160Dy197Au180Hf209Bi238U
Mudah dan Aktif Belajar Fisika untuk Kelas XII264B. Radioaktivitas1.Sejarah Penemuan Radioaktif!;@7B7H7:?E7AJ?<?D?:?J;CKA7DEB;>+48>+)7;+8+2F7:7 I;97H7J?:7AI;[email protected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enis-Jenis Radioaktif7H?F;D;CK7D+)7;+8+287DN7A?BCKM7DN7D=A;CK:?7DC;D;B?J?J;DJ7D=I?D7HH7:?E7AJ?<?D?I7B7>I7JKDN77:7B7>84+9:!;:.+8,58* *7:7  ?7:;D=7DFEIJKB7JDN7C;DN7J7A7D87>M7H7:?E7AJ?<8KA7D>7DN7:?I;878A7DEB;>F;HK87>7DN7D=8;HI?<7J7JEC?IC;B7?DA7DF;C7D97H7DH7:?E7AJ?<8;HB7D=IKD=8;HI7C77D:;D=7DF;HK87>7DJ;HI;8KJ !;:.+8,58*C;CF;HB?>7JA7D7:7DN7:K7C797CH7:?7I?N7D=A;BK7H:7H?KH7D?KC:;D=7D97H7C;D=KAKHAK7J7HKIB?IJH?AN7D=J?C8KBEB;>7:7DN7?ED?I7I?K:7H7 *7:7 '8/+;8/+:7DIK7C?DN7 /+88+;8/+C;D;CKA7D:K7KDIKHH7:?E7AJ?<N7D=:?I;8KJFEBED?KC:7DH7:?KC ;H:7I7HA7DJ;[email protected]:?DN7I?D7HH7:?E7AJ?<?D?C7A7H7:?E7AJ?L?J7I:7F7J:?8;:7A7DC;[email protected]:?:K7A7J;=EH?7DJ7H7B7?D7 H7:?E7AJ?<7B7C?7>N7?JKF;C7D97H7DI?D7HH7:?E7AJ?<N7D=J;[email protected]:?I;97H7IFEDJ7D7A?87JJ?:7AIJ78?BDN7?DJ?7JEC8 H7:?E7AJ?<8K7J7DN7?JKF;C7D97H7DI?D7HH7:?E7AJ?<N7D=8;H7I7B:7H??DJ??DJ?IJ78?BN7D=:?=7D==KA;IJ78?B7DDN7:;D=7D97H797H7J;HJ;DJK>?D==7C;[email protected]:??DJ?N7D=J?:7AIJ78?B -7B7>I7JK@;D?IH7:?7I?N7D=CK:7>:?I;H7F7:7B7>I?D7H7B<7 ,7:?7I?B7?DN7D=C;C?B?A?:7N7J;C8KIB;8?>8;I7H:?D7C7A7DI?D7H8;J7I;HJ7I;8K7>[email protected]==;BEC87D=N7D=F;D:;A:?I;8KJI?D7H=7CC7 D:7:7F7JC;D=;J7>K?A7H;AJ;H?IJ?AI?D7HI?D7H:7DI?D7HC;B7BK?F;C8?7I7DH7:?7I?:;D=7DJ78KD=!'!;?=;H'KBB;H *;H>7J?A7D'3('8  %;J?A7IKC8KH7:?E7AJ?<:?J;CF7JA7DF7:7I7B7>I7JK[email protected]=C;:7DC7=D;J:7DJ78KD=!'F7:7[email protected]=N7D=B7?DJ;HDN7J7I?D7H:?8?7IA7DA;F?H?D=7DD;=7J?<:7DI?D7H7A7D:?8?7IA7DA;F?H?D=7DFEI?J?< $7:?:7F7J:?I?CFKBA7D87>M7I?D7H8;HCK7J7DFEI?J?<7J7K";I?D7H8;HCK7J7DD;=7J?<7J7K;I;:7D=A7DI?D7HD;JH7B ;H?AKJ?D?7A7D:?@;B7IA7DF;C7D97H7DI?D7H7B<7I?D7H8;J7:7DI?D7H=7CC7 a.Pemancaran Sinar Alfa()'7II7C7KFKDCK7J7DI?D7H7B<7?:;DJ?A:;D=7D?DJ?>;B?KC"; $?A7IK7JKO7JH7:?E7AJ?<C;C7D97HA7DI?D7H7B<7DECEH7JECO7J?JKGambar 10.6Dalam medan magnet, hanya sinar yang tidak dibelokkan.sumberradioaktifradiumsumbermagnet kuatratemeterPQGambar 10.5Pengujian pembiasan sinar dalam medan magnet.Sumber:Physics for ‘O’ Level,1990Sumber:Conceptual Physics,1998
Fisika Inti dan Radioaktivitas2657A7D8;HAKH7D= :7H?DECEH7JEC?D:KADN7:7DDECEHC7II7DN77A7D8;HAKH7D= -;97H7KCKCH;7AI?F;C7D97H7D7B<7:7F7J:?JKB?IA7DI;87=7?8;H?AKJ 22EDJE>    /2b.Pemancaran Sinar Beta()'K7J7D:7DC7II7I?D7HI7C7:;D=7D;B;AJHED "7B?D?A7H;D7I?D7H8;J7J?:7AB7?D7:7B7>;B;AJHED:?8;H?B7C87D=7J7K; -;IK7?:;D=7D"KAKC%;A;A7B7D(ECEH'7II7:7D(ECEHJECIK7JK?DJ??D:KAN7D=I;97H7IFEDJ7DC;C7D97HA7DI?D7H7A7DC;D=>7I?BA7D?DJ?7D7AN7D=DECEHC7II7DN7J;J7F:7DDECEH7JECDN78;HJ7C87>I7JK -;97H7KCKCH;7AI?F;C7D97H7D:?JKB?II;87=7?8;H?AKJ 23,EDJE>   (,:;D=7D,7:7B7>D;KJH?DE c.Pemancaran Sinar Gamma ();H8;:7>7BDN7:;D=7DF;C7D97H7DI?D7H:7DI?D7HN7D=C;C7D97HA7DF7HJ?A;B8;HCK7J7DF;C7D97H7DI?D7H8KA7DB7>8;H8;DJKAF7HJ?A;BJ;J7F?=;BEC87D=;B;AJHEC7=D;J?A $?A7F7:7F;C7D97H7DI?D7H:7DJ;[email protected]:?F;HK87>7DIJHKAJKH@KCB7>FHEJED:7DD;KJHEDF7:7F;C7D97H7DI?D7HJ;[email protected]:?F;HK87>7DIKIKD7DF7HJ?A;BF7HJ?A;BF;C8;DJKA?DJ?7JEC -?D7HJ?:7AC;C?B?A?C7II7C7KFKDCK7J7D )B;>A7H;D7?JKDKAB?:7J;H;AI?J7I?N7D=C;C7D97HA7DI?D7HJ?:7AC;D=7B7C?F;HK87>7DDECEH7JECC7KFKDDECEHC7II7 *;C7D97H7DI?D7H:?7M7B?EB;>?DJ??D:KAN7D=I;97H7IFEDJ7DC;C7D97HA7DI?D7H:7DC;C8;DJKA?DJ?87HKN7D=8;H7:7:7B7CA;7:77D;AI?J7I? -;[email protected]?DJ?87HK:7B7CA;7:77D;AI?J7I??D?I;97H7IFEDJ7DC;C7D97HA7DI?D7HKDJKAC;[email protected]:??DJ?IJ78?B FHEI;IF;HK87>7D?D?:[email protected]F7:7'3('8  ,;7AI??DJ?F;C7D97H7DI?D7H?D?8?7I7DN7:?JKB?II;87=7?8;H?AKJ 23EDJE> %;I?CFKB7D:7H?A7H7AJ;H?IJ?AI?D7HH7:?E7AJ?<N7?JKI?D7HI?D7H:7DI?D7H:[email protected]F7:7#'(+2  7N7J;C8KII?D7HI?D7H:7DI?D7HC7I?D=C7I?D=:[email protected]F7:7'3('8 1,015 MeV0,834 MeVGambar 10.7Pemancaran  dan  dalampeluruhan 2712Mg dan 2713Al.Carilah informasi mengenaipemanfaatan sinar , , dan .Tugas Anda 10.1sumber radioaktifkertasaluminiumtimbalGambar 10.8Daya tembus partikel , , dan .2712Al*2712Al*#'(+2  %7H7AJ;H?IJ?A-?D7H,7:?E7AJ?<%;HJ7IJ?F?I%KB?JC7DKI?7BKC?D?KCCC.?C87BJ?F?I+4/9"/4'8!'*/5'1:/,!+'19/2'3/'.'99' +3(/'9'4*'2'3+*'4'-4+:+3'36;'4'>'#+3(;9;':'4B<7;J7!7CC7#DJ?>;B?KCB;AJHED,7:?7I?;B;AJHEC7=D;J?A*EI?J?<(;=7J?<.?:7A8;HCK7J7D%;9?B;I7H.?:7A:?8?7IA7D;I7H,;D:7>.?:7A8;HC7II7Sumber:Conceptual Physics,1998Sumber:Physics for ‘O’ Level,1990
Mudah dan Aktif Belajar Fisika untuk Kelas XII2663.Pelemahan Intensitas Sinar Radioaktif$?A7I?D7HH7:?E7AJ?<:?B;M7JA7DF7:7I;8K7>A;F?D=:;D=7DA;J;87B7D.J;HDN7J7?DJ;DI?J7II?D7HH7:?E7AJ?<I;8;BKCC;B;M7J?87>7DB;8?>8;I7H:7H?F7:7I;J;B7>C;B;M7J?87>7D *;B;C7>7D?DJ;DI?J7I?D?C;C;DK>?F;HI7C77D.  P%;J;H7D=7DAE;<?I?;DF;B;C7>7D87>7D C8?B7D=7DD7JKH7B   -;7D:7?DN7?DJ;DI?J7II?D7HH7:?E7AJ?<I;J;B7>C;B;M7J?A;F?D=J?D==7BI;F7HK> :7H? ?DJ;DI?J7I I?D7H H7:?E7AJ?< I;CKB7 C7A7 +89'3''4 ?:7F7J:?I;:;H>7D7A7DC;[email protected]:?. . .BD BD . P  .I;>?D==7:?F;HEB;> . P"7H=7.F7:7 +89'3''4 ?:?I;8KJ # #+ /("0&7J7KB7F?I7D>7H=7F7HK> -K7JKA;F?D=C;C?B?A?"0&9C ;H7F7A7>8;I7H?DJ;DI?J7II?D7HH7:?E7AJ?<I;J;B7>C;B;M7J?A;F?D=I;J;87B9C'='(?A;J7>K? "0& 9CQ P C.9CQ P C"0&     C C   C  C     . $7:??DJ;DI?J7II?D7HH7:?E7AJ?<I;J;B7>C;B7BK?A;F?D=7:7B7>  Contoh 10.34.Peluruhan Radioaktif (Desintegrasi)*;BKHK>7DJ;[email protected]:?I;97H7IFEDJ7D:7DJ?:7A:7F7J:?AEDJHEBI;HJ7:?F;D=7HK>?EB;>F;HI;DN7M77DA?C?7:7D<?I?A7I;F;HJ?F;D=7HK>IK>K:7DJ;A7D7D 7H?>7I?BF;D;B?J?7D:?F;HEB;>87>M7A;C7CFK7DIK7JKKDIKHKDJKAC;BKHK>8;H8;:78;:7 :7KDIKHN7D=:7B7CM7AJKI?D=A7JI;CK7?DJ?DN7C;BKHK>:7D7:7FKB7N7D=C;BKHK>:;D=7DB7C87J EDJE>DN7I;@KCB7>8;I7H?DJ?7JEC:7H?IK7JKH7:?E?IEJEFN7D=C;BKHK>C;C7D97HA7DF7HJ?A;BF7HJ?A;B:7DI;HJ7:??AKJ?F;C7D97H7DGambar 10.9Pelemahan intensitas oleh bahandengan ketebalan X.XTo k o hMarie Curie(1867–1934)Marie Curie dilahirkan di Warsawa,Polandia. Nama aslinya adalah MarieSklodowska. Ia belajar Matematika,Fisika, dan Kimia di Paris. Mariebersuamikan Pierre Curie seorang ahlifisika juga. Mereka bekerja sama dalammeneliti radiasi yang dihasilkan olehbahan radioaktif dan mereka berhasilmenemukan unsur thorium yangbersifat radioaktif. Pada 1898, merekamenemukan dua unsur radioaktif baru,yaitu polonium dan radium. Untukkeberhasilan ini, Marie dan Pierre Curieserta Henri Becquerel mendapathadiah Nobel untuk bidang Fisika pada1903. Pada 1910, Marie berhasilmemisahkan radium murni danmempelajari sifat-sifat kimianya. Untukhasil kerja kerasnya ini, Marie kembalimendapatkan hadiah Nobel yang keduadalam bidang kimia pada 1911. Mariemeninggal tahun 1934 akibat kanker,yang mungkin disebabkan ia terlalulama berinteraksi dengan bahan-bahan radioaktif.Sumber:Science Encyclopedia, 1998
Fisika Inti dan Radioaktivitas267$KCB7>H7J7H7J77JECN7D=7A7DC;BKHK>:7B7CM7AJK*7:7B7>8;H87D:?D=BKHKI:;D=7D@KCB7>7JECI;>?D==7:7F7J:?8;H?A7D:7B7CF;HI7C77D* P :?C7D7:?I;8KJAEDIJ7DJ7F;BKHK>7DN7D=C;HKF7A7DA7H7AJ;H?IJ?A:7H?IK7JKH7:?E?IEJEFJ;HJ;DJK .7D:7D;=7J?<C;[email protected]87>M7@KCB7>7JECKDIKH?D:KA8;HAKH7D= $?A7 +89'3''4 ? :??DJ;=H7I?A7DBD *****:?F;HEB;>;* P %;J;H7D=7D@KCB7>?DJ?H7:?E7AJ?<CKB7CKB7@KCB7>?DJ?H7:?E7AJ?<N7D=C;BKHK>F7:7M7AJK*$KCB7>N7D=C;BKHK>F;HI7JK7DM7AJK7:7B7>:?I;8KJ@K=7:;D=7D"* , *):7H?IK7JKO7JH7:?E7AJ?<  +89'3''4 ? :7F7J@K=7:?JKB?I; 7J7K;** P :;D=7D7AJ?L?J7IH7:?E7AJ?<C;BKHK>F7:7M7AJK* a.Waktu Paruh*7:7M7AJK7AJ?L?J7I8;HK87>C;[email protected]:?I;J;D=7>7AJ?L?J7ICKB7CKB7C7A7M7AJKN7D=:?F;HBKA7DKDJKAF;BKHK>7D:?I;8KJ-"*+'(+# # :7D:?I?D=A7J:;D=7D $7:?KDJKA* +89'3''4 ? C;[email protected]:? BDBD I;>?D==7BD  P %EDIJ7DJ7F;BKHK>7D:7F7J:?HKCKIA7D:;D=7D  "K8KD=7D7DJ7H77AJ?L?J7I7J7K@KCB7>7JEC:;D=7DM7AJKF7HK>:?BKA?IA7DF7:7'3('8 ;D=7DC;C;H>7J?A7D=H7<?AF7:7'3('8 8;H7HJ?KDJKA*%8;HB7AK:;D=7D%*% P Gambar 10.10Peluruhan inti atomGambar 10.11Peluruhan unsur 23Na dengan T12= jam.N = N012N0NN014N018N0116N0T2T3T4T5T0t153045607590246810121416Aktivitas(103 C/menit)
Mudah dan Aktif Belajar Fisika untuk Kelas XII268 +89'3''4 ? C;[email protected]>K8KD=7D7DJ7H7?DJ?7JECN7D=8;BKCC;BKHK>?DJ?I?I7?DJ?CKB7CKB7:7DA;B?F7J7DM7AJKF7HK> $?A7I;J?7FHK7I:?A7B?A7D7A7D:?:7F7JA7D%% P %;J;H7D=7D7AJ?L?J7IKDIKHI;J;B7>M7AJK*7AJ?L?J7IKDIKHCKB7CKB7( "':;'4!'*/5'1:/</:'9AJ?L?J7I =H7C ,7:?DN7J7A7DI;87=7?I7JK7DH7:?E7AJ?L?J7II;8;I7H KH?;? )B;>A7H;D7 =H7C ,7C;D=7D:KD=  7JEC:;D=7D[email protected]F;BKHK>7DF;H:;J?AI7C7:;D=7D @P C7A7 KH?;  ?    @:?I?DJ;=H7I? I;AED-7JK7D-#KDJKAH7:?E7AJ?L?J7I7:7B7>;9GK;H;BGN7D=:?:;<?D?I?A7DI;87=7?7AJ?L?J7I :?I?DJ;=H7I? I;AED ;D=7D:;C?A?7D ?@G!G "?JKD=B7>J;J7F7DF;BKHK>7D:7H?F7HJ?A;BF;D=?EDN7D=C;C?B?A?M7AJKF7HK>J7>KD '='(?A;J7>K?J7>KD;D=7DC;D==KD7A7DF;HI7C77D :?F;HEB;>     J7>KD$7:?J;J7F7DF;BKHK>7D7:7B7>   J7>KD Contoh 10.4*;BKHK>7DH7:?E7AJ?<C;HKF7A7DFHEI;IN7D=797AN7?JK?DJ?J;HI;8KJC;BKHK>I;97H7J?:7A8;HA7?J7DI7JK:;D=7DN7D=B7?DDN7 ;H?AKJ?D?:?F;HB?>7JA7DB?C7@;D?IF;BKHK>7DH7:?E7AJ?< /4://4*;11+0'*/'46+2;8;.'4/4:/'4'1F;BKHK>7D=7CC7F;C7D97H7DI?D7H=7CC7F;BKHK>7D7B<7F;C7D97H7DF7HJ?A;B7B<7
Fisika Inti dan Radioaktivitas269F;BKHK>7D8;J7F;D7D=A7F7D;B;AJHEDEB;>D;KJHEDDKAB?HF;D7D=A7F7D;B;AJHEDF;D7D=A7F7D;B;AJHEDEB;>FHEJEDDKAB?HF;D7D=A7F7D;B;AJHEDF;D7D=A7F7DFEI?JHEDEB;>FHEJEDDKAB?HFHEJEDCK7J7D;B;AJHEDCK7J7DPD;KJHEDCK7J7D ;B;AJHEDCK7J7DGambar 10.12Lima jenis peluruhan radioaktif = + + =+ =AJ?L?J7II;8K7>IKC8;HH7:?E7AJ?<8;HAKH7D=87=?7D:7H?7AJ?L?J7I7M7BDN7:7B7CI;B7D=M7AJK @7C .;DJKA7DM7AJKF7HK>:7DJ;J7F7DF;BKHK>7DDN7 '='(?A;J7>K?* @7C/DJKAC;D;DJKA7DM7AJKF7HK>:7F7J:?=KD7A7DF;HI7C77D  %%%C7A7%  @7C**$7:?M7AJKF7HK>IKC8;HH7:?E7AJ?<7:7B7> @7C /DJKAC;D;DJKA7DJ;J7F7DF;BKHK>7D:?=KD7A7DF;HI7C77D     @7C$7:?J;J7F7DF;BKHK>7DDN77:7B7>   @7C Contoh 10.5Gambar 10.13Deret uranium4.Deret Radioaktif7B7CF;C7D97H7DI?D7HH7:?E7AJ?<?DJ?N7D=J;[email protected]:?J?:7AB7D=IKD=C;[email protected]:??DJ?IJ78?B:7DC7I?>:7F7JC;C7D97HA7DI?D7HH7:?E7AJ?< "7B?D?8;HB7D=IKD=I;97H7J;HKIC;D;HKII;>?D==7:?F;HEB;>?DJ?N7D=IJ78?B '?I7BDN7F;BKHK>7D  /7A7DC;BKHK>C;[email protected]:??DJ?7JEC  .>:7D8;H7A>?HF7:7?DJ?7JEC  *8N7D=IJ78?B )B;>A7H;D7:?CKB7?:7H?KH7D?KC:;H;J?D?:?I;8KJ:;H;JKH7D?KC Sumber:Konsep Fisika Modern, 1983
Mudah dan Aktif Belajar Fisika untuk Kelas XII270:7FKD:;H;J7DF;BKHK>7D:7DN7D=8;HB7D=IKD=:7H??DJ??D:KAC;[email protected]:??DJ?N7D=C7DJ7FI;87=7?>7I?B7A>?HKDJKA:;H;JKH7D?KC:[email protected]EB;>'3('8  *HEI;IF;BKHK>7DH7:?E7AJ?<8;H7DJ7?C;D=?AKJ?IK7JK:;H;JH7:?E7AJ?< :7;CF7J:;H;JH7:?E7AJ?<I;F;HJ?J;H97DJKCF7:7#'(+2  #'(+2  ;H;J,7:?E7AJ?<D.>EH?KC   .> Q  *8D (;FJKD?KC (F  Q  ?D /H7D?KC  / Q   *8D AJ?D?KC  / Q   *85358'99'+8+:4*;1$3;8 '8;.#'.;4 85*;1'4:'61./85.Pengertian Dosis Serapan-;F;HJ? :?@;B7IA7D F7:7 7M7B 878 87>M7 KDJKA C;D97F7?A;IJ78?B7DDN7I;J?7FKDIKHH7:?E7AJ?<I;B7BKC;C7D97HA7DI?D7HH7:?E7AJ?< 7B7CF;H7C87J7DDN7I?D7HH7:?E7AJ?<J;HI;8KJC;C87M7;D;H=? $?A7I?D7HH7:?E7AJ?<?D?C;D=;D7?IK7JKC7J;H?;D;H=?DN77A7D:?I;H7FEB;>C7J;H?J;HI;8KJ *;H>7J?A7D'3('8  7DN7ADN7;D;H=?H7:?7I?F;D=?EDN7D=:?I;H7FEB;>C7J;H?F;HI7JK7DC7II7J;HJ;DJK:?I;8KJ&) ) )(' -;97H7C7J;C7J?I:?JKB?I$ P %;J;H7D=7D:EI?II;H7F$C7II7C7J;H?F;DN;H7F;D;H=?;D;H=?H7:?7I?-7JK7D:EI?II;H7F:7B7C-#7:7B7>=H7N!N ;D=7D !N $ A= H7: -K7JKC7J;H?N7D=C7II7DN7 =H7CC;DN;H7F;D;H=?H7:?7I?F;D=?ED8;HKF7I?D7H=7CC7I;8;I7H Q P$EKB; .;DJKA7DB7>8;I7H:EI?II;H7FC7J;H??JK '='(?A;J7>K?$ =H7C  A= Q P$"?JKD=8;I7HDN7:EI?II;H7F:7H?IK7JKC7J;H?N7D=C7II7DN7 =H7C@?A7C7J;H?J;HI;8KJC;DN;H7F;D;H=?H7:?7I?F;D=?EDI;8;I7HQ P@EKB; $ $  A= Q P$ A=$7:?8;I7H:EI?II;H7FC7J;H??JK7:7B7> Q P@EKB; A=7J7K Q P=H7N Contoh 10.6Gambar 10.14Energi radiasi yang diserap materibermassa m.sinar radioaktifmKata Kunci• radioaktivitasfluorisensi• eksitasi• daya tembus• peluruhan• waktu paruh• aktivitas• dosis serapSumber:Konsep Fisika Modern, 1983
Fisika Inti dan Radioaktivitas2716.Pengukuran Radioaktivitas-?D7HN7D=:?F7D97HA7DEB;>KDIKHH7:?E7AJ?<J?:7A:7F7J:?H7I7A7DEB;>C7DKI?7 /DJKA?JK:?F;HBKA7D7B7JN7D=:7F7JC;D=KAKH:7DC;D:;J;AI?A;7AJ?<7DIK7JKKDIKH7J7KKDJKAC;D=;J7>K?7:7:7DJ?:7ADN7I?D7HI?D7HH7:?E7AJ?< -?D7HN7D=:?F7D97HA7DEB;>?DJ?KDIKHH7:?E7AJ?<:7F7JC;D=?EDA7D7JEC:7H?O7JO7JN7D=:?B7BK?DN7 B7JKDJKAC;D:;J;AI?:7DC;D=KAKHA;7AJ?<7DIK7JKKDIKH:?8K7J8;H:7I7HA7DI?<7JJ;HI;8KJ ;8;H7F77B7J:;J;AI?I?D7HH7:?E7AJ?<7:7B7>;CKBI?<?BCFEJH;JF;D9797>!;?=;H'KBB;HA7C7HA78KJ1?BIED:7DI?DJ?B7JEH a.Emulsi Film Potret-?D7HN7D=:?F7D97HA7DEB;>KDIKHH7:?E7AJ?<C;D=?EDA7DB7F?I7D;CKBI?I;F7[email protected]=B?DJ7I7DN7D=:?B7BK?DN7:?7J7IF;HCKA77D<?BCFEJH;J $?A7<?BCFEJH;J?JK:?9K9?:7D:?9;J7AB?DJ7I7DI?D7HH7:?E7AJ?<:7F7J:?B?>7J:7D:?KAKH b.Pencacah Geiger-Muller*;D9797>!;?=;H'KBB;H:?I;8KJ@K=7F;D9797>!;?=;H  (&+%*( *;D9797>!;?=;H7:7B7>7B7JKDJKAC;D=KAKHA;7AJ?<7DKDIKHH7:?E7AJ?< *;D9797>!;?=;HC;HKF7A7D7B7J:;J;AI?I?D7HH7:?E7AJ?<N7D=F7B?D=87DN7A:?=KD7A7D B7JF;D9797>!;?=;H:[email protected]F7:7'3('8  *;H7B7J7D?D?J;H:?H?7J7II;8K7>J78KD=I?B?D:;HJ;H8K7J:7H?BE=7C ?:7B7CJ78KD=:?F7I7D=I;8K7>A7M7JAED:KAJEHN7D=>7BKI %7M7J?JK8;HJ?D:7AI;87=7?A7JE:;:7DJ78KD=I;87=7?7DE:; .78KD=?JK:??I?:;D=7D=7I7J7K97CFKH7D=7I:;D=7DJ;A7D7DH;D:7> 9C"= .78KD=:7DA7M7J:?8;H?8;:7FEJ;DI?7BA?H7A?H7 LEBJKDJKAC;CF;H9;F7J?ED:7H?=7IN7D=J;H8;DJKA:?:7B7CJ78KD= -?D7HH7:?E7AJ?<N7D=C7IKAC;B7BK?@;D:;B7J?F?IF7:7I7B7>I7JK[email protected]=J78KD=7A7DC;D=?EDA7D=7IN7D=8;H7:7:?:7B7CJ78KD= HKIB?IJH?AN7D=:?>7I?BA7DEB;>?EDN7D=J;H8;DJKA?JKI7D=7JB;C7> A7DJ;J7F?8;:7J;=7D=7D LEBJ7A7DC;CF;H9;F7J?ED?JK #EDN7D=:?F;H9;F7J?JKC;D=?EDA7DB7=?7JEC7JEC=7IN7D=B7?DI;>?D==77HKIB?IJH?AN7D=J;[email protected]:?9KAKF8;I7H 7B7CM7AJKN7D=I?D=A7J7HKIJ;HFKJKIJ;J7F?I;J?7FA7B?F7HJ?A;BH7:?E7AJ?<C7IKAA;:7B7CJ78KD=J?C8KBFKBI77HKIB?IJH?A:7B7CH7D=A7?7D *KBI7?D?:?F;HAK7JI;>?D==7:7F7J:?F7A7?KDJKAC;DN7B7A7DH7D=A7?7DF;D9797>;B;AJHED?A c.Kamar Kabut Wilson%7C7HA78KJ1?BIED7:7B7>7B7JKDJKAC;B?>7J:7DC;CEJH;JB?DJ7I7DF7HJ?A;B7B<7N7D=C;B7BK?=7I B7J?JKJ;H:?H?7J7II?B?D:;HJ;HJKJKF:;D=7DF?IJED8;H?I?K:7H78;H97CFKHK7F7?H@;DK>7J7KD?JHE=;D *;H>7J?A7D'3('8   *7:7:?D:?D=87=?7D:7B7C:?B;J7AA7DKDIKHH7:?E7AJ?< *7HJ?A;B7B<7N7D=:?F7D97HA7DEB;>KDIKH?JK7A7DC;D=?EDA7DCEB;AKBCEB;AKB=7I:?:7B7CI?B?D:;H -;C;DJ7H7?JKF?IJED:?J7H?AA;BK7HI;>?D==7K7F@;DK>J7:?7A7DC;D:?D=?DI;97H7J?87J?87I;>?D==78KJ?H8KJ?HK7F7?H:?:7B7CI?B?D:;HC;[email protected]:?@;DK> #ED?EDN7D=J;H8;DJKAI;[email protected]=B?DJ7I7DF7HJ?A;B7B<7C;D7H?A8KJ?H8KJ?HK7F7?H:7D:7F7J:?B?>7J7J7K:?FEJH;J@?A7=7I:?:7B7CI?B?D:;H:?IEHEJ:;D=7D97>7N7B7CFK Gambar 10.15Pencacah Geiger-MullerGambar 10.16Bagian-bagian alatpencacah Geiger-Muller103 V+jendela tipisgaskawat elektrode(anode)tabung darilogam (katode)isolator+Gambar 10.17Kamar kabut Wilsonuapjejak ionsumberradioaktif (R)cahayakepinggelaspengisap (P)Sumber:Conceptual Physics, 1998Sumber:Physics for Scientist andEngineers, 2000
Mudah dan Aktif Belajar Fisika untuk Kelas XII272d.Sintilator (Detektor Sintilasi)*H?DI?FA;[email protected]I?DJ?B7JEH) %* ##* &% &+%*(8;H:7I7HA7D<BKEH;I;DI?O7JN7D=:?J?C8KBA7DEB;>I?D7HH7:?E7AJ?< -?D7HH7:?E7AJ?<:[email protected]>A7DA;F;HCKA77DB7N7H<BKEH;I;DI? 7>7N7N7D=:?F7D97HA7DEB;>B7N7H<BKEH;I;DI?:[email protected]>A7DA;7J7IF;HCKA77DBE=7CI;>?D==7F;HCKA77DBE=7CJ;HI;8KJC;D=;BK7HA7D;B;AJHED %;CK:?7D;B;AJHEDJ;HI;8KJ:[email protected]>A7DA;C87B?A;7J7IF;HCKA77DBE=7CA;:K7 &E=7CA;:K7C;D=;BK7HA7D;B;AJHEDB;8?>87DN7A:7H?F7:7;B;AJHEDN7D=A;BK7H:7H?F;HCKA77DBE=7CF;HJ7C7 %;F?D=A;F?D=BE=7CN7D=:7F7JC;B?F7J=7D:7A7D;B;AJHEDJ;H:7F7J:?:7B7CI;8K7>7B7JN7D=:?I;8KJ<EJECKBJ?FB?;H'&*&$+#* '# ( EJECKBJ?FB?;H7:7B7>7B7JKDJKAC;CF;HAK7JFKBI77HKIB?IJH?A HKIB?IJH?AJ;HI;8KJ8;H7I7B:7H?J;C87A7DI?D7HH7:?E7AJ?<:?7J7IB7N7H<BKEH;I;DI? *KBI77HKIB?IJH?AA;CK:?7D:?I7BKHA7DA;7B7JF;D97J7JI;F;HJ?F;D=;H7IIK7H7C;J;HIA7B7:7DB7?DB7?D Gambar 10.18Diagram sintilator yang dilengkapidengan fotomultiplier -K7JK87>7DC;C?B?A?"0&9C $?A7J;87B87>7D9C8;H7F7?DJ;DI?J7II?D7HH7:?E7AJ?<N7D=:?I;H7FEB;>87>7DJ;HI;8KJ -;IK:7> @7CI;F;H;D7C8;B7I87=?7DIK7JKKDIKHH7:?E7AJ?<C7I?>J;HI?I7 "?JKD=M7AJKF7HK>KDIKHJ;HI;8KJ  -;8K7><EI?BJKB7D=8?D7J7D=:?J;CKA7DEB;>I;EH7D=7HA;EBE= -;J;B7>:?J;B?J?J;HDN7J7C;D=7D:KD=I?I7A7H8ED I;8;I7H :?87D:?D=A7DA7H8ED F7:7JKB7D=8?D7J7D=N7D=C7I?>>?:KF $?A7M7AJKF7HK>A7H8EDP ?JK  J7>KDJ;DJKA7DKCKH<EI?B?JK  '7II7KDIKHKH7:?E7AJ?<N7D=C;BKHK>7:7B7>Q PA= $?A77AJ?L?J7IKDIKHH7:?E7AJ?<?JK  Q GJ;DJKA7D8;I7HAEDIJ7DJ7F;BKHK>7DDN7 *;H>7J?A7DH;7AI?F;BKHK>7D8;H?AKJ      //*7.;DJKA7DF7HJ?A;B:7DN7D=:?F7D97HA7D 7 -K7JKKDIKHH7:?E7AJ?<C;C?B?A?M7AJKF7HK> C;D?J "?JKD=AEDIJ7DJ7F;BKHK>7DDN7 8 $?A7AEDIJ7DJ7F;BKHK>7DIK7JK87>7DH7:?E7AJ?< @PA;@7:?7D I;AED8;H7F7A7>M7AJKF7HK>DN7 17AJKF7HK>:7H?H7:ED>7H? ;H7F7M7AJKN7D=:?F;HBKA7D7=7HJ;HI?I7 :7H?CKB7CKB7partikel datangfotonkristal sintilasipulsa keluaranfotomultiplierfotokatode+400 V+800 V+1200 V+1600 V+200 V+600 V+1000 V+1400 VTes Kompetensi Subbab B+80'1'42'.6'*'(;1;2':/.'4C. Reaksi Inti!;@7B7H7:?E7AJ?<7:7B7>7AJ?L?J7IIK7JK?DJ?C;[email protected]:??DJ?B7?D *7D97H7DI?D7H>7DN7C;D=KH7D=?DKAB;ED:7B7C?DJ?:;D=7D:K7FHEJED:7D:K7D;KJHED :7FKDF7D97H7DI?D7H>7DN7C;D=K87>I7JKD;KJHED:7B7C?DJ?C;[email protected]:?FHEJED )H7D=F;HJ7C7N7D=C;D=7C7J?H;7AI??DJ?7:7B7>84+9:!;:.+8,58* *7:7  !;:.+8,58*C;CF;[email protected]?=;@7B7JKC8KA7D7DJ7HF7HJ?A;B:;D=7D7JEC7JEC=7ID?JHE=;D:7DC;D?C8KBA7DIK7JKH;7AI?N7D=:?I;8KJDN7H;7AI??DJ? "7I?BH;7AI??DJ?:?JKB?I:;D=7D    "; () "*;H>7J?A7D87>M7@KCB7>DECEH7JEC:7D@KCB7>DECEHC7II7HK7IA?H?I7C7:;D=7D@KCB7>DECEH7JEC:7DDECEHC7II7HK7IA7D7D $KCB7>DECEH7JECI;8;BKCH;7AI? $KCB7>DECEH7JECI;IK:7>H;7AI? $KCB7>DECEHC7II7I;8;BKCH;7AI?  $KCB7>DECEHC7II7I;IK:7>H;7AI?   Sumber:Physics for Scientist and Engineers, 2000
Fisika Inti dan Radioaktivitas273Pada setiap reaksi inti selalu berlaku hukum kekekalan berikut ini. "KAKC%;A;A7B7D'EC;DJKCN7?JK@KCB7>CEC;DJKCI;8;BKC:7DI;IK:7>JKC8KA7D7:7B7>I7C7 "KAKC%;A;A7B7D(ECEHJECN7?JK@KCB7>DECEH7JECI;8;BKC:7DI;IK:7>H;7AI?I7C7  "KAKC%;A;A7B7D(ECEH'7II7N7?JK@KCB7>DECEHC7II7I;8;BKC:7DI;IK:7>H;7AI?I7C7  "KAKC%;A;A7B7DD;H=?.EJ7BN7?JK;D;H=?JEJ7BI;8;BKC:7DI;IK:7>H;7AI?I7C7 *7HJ?A;BFHEJED11P:7D:;KJHED12D@K=7:?=KD7A7DKDJKAC;D==7D==KA;IJ78?B7D?DJ?7=7H?DJ??JKJ;HKH7?7J7K8;H:?I?DJ;=H7I?C;[email protected]:??DJ?B7?D 5)185,::7D&'2:54F7:7  C;B7FEHA7D>7I?BH;7AI??DJ??D?:;D=7DFHEJEDN7D=:?F;H9;F7JC;B7BK?C;:?7B?IJH?A:;D=7DF;HI7C77DH;7AI??DJ?    " &? "; ";1.Energi yang Dihasilkan dari Reaksi Inti,;7AI??DJ?:7F7J:?JKB?IA7D:7B7CIK7JKF;HI7C77D7J7K P %;J;H7D=7D?DJ?I7I7H7DF7HJ?A;BN7D=:?>7I?BA7D?DJ?87HKN7D=:?>7I?BA7D;D;H=?N7D=:?>7I?BA7DF7HJ?A;BF;D;C87A"7H=7IK7JKH;7AI??DJ?:?:;<?D?I?A7DI;87=7?F;H8;:77D7DJ7H7;D;H=?:?7C:7D;D;H=?:?7C 5$.$P$/$6Q ';0 IC7  P %;J;H7D=7D H;7AI?;AIEJ;HC?AJ;H:7F7J;D;H=?N7D=:?8;87IA7D H;7AI?;D:EJ;HC?AJ;H:7F7J;D;H=?N7D=:?I;H7FContoh 10.7"?JKD=B7>>7H=7KDJKAH;7AI?   &? ";%@?A7$D  IC7$  IC7$&?  IC7$"; IC7 '='(5$.$P$/$6@ ';0 IC75    P   6IC7@ ';0 IC7  IC7 ';0 IC7 ';0Contoh 10.8$?A7C7II7"  IC7" IC7"; IC7:7DD  IC7 $?A7 IC7 ';0>?JKD=;D;H=?N7D=:?8;87IA7DF7:7H;7AI?  "; " "; D'='(D;H=?H;7AI?I7C7:;D=7D;D;H=?H;7AJ7D:?AKH7D=?;D;H=?FHE:KAD;H=?H;7AJ7D    ';0 ';0D;H=?FHE:KA    ';0  ';0D;H=?H;7AI? P    ';0Kata Kunci• energi reaksi inti• reaksi eksotermik• reaksi endotermik• reaksi berantai• reaksi fisi• reaksi fusiTo k o hEnrico Fermi(1901–1954)Fermi adalah seorang fisikawankelahiran Itali. Setelah tahun 1939, iapergi ke Amerika Serikat untukbekerja dan hidup disana. Ia dikenalkarena menggunakan neutron untukmenembak atom yang dapatmenghasilkan isotop. Enrico Fermimendapat hadiah Nobel pada 1938.Pada 2 Desember 1942, reaksi rantainuklir pertama dihasilkan olehsebuah tim ilmuwan yangdipimpinnya. Percobaan yang suksesini bertempat di lapangan SquashUniversitas Chicago, Amerika Serikat.Reaksi rantai bekerja menyerupaipenyalaan korek api. Panas yangdihasilkan oleh gesekan pada waktumematik korek api menyebabkansebagian atom terbakar danmelepaskan lebih banyak panassehingga menyebabkan reaksi terus-menerus berlangsung.Sumber:Science Encyclopedia, 1998
Mudah dan Aktif Belajar Fisika untuk Kelas XII2742.Pembuatan Isotop Radioaktif dari Reaksi Inti,7:?E7AJ?<:7F7J:?FHE:KAI?C;B7BK?IK7JKH;7AI??DJ?FHEI;IF;C8;DJKA7D?IEJEF87HKN7D=H7:?E7AJ?<?JK:?B7AKA7D:;D=7DF;D;C87A7D?IEJEFN7D=IJ78?B:;D=7DIK7JKF7HJ?A;B -;87=7?9EDJE>?IEJEFH7:?E7AJ?< K:?F;HEB;>:7H?F;D;C87A7D?IEJEFIJ78?B KEB;>D;KJHED:;D=7DH;7AI?    D KK3.Reaksi Berantai*;D;C87A7DD;KJHEDF7:7KH7D?KC ?DJ?N7D=J;H8;DJKA:7H?F;D7D=A7F7DD;KJHEDJ;HI;8KJJ?:7AIJ78?BI;>?D==7I;=;H7J;H8;B7>C;[email protected]:??DJ??DJ?N7D=B;8?>H?D=7D "7I?BF;C8;B7>7D7:7B7>I;87=7?8;H?AKJ       D /2; -H D D+#IEJEF  2;:7D-H7:7B7>?IEJEF?IEJEFN7D=J?:7AIJ78?B:;D=7DC;C7D97HA7DI?D7H;CF7JA7B?8;HJKHKJJKHKJ?IEJEF  2;7A>?HDN78;HK87>C;[email protected]:?  ;N7D=IJ78?B ;C?A?7D@K=7-HC;[email protected]:??IEJEFIJ78?B  2;:;D=7DC;C7D97HA7DI?D7H:K7A7B?8;HJKHKJJKHKJ ,;7AI?N7D=:;C?A?7D:?I;8KJ(")  (%* C;HKF7A7D;D;H=?N7D=:?B;F7IA7D:7B7C8;DJKAA7BEH *7:7H;7AJEHDKAB?HD;KJHED9;F7J:?A;D:7B?A7DI;>?D==7J?:7AJ;HB7BK87DN7AD;KJHEDN7D=J;HB?87J:7B7CH;7AI??DJ? (7CKD:7B7C8EC7JECD;KJHED9;F7J?D?J?:7AJ;HA;D:7B?I;>?D==7J;H8;DJKAB;:7A7DN7D=I7D=7J:7>IN7J 4.Reaksi Fisi*;D;CK7DH;7AI?<?I?DKAB?H8;H7M7B:7H?;AIF;H?C;D?DJ;H7AI?D;KJHED:;D=7DKH7D?KC .?=7A;BECFEAA;[email protected]N7D=8;H>7I?BC;D;CKA7D<?I?DKAB?H7:7B7>48/)5+83/;2/+:;88/+"'</::7D::''.4":8'993'4F7:7  ';H;A7C;D=7J7A7D87>M7F;D7D=A7F7DD;KJHEDEB;>IK7JK?DJ?KH7D?KC7A7DC;C8;H?A7D=7N7F7:7;D;H=?F;HCKA77DI;>?D==7?DJ?7A7DJ;H8;B7>:K7:;D=7DC7II7I;87D:?D= %;CKD=A?D7DB7?D?DJ?J;H;AI?J7I?:7DC;D=>7I?BA7DF;BKHK>7D=7CC7 "7B?D?:?I;8KJ(")  ) *;H>7J?A7D'3('8  '3('8  C;CF;HB?>7JA7D?DJ?N7D=J;H8;DJKA  /J?:7AIJ78?B:7DI;=;H7J;H8;B7>C;[email protected]:??DJ??DJ?B;8?>H?D=7DN7D=IJ78?B *7I7D=7DF7I7D=7DN7D=J;[email protected]:?F7:7<?I?  /J?:7AC;[email protected]F7I7D=7DN7D=A>7IJ;J7F?C;HKF7A7DI7JK:7H? A;CKD=A?D7DN7D=J;[email protected]:?:?7DJ7H7DN7     /%H 7 D   /-H 7 D     /4H.;D:7DI;J;HKIDN7 *7:7>7CF?HI;CK7H;7AI?<?I?J;[email protected]:?F;D=KH7D=7DC7II7I;A?J7H IC78;H7HJ? QB;8?>8;I7H:7H?F7:7C7II7N7D=>?B7D=F7:7I;CK7@;D?IH;7AI?F;BKHK>7DDN7I;87=7?9EDJE><?I? /:;D=7DD;KJHEDB7C87JC;D=>7I?BA7D?DJ?'E:7D &7 '7II7N7D=>?B7D=:7D;D;H=?N7D=:?>7I?BA7D:?>?JKD=I;87=7?8;H?AKJ Uninti bulatanGambar 10.19Diagram reaksi berantaiGambar 10.20Pada reaksi pembelahan inti,jumlah neutron bertambahpada setiap tingkatan.inti U-235reaksi fisi U-235memunculkan2 neutronneutronpertamareaksi fisi keduamenghasilkan 4 neutronSumber:Physics for ‘O’ Level,1990
Fisika Inti dan Radioaktivitas275     / D'E &7 D$$K$DP$'E$&7 $D$    P        IC7D;H=?<?I?DN7  ';0 IC7$ ';0 IC7  IC7 ';0"7I?BF;C8;B7>7D?DJ?KH7D?KCC;D=>7I?BA7DD;KJHEDN7D=87HK I7CF7?D;KJHEDC7A77A7D:7F7JJ;[email protected]:?FHEI;I<?I?8;H7DJ7? (;KJHEDD;KJHED>7I?BF;C8;B7>7D?DJ?7A7DC;D=;D7?/P N7D=B7?D:7DC;D?C8KBA7DH;7AI?N7D=I7C7I;97H78;H7DJ7? 5.Reaksi Fusi")  +) 7:7B7>F;D==78KD=7D:K7?DJ?H?D=7DC;[email protected]:?I;8K7>?DJ?N7D=B;8?>8;H7J:?I;HJ7?:;D=7DF;B;F7I7D;D;H=? D;H=?N7D=:?B;F7IA7DB;8?>8;I7H:?87D:?D=A7D;D;H=?N7D=:?F;HBKA7DKDJKAC;D==78KD=A7DA;:K7?DJ? D;H=?<KI?N7D=9KAKF8;I7H:?F;HEB;>:7H?'7J7>7H?:7D8?DJ7D=N7D=C;HKF7A7DIKC8;H;D;H=?:?7B7CI;C;IJ7?D? ,;7AI?<KI?C;D=K87>?DJ?>?:HE=;DC;[email protected]:??DJ?>;B?KC !;@7B7?D?J;[email protected]:?:7B7CAED:?I?8?DJ7D=C;DKHKJI?ABKIFHEJEDFHEJEDH;7AI?DN77:7B7>I;87=7?8;H?AKJ 7 *7:7J7>7F7M7BH;7AI?FHEJED8;H=78KD=:;D=7DFHEJEDC;C8;DJKA:;KJ;H?KC* *    ';08 ;KJ;H?KC8;H=78KD=:;D=7DFHEJEDC;C8;DJKA?DJ?JH?J?KC";  *  "; ';09 #DJ?";8;H;7AI?C;D=>7I?BA7D";  "; "; * * ';0,;7AI?<KI?N7D=J;[email protected]:?:?'7J7>7H?7:7B7>H;7AI?F;D==78KD=7D>?:HE=;D"C;[email protected]:??DJ?>;B?KC";I7C8?BC;C8;87IA7D;D;H=?N7D=I7D=7J8;I7H ,;7AI?F;D==78KD=7D?DJ?:?F;HB?>7JA7DF7:7'3('8  EDJE>H;7AI?<KI?N7D=J;[email protected]:?:?'7J7>7H?7:7B7>I;87=7?8;H?AKJ " " " ;:;D=7D ';0  " " ";:;D=7D ';0  "; "; "; " ":;D=7D ';0EDJE>B7?D:7H?H;7AI?<KI?7:7B7>8EC>?:HE=;D *7:7CKB7DN78EC>?:HE=;D:?8K7JI;J7H7:;D=7DB;:7A7D C;=7JED.(.A?H7A?H7 A7B?;D;H=?8EC7JECF;HJ7C7 7>7D87AK8EC>?:HE=;D7:7B7>?DJ?:;KJ;H?KC:7DJH?J?KCN7D=A;CK:?7D8;H=78KD=C;C8;DJKA?DJ?>;B?KC ,;7AI?<KI?N7D=8;HB7D=IKD=IFEDJ7D>7DN7J;[email protected]:?F7:7IK>K:7DJ;A7D7DN7D=I7D=7JJ?D==? 7H7C;D=;D:7B?A7DH;7AI?<KI?J;HI;8KJIKA7H:?B7AKA7DA7H;D7C;C;HBKA7DIK>KI;A?J7H % *7:7IK>KJ;HI;8KJI;CK7C7J;H?7A7D8;H8;DJKAFB7IC7F7D7II;>?D==7I7D=7JIKA7HC;D97F7?F7HJ?A;B%N7D=9KAKFF7D7I -7B7>I7JKKI7>7N7D=:?B7AKA7DKDJKAC;C;H7D=A7FFB7IC7H;7AJ?<:7B7CC;:7DC7=D;J?A:?H7D97D=EB;>,KI?7N7D=:?I;8KJ*&"$":;D=7DC;:7DC7=D;J?A8;H8;DJKAAK;:ED7JJEHKI Gambar 10.21Penggabungan empat inti hidrogenmembentuk inti helium disertaipelepasan energi.H11H11H11H11H11H11H11H21H21Hc32Hc32Hc42H11H–2(deuterium)H–3(tritium)reaksi fusiheliumneutron++++++Gambar 10.22Reaksi fusi di MatahariGambar 10.23Tokamakruang vakumtoroidarus listrikluarmedanmagnetiktotalplasmaarusplasmamedanmagnetikpoloidmedanmagnetiktoroidSumber:Physics for Scientist and Engineers, 2000
Mudah dan Aktif Belajar Fisika untuk Kelas XII276Contoh 10.9"?JKD=B7>;D;H=?:7B7C';0N7D=:?8;87IA7DEB;>F;D==78KD=7D:K7FHEJED:7D:K7D;KJHEDKDJKAC;C8;DJKAI;8K7>?DJ?>;B?KC ?A;J7>K?C7II7"   IC7"; IC7D  IC7:7D IC7 ';0'='(*;HI7C77DH;7AI?F;D==78KD=7D?DJ?DN77:7B7>  " D ";;D;H=?D;H=?I;8;BKCH;7AI?5       6Q ';0 ';0D;H=?I;IK:7>H;7AI?  ';0  ';0D;H=?H;7AI? ;D;H=?I;8;BKCH;7AI?P;D;H=?I;IK:7>H;7AI? P    ';0$7:?;D;H=?N7D=:?8;87IA7DI;8;I7H  ';0  .;DJKA7D;D;H=??A7J?DJ?  -? (N7D=C7II7DN78;HJKHKJJKHKJ7:7B7> IC7  IC7:7D  IC7  *7:7H;7AI??DJ?D;KJHED:;D=7DJH?J?EDC;D=>7I?BA7DI;8K7>F7HJ?A;B7B<7 ;H7F787DN7ADN7;D;H=?N7D=:?A;BK7HA7DF7:7H;7AI??DJ?J;HI;8KJ.KB?IF;HI7C77DH;7AI?DN7 '7II7&? IC7:7DC7II7:;KJHED   IC7  *;H>7J?A7DH;7AI??DJ?8;H?AKJ     " &? +"?JKD=;D;H=?N7D=:?>7I?BA7D@?A7:?A;J7>K?C7II7"  IC7&? IC7 IC7:7D IC7 ';0 $7M78B7>F;HJ7DN77D8;H?AKJ 7 7=7?C7D7H;7AI?<?I?:7F7J:?A;D:7B?A7D$;B7IA7D 8 F7N7D=C;DN;878A7DA;HKI7A7DKDJKAC;D=7:7A7DIK7JKH;7AI?<KI?9 F7N7D=:?C7AIK::;D=7DH7:?7I?:7D87=7?C7D7H7:?7I?:7F7J8;H87>7N7I;HJ78;HC7D<77J87=?C7DKI?7 .;DJKA7DD7C7F7HJ?A;B2:7H?H;7AI??DJ?8;H?AKJ?D? 7   &? " 28  (  2 "9   B *2: " " ";2 "?JKD=;D;H=?N7D=:?8;87IA7DF7:7H;7AI??DJ?  ; D " &?;D;H=?@?A7:?A;J7>K?C7II7; IC7&?  IC7D  IC7:7D IC7 ';0  .;DJKA7D;D;H=?N7D=:?B;F7IA7DF7:7H;7AI?<?I?8;H?AKJ?D?   / D%H 7 D;D;H=?$?A7:?A;J7>K?C7II7  /   IC7C7II7D  IC7C7II7%H IC7C7II7 7  IC7:7D IC7 ';0  /DJKAH;7AI?8;H?AKJ 7   B D *./J;DJKA7DDECEHC7II7.:7D/8  2*J;DJKA7DDKAB?:7.9   (7 2 '=J;DJKA7DB7>F7HJ?A;B.Tes Kompetensi Subbab C+80'1'42'.6'*'(;1;2':/.'4
Fisika Inti dan Radioaktivitas277D. Reaktor Nuklir, Bom Nuklir, dan Radioisotop1.Reaktor nuklir+:[email protected][email protected]>G696A6=I:BE6II:G?69>CN6G:[email protected]>7:G6CI6>N6C<B:CN6C<@JI;>H>[email protected]>GN6C<I:G@:C96A>+:[email protected][email protected]>GB:[email protected]HJB7:G:C:G<>H6C<6I:;>H>:CC:G<>N6C<9>A:[email protected]96A6B7:CIJ@@6ADG96C96E6I9>6B7>A9:C<6CB:C<6A>[email protected]O6I86>G6I6J<6HH:76<6>E:C9>C<>CB:A6AJ>76<>6C76<>6C96A6BG:[email protected]>IJ-67JC<N6C<7>6H69>[email protected]>I>C<<>CN6 B7:G9>6B:I:G96A6B B96CI:76A9>C9>C<CN6 8B+ /696A6=E:G6C86C<6C96H6GG:[email protected][email protected]>G6>GI:@6C>G7:[email protected]H:76<6>BD9:G6IDG96CE:C9>C<>CJCIJ@I:G6H6A6BG:[email protected]6>G9>9>=J6E6>G9>7>[email protected]I:G?69>9>96A6BI67JC<G:[email protected]96C@:BJ9>6C9>[email protected]>JCIJ@B:C<<:G6@@6CIJG7>C6A6BG:[email protected]6>GI:@6C6>GN6C<B:C<6A>GB:A:L6I>I:G6H9>E:[email protected]7:GI:@6C6CI>C<<>H:@>I6G  6IB>GN6C<B6HJ@@:96A6BI67JC<7:GI:@6C6CI>C<<>B:B>A>@>HJ=J  Q96CB:C>C<<[email protected]E696HJ=J QB:A6AJ>E:CJ@6G@6ADGN6C<B:C<=6H>[email protected]J6EH:=>C<<696E6IB:BJI6GH:7J6=IJG7>C6=6C7[email protected]G:[email protected]6>GG>C<6C696A6=JG6C>JB[email protected]>96.(N6C<I:GIJIJE96A6BI67JC<E6C?6C<96CH:BE>I+:[email protected]>9>BJA6>9:C<6CH:7J6=C:JIGDCN6C<B:CJB7J@>CI>H:=>C<<6B:CN:[email protected]E:B7:A6=6C>CI>9>H:GI6>9:C<6CI:GA:E6HCN69J66I6JI><6C:JIGDC':JIGDCB:C<6A6B>E:GA6B76I6C7:7:G6E6&:/B:C?69>:C:G<>I:GB6AB:A6AJ>[email protected]9:C<6C>CI>BD9:G6IDG@:BJ9>6C9>I:[email protected]9:C<6C;>H>,:A6C?JICN6A6?JG:[email protected]>7:G6CI6>96E6I9>@DCIGDAB:C<<[email protected]76I6C<@DCIGDAN6C<I:G7J6I96G>@69B>JB6I6J7DGDCN6C<BJ96=B:CN:G6EC:JIGDC$:I>@676I6C<>C>9>B6HJ@@6CA:7>=96A6B@:96A6BG:[email protected]A6?JG:[email protected]>CN69>G:96BJ6EN6C<@:AJ6G96G>IJG7>C9>9>C<>[email protected]B:C?69>6>GDA:=@DC9:CHDG96CDA:=EDBE6H:@JC9:G9>B6HJ@@6C@:B76A>@:6A6IE:[email protected]E6C6H+:[email protected][email protected]>GE:GI6B69>76C<JCDA:=,/'!-#/+'  S E696  9>.C>K:GH>I6H=>86<DB:G>@6,:G>@6I,6BE6>H66I>C>I:A6=9>76C<JC7:G76<6>?:C>H96C[email protected]G:[email protected][email protected]>G+:[email protected]G:[email protected][email protected]>GI:GH:7JIB:B>A>@>7:7:G6E6@DBEDC:C96H6G9>6CI6G6CN6:A:B:C:A:B:C76=6C[email protected]76I6C<@:C96A>BD9:G6IDG96CE:G>H6>' "A:B:CGambar 10.24Perancangan dasar reaktor Nuklirair-tekan.Gambar 10.25Reaktor nuklir denganmoderator airsistem utamasistem keduabahan bakar danmoderatorpelindungkondensorpompauap airbatangpengendaliair panasturbin uapgeneratorInformasiuntuk AndaBeberapa jenis limbah reaktor nuklirbersifat radioaktif. Limbah ini meng-hasilkan radiasi nuklir mematikanyang merusak sel-sel hidup. Beberapajenis limbah radioaktif dapatbertahan ribuan tahun. Oleh karenaitu, limbah yang disimpan rapatdalam peti kemas tertutup harusdipendam di bawah tanah. Untukmenangani limbah nuklir makaorang harus menggunakan pakaianseperti terlihat pada gambar berikut.Some kind of the nuclear reactorwaste is radioactive material. Thiswaste produce deadly nuclearradiation that damage living cells.Some kind of radioactive waste canlast for thousand years. So, nuclearreactor waste placed in shielded boxmust be buried underground.Overcoming nuclear waste, peoplemust wear suit like you have seen thispicture.Information for YouSumber:Physics for Scientist and Engineers, 2000
Mudah dan Aktif Belajar Fisika untuk Kelas XII27876=6C[email protected]96C76I6C<@:C96A>I:GA:I6@9>96A6BHJ6IJI:BE6IN6C<9>[email protected]I:G6HG:[email protected]$DBEDC:C@DBEDC:CI:GH:7JI9>IJC?J@@6CE696+ / A:B:C:A:B:C76=6C[email protected]G:[email protected][email protected]>G7:G7:CIJ@76I6C<76I6C<I>E>H6=6C[email protected]N6C<9>[email protected]>E696JBJBCN6696A6=JCHJGJCHJGN6C<B:B>A>@>H>;6I96E6I7:G:[email protected]>H:86G6;>H>B>H6ACN6  .  .96C )J&D9:G6IDG7:G;JC<H>JCIJ@B:BE:GA6B76I@:A6?J6CC:JIGDCC:JIGDCN6C<9>7:[email protected]H:A6B6EGDH:HE:B7:A6=6C>CI>;>H>7:GA6C<HJC<&:C<6E6A6?JC:JIGDC=6GJH9>E:GA6B76I,:7J6=>CI>  .[email protected]A:7>=BJ96=B:C6C<@6EC:JIGDCA6B76I96G>E696B:C6C<@6EC:JIGDC8:E6I@6CI:I6E>C:JIGDCC:JIGDCN6C<9>[email protected]H:A6B6EGDH:HG:[email protected]>;>H>7:GA6C<HJC<7:G<:G6@9:C<6C@:A6?J6CI>C<<>(A:=@6G:C6>IJ9>E:[email protected]BD9:G6IDG&D9:G6IDGN6C<E6A>C<JBJB9><[email protected]696A6=6>G7:G6I(,6A6=H6IJ@:JC<<JA6CBD9:G6IDG6>G7:G6I696A6=96E6I7:G;JC<H>H:76<6>E:C9>C<>CI:G6HG:[email protected]$:I>@6H:7J6=C:JIGDC7:G:C:G<>I>C<<>@:AJ6G96G>H:7J6=:A:B:C76=6C[email protected]C:JIGDCI:GH:7JIB:B6HJ@>6>G96C7:[email protected]9:C<6CBDA:@JABDA:@JA6>G':JIGDC8:E6I[email protected]@:=>A6C<6CH:76<>6C:C:G<>CN6H:A6B6B:CJB7J@6IDB6IDB6>GH:=>C<<6A6?JC:JIGDCI:GH:7JIB:C?69>A6B76I6I6C<@:C96A>7:G;JC<H>JCIJ@B:CN:G6E@:A:7>=6CC:JIGDCN6C<9>=6H>[email protected]96G>G:[email protected]>E:B7:A6=6C>CI>;>H>H:=>C<<6G:[email protected]>;>H>7:G6CI6>N6C<I:G?69>9>96A6BG:[email protected]96E6I9>@:C96A>@6C6I6C<@:C96A>7>6H6CN6I:G7J6I96G>@69B>JB6I6J7DGDC6I6C<@:C96A>B:C?6<66<6GH:I>6EE:B7:A6=6C>CI>=6CN6B:C<=6H>[email protected]H6IJE:B7:A6=6CI6B76=6CH6?6#>@6C:JIGDCC:JIGDC96G>I>6EE:B7:A6=6CB:C<=6H>[email protected]E:B7:A6=6CI6B76=6CN6C<A:7>=7:H6G96G>H6IJE:B7:A6=6C76I6C<@:C96A>[email protected]9>I:@6CB6HJ@@:96A6BG:[email protected]H:=>C<<6@:A:7>=6CC:JIGDC=6H>AG:[email protected]>9>H:G6EDA:=76I6C<@:C96A>,:76A>@CN6?>@6C:JIGDCC:JIGDC96G>I>6EE:B7:A6=6CB:C<=6H>[email protected]E:B7:A6=6CI6B76=6CN6C<A:7>=@:8>A96G>H6IJE:B7:A6=6C76I6C<@:C96A>H:76<>6C9>I6G>@B:C?6J=>I:G6HG:[email protected]H:=>C<<6C:JIGDCN6C<9>H:G6EA:7>=H:9>@>I"CI>6IDB=6H>AE:B7:A6=6C96E6IB:C<=6H>[email protected]G69>6H><6GE6G6E:@:G?69>H:@>I6GG:[email protected]96E6I7:GIJ<6H9:C<6C6B6C96G>G69>6H>>C>9>7J6IE:G>H6>7:IDCJCIJ@B:C6=6CG69>6H>N6C<9>=6H>[email protected]H:A6B6EGDH:HG:[email protected]>;>H>7:GA6C<HJC<C:G<>N6C<9>=6H>[email protected]E696EGDH:HG:[email protected]>;>H>7:GJE6E6C6H,>HI:BGambar 10.26Komponen-komponen dasarsebuah reaktor atom: (1) terasreaktor; (2) elemen bahan bakar;(3) moderator; (4) batang kendali;(5) shielding; (6) pendingin.aliran panasaliran dinginuap ke turbinair dinginpompa(1) (2)(4)(5)(3)(6)Sebuah reaktor nuklir tidak dapatmeledak seperti bom atom. Akantetapi, suatu kecelakaan pada pusattenaga nuklir dapat menimbulkanakibat yang merusak sejumlah besarwilayah sekitarnya. Pada 1986, terjadikecelakaan nuklir terbesar di pusattenaga nuklir Chernobyl di Ukraina.Kecelakaan ini melepaskan zatradioaktif ke dalam atmosfer danmengakibatkan gangguan kesehatanyang hebat pada penduduk di sekitarChernobyl. Penduduk di Eropa punmendapatkan dampak yang tidakkecil.A nuclear reactor can not explode likeatom bomb. But, an accident in centreof the nuclear power can cause alarge destruction. In 1986, the biggestnuclear accident happened in theChernobyl nuclear power plant,Ukraine. This accident releasedradioactive material to theatmosphere and caused severe healthdisorder to civilians near by someEuropean also got the serious effect.Informasiuntuk AndaInformation for YouSumber:Physics for ‘O’ Level, 1990
Fisika Inti dan Radioaktivitas279E:B>C96=6CE6C6HBJIA6@9>E:[email protected]E696HJ6IJG:[email protected][email protected]>G!6AI:GH:7JI7:GIJ?J6CB:B>C96[email protected]E6C6HN6C<9>=6H>[email protected]G:[email protected]>;>H>96G>BD9:G6IDGE:C9>C<>CEG>B:G@:E:C9>C<>CH:@JC9:G):B>C96=6CE6C6H>C>H6C<6IE:CI>C<@6G:C6E:C9>C<>CEG>B:G7>6H6CN6B:[email protected]HJ6IJG6C<@6>6CI:GIJIJE):C9>C<>C9>@:B76A>@6CA6<>@:G:[email protected]H:I:A6=E6C6HN6C<9>76L6CN696G>I:G6HG:[email protected]9>E>[email protected]@:E:C9>C<>CH:@JC9:G:[email protected]@:<JC66CCN6G:[email protected][email protected]>G96E6I9>7:[email protected]B:C?69>6 +:[email protected]6N6+:[email protected]96N6696A6=G:[email protected]N6C<96E6IB:C<=6H>[email protected]I:C6<6A>HIG>@+:[email protected]96N6E696JBJBCN6B:[email protected]G:[email protected]@DB:GH>6A&>H6ACN69>B6C;[email protected]JCIJ@)%-'):B76C<@>I%>HIG>@-:C6<6'[email protected]>G7 +:[email protected])[email protected]>"HDIDE+:[email protected][email protected]>>HDIDE696A6=G:[email protected]N6C<B:C<=6H>[email protected]G69>D>HDIDEN6C<76CN6@9><[email protected]96A6B7>96C<@:[email protected]:G6C>C9JHIG>7>DAD<>96C;6GB6H>8 +:[email protected]):C:A>I>6C+:[email protected]E:C:A>I>6C696A6=G:[email protected]N6C<9><[email protected]JCIJ@E:C:A>I>6C9>7>96C<E:GI6C>6CE:I:[email protected]>C9JHIG>@:[email protected]:G6C96CH6>CH"C9DC:H>6B:B>A>@>I><6G:[email protected]E:C:A>I>6C96C[email protected]>>HDIDEN6C<7:G6969>6C9JC<2D<[email protected]96C,:GEDC<+:[email protected]N6C<7:G6969>6C9JC<9>7:G>C6B6-G><6&6G@""&"" '& " '#(#$&#)(#", "& (#! 9>2D<[email protected]9>7:G>C6B6G:[email protected]$6GI>C>H:96C<@6CN6C<7:G6969>,:GEDC<9>7:G>C6B6&)+  ) ( )&$#'(#&N6C<B:B>A>@>96N6 &L6II,:E:GI>I:A6=9>76=6HH:7:AJBCN6H6A6=H6IJE:B6C;66I6C[email protected]>G696A6=JCIJ@)%-'):B76C<@>I%>HIG>@-:C6<6'[email protected]>G:[email protected]?:C>HE:C9>C<>CCN66969J6?:C>H)%-'N6>IJ)%-'9:C<6CH>HI:B)0+&'')&- (& (#&96C0+# " (&(#&a.PLTN dengan Sistem PWR6<6C)%-'9:C<6CH>HI:B)0+9>IJC?J@@6CE696+ / >GN6C<B:C<6A>GB:A:L6I>I:G6HG:[email protected]9>E:[email protected]6<6G7:GI:@6C6CI>C<<>  6IB!6A>C>7:GIJ?J6CB:C8:<6=I:G?69>CN6E:C<J6E6C6>GN6C<7:GHJ=J Q6A6BG:[email protected]9:C<6CH>HI:B)0+E6C6HN6C<9>=6H>[email protected]96G>G:[email protected]>>CI>9>6C<@JI@:AJ6GDA:=E:C9>C<>CEG>B:G9:C<6C86G69>EDBE6I:GJHB:C:GJH96C9>6A>[email protected]B:CJ?J<:C:G6IDGE:B76C<@>IJ6EH:=>C<<6E696E:B76C<@>IJ6E9>=6H>[email protected]J6E7:GI:@6C6CI>C<<>.6E7:GI:@6C6CI>C<<>>C>9><[email protected]JCIJ@B:BJI6GIJG7>CN6C<9>@DE:A9:C<6C<:C:G6IDGA>HIG>@=>C<<69>=6H>[email protected]:C:G<>A>HIG>@,:I:A6=@:AJ6G96G>IJG7>CJ6E9>9>C<>[email protected]@:B76A>DA:=@DC9:CH6IDG=>C<<6B:C?69>6>G@:BJ9>6C9>@:B76A>@6CA6<>JCIJ@B:C<6C<@JIE6C6H@:B76A>b.PLTN dengan Sistem BWR)696H>HI:B0+I:@6C6C6>GN6C<B:C<6A>GB:A:L6I>I:G6HG:[email protected]DGA:7>=G:C96=96G>E696H>HI:B)0+N6>IJH:@>I6G 6IB>G>C>9>[email protected]96A6BI67JC<G:[email protected]96C9>6A>[email protected]JCIJ@B:BJI6GIJG7>CH:=>C<<6To k o hOtto HannOtto Hahn lahir di Frankfurt, Jerman. Iamendapatkan gelar Ph.D dariUniversitas Marburg pada 1901. Hahnmempelajari beberapa unsur radioaktif,termasuk aktinium dan thorium. Pada1917, ia dan Lise Meitner berbagipenghargaan atas penemuan logamradioaktif yang diberi nama protak-tinium. Pada 1944, Hahn mendapatkanhadiah Nobel bidang kimia untukkeberhasilannya dalam penemuanpembelahan inti. Proses pembelahaninti itu disebut fisi nuklir. Para ilmuwandi Amerika Serikat menggunakan hasilpenemuan Hahn ini untuk membuatbom atom pada awal 1940-an. Sejak saatitu penggunaan fisi nuklir untuk tujuandamai pun dikembangkan.Sumber:Science Encyclopedia, 1998Gambar 10.27Bagan PLTN dengan sistem PWRSumber:Fundamental of Physics, 2001reaktor PWRgeneratorpembangkituappipa uapgeneratorkondensatorpompapompa
Mudah dan Aktif Belajar Fisika untuk Kelas XII2809>=6H>[email protected]:C:G<>A>HIG>@.6EE6C6HN6C<B6HJ@@:GJ6C<IJG7>C>C>9>B6HJ@@6C@:96A6B@DC9:CH6IDGH:=>C<<67:GJ76=B:C?69>6>G@:BJ9>6C9>EDBE6@:B76A>B:B6HJ@>GJ6C<I:G6HG:[email protected]6<>6C)%-'9:C<6CH>HI:B0+9>IJC?J@@6CE696+ / 2.Bom NuklirC96E6HI>HJ96=H:G>C<B:C9:C<6G>HI>A6=7DB6IDB6I6J7DBCJ@A>GDB[email protected]>GB:[email protected]7DBN6C<B:C<<[email protected]:C:G<>96G>I:C6<6[email protected]>GDB[email protected]>GI:G9>G>6I6H9J6B686BN6>IJ7DB;>H>[email protected]>G96C7DB;JH>[email protected]>GDB;>H>[email protected]>GB:B6C;[email protected]:C:G<>H6C<6I7:H6GN6C<9>A:[email protected]H:HJ96=G:[email protected]>E:B7:A6=6C>CI>6=6C[email protected]N6C<9><[email protected]696A6=JG6C>JB. 6I6JEAJIDC>JB)J .G6C>JB96E6I9>I:[email protected]9>6A6BI:I6E>EAJIDC>JB=6CN696E6I9>E:GDA:=96G>G:[email protected]>;>H>9>I:G6HG:[email protected][email protected]>G)G>CH>E@:G?67DB;>H>=6BE>GH6B69:C<6C)%-'6=6C[email protected]7:GJE6. 6I6J)J B:B7:A6=B:C?69>7:7:G6E6>CI>7:7:G6E6C:JIGDC96CH:?JBA6=:C:G<><6GG:[email protected]>E:B7:A6=6CCN6I>96@I:G@:C96A>76=6C[email protected]I:GH:7JI=6GJH7:G69696A6BB6HH6@G>I>HN6>IJB6HH6B>C>BJBN6C<B:CN:[email protected]G:[email protected]>I6@I:G@:C96A>#>@6B6HH676=6C[email protected]9>76L6=B6HH6@G>I>H?JBA6=C:JIGDCN6C<7D8DGA:7>=76CN6@96G>C:JIGDCN6C<B:B7:A6=96EJC96A6BB6HH6@G>I>HG:[email protected]>E:B7:A6=6C96E6II:G?69>H:86G6H:G:CI6@GI>CN6[email protected]?:966CI6GG:[email protected]>=6CN67:GDG9:B>@GD9:I>@6I6JB>A>9:I>@@>76IG:[email protected]>E:B7:A6=6CN6C<H:G:CI6@>C>:C:G<>N6C<9>A:[email protected]96E6II:[email protected]>$:I>@6I:G?69>A:9[email protected]H:76<>6C7:H6G:C:G<>N6C<9>=6H>[email protected]7:GJE6:C:G<>@>C:I>@,:A6>C>IJ9>=6H>[email protected]?J<6G69>6H>E6C6H@>A6I6C86=6N696C:B>H>G69>[email protected]>;[email protected]I:CI6C<96=HN6ICN6@:@J6I6C7DB;>H>[email protected]>G>C>I:GA>=6I?:A6H9>@DI6!>GDH>B696C'6<6H6@>#:E6C<3.Radioisotopa.Pembuatan Radioisotop#'#(#$ '#(#$'#(#$,"('( "HDIDEN6C<I>96@HI67>AH:A6AJB:[email protected]H>C6GH>C6GG69>[email protected]>;JCIJ@B:C?69>>HDIDE>HDIDEHI67>A)696JBJBCN6G69>[email protected]>;N6C<9><[email protected]96A6B7:G76<6>Gambar 10.28Bagan PLTN dengan sistem BWRTantanganuntuk AndaMengapa molekul dari uranium(U–235) lebih cepat bergerakdaripada molekul U–238 padasuhu yang sama?Tugas Anda 10.2Apakah Anda pernah mendengartragedi Chernobyl? Chernobylmerupakan pembangkit listriktenaga nuklir di Ukraina yangmengalami kebocoran. Carilahinformasi dari berbagai sumber,mengapa kebocoran ini bisa terjadi?Kata Kunci• reaktor nuklir• reaktor daya• reaktor produksi isotop• reaktor penelitian• sistem PWR• sistem BWRSumber:Conceptual Physics, 1998reaktorair mendidihuapturbingeneratorpemindahpanaspompakondensatortransformatorjaringan distribusitenaga listrik
Fisika Inti dan Radioaktivitas281@:E:GAJ6CI>96@I:GH:9>69>6A6B@6G:C6[email protected]E6GJ=96G>[email protected]>96[email protected]>;HJ6IJG69>[email protected]>;I>96@I:GA6AJA6B6(A:=@6G:C6>IJG69>D>HDIDEI:GH:7JI=6GJH9>7J6I96G>[email protected]>96HI67>A6A6B>6=9:C<6CG:[email protected]>>CI>6G6N6C<76CN6@9>[email protected]>696A6=9:C<6CB:C:B76@>CI>HI67>A9:C<6CE6GI>@:AC:JIGDCDCID=G69>D>HDIDE7J6I6C)JH6I):C:A>I6C-:C6<6'[email protected]>G))-'696A6= '6)  G-896C"b.Penggunaan Radioisotop):C<<JC66CG69>D>HDIDE6CI6G6A6>CH:76<6>7:G>@JI *+ '",%.#/1,',>"C9DC:H>6696C-:C6<6'[email protected]>G'6H>DC6A-'H:76<6>A:B76<6E:C:A>I>6CI:A6=B:[email protected]@6CE:C:A>I>6C96A6B7>96C<E:GI6C>6C9:C<6CI:@CDAD<>BJI6H>G69>6H>&JI6H>G69>6H>9><[email protected]JCIJ@B:C9[email protected]I6C6B6C9:C<6CK6G>:I6H76GJN6C<JC<<JA *+ '",%',"201/'6A6B7>96C<>C9JHIG>G69>D>HDIDE9><[email protected]JCIJ@B:C<[email protected]@:I:76A6CB6I:G>6AN6C<9>=6H>[email protected]DA:=HJ6IJE67G>@&>H6ACN6G69>6H>H>C6G7:I69><[email protected]JCIJ@B:C<6IJG@:I:76A6C@:GI6H9>E67G>@@:GI6H96CH>C6G<6BB69><[email protected]JCIJ@B:C<6IJG@:I:76A6C76?6>"C9DC:H>6G69>D>HDIDEI:A6=9><[email protected]96A6BI:@C>@EDA>B:G>H6H>G69>6H>&>H6ACN696A6B[email protected]>H6H>A6I:@H6A6B96CE:A6E>H6CE:[email protected]@6NJ *+ '",%&'"/-*-%'6A6B7>96C<=>9GDAD<>G69>D>HDIDE9><[email protected]JCIJ@B:C<[email protected]A6?J6A>G6C6I6J9:7>I6A>G6C;AJ>9696A6BE>E6H6AJG6CI:[email protected]HJC<6>H:GI66>G96A6BI6C6=+69>D>HDIDE96E6I?J<69><[email protected]JCIJ@B:C9:I:@H>@:7D8DG6CE>E6E:CN6AJGN6C<9>I6C6B9>96A6BI6C6= *+ '",%)#"-)1#/,676C< >ABJ @:[email protected]:G6C N6C< B:B6C;[email protected] <:ADB76C<:A:@IGDB6<C:I>@E:C9:@H:E:GI>H>C6G9>H:7JIG69>DAD<>+69>DAD<>9>B6C;[email protected]JCIJ@B:CJC?6C<9>6<CDH>HE:CN6@>I6A6B9JC>6@:[email protected]:G6C[email protected]>GEG>CH>EG69>DAD<>9>B6C;[email protected]9:C<6CB:[email protected]>>HDIDEG69>[email protected]>;N6C<9>HJCI>@@6C@:96A6BIJ7J=$:BJ9>6C>HDIDEI:GH:7JI9>I6C<@6EDA:=9:I:@IDG9>AJ6GIJ7J=H:=>C<<69>E:GDA:=<6B76G6CN6C<B:CJC?J@@6C9>HIG>7JH>CN69>96A6BIJ7J=,:76<6>8DCID=JCIJ@B:C<:I6=J>A:I6@E:CN:BE>I6CE:B7JAJ=96G6=E696E:C9:G>I6E:CN6@>IE:CN:BE>I6CE:B7JAJ=96G6=9><[email protected]G69>D>HDIDEC6IG>JB$:BJ9>6C?:?6@G69>[email protected]>;I:GH:7JI9>GJCJI9:C<6CB:C<<J[email protected]E:C8686= :><:G%:I6@E:CN:BE>I6CE:B7JAJ=96G6=9>IJC?J@@6C9:C<6CI:G=:CI>CN66A>G6CC6IG>JB,:A6>C9><[email protected]JCIJ@B:C9>6<CDH>HE:CN6@>IG69>D>HDIDE?J<69><[email protected]JCIJ@I:G6E>G69>6H>-:G6E>G69>6H>696A6=86G6E:C<D76I6C9:C<6CB:[email protected]>G69>6H>-:G6E>H:E:GI>>C>7>6H6CN69><[email protected]96A6BE:C<D76I6C@6C@:G):B7:G>6CI:G6E>96E6IB:CN:[email protected]B:C<JG6C<><:?6A66I6JB:C8:<6=E:CN:76G6C@6C@:G7:G<6CIJC<E696?:C>H96CHI69>JB@6C@:G  *+ '",%.*#-1-%/$',:A6>C96A6B7>96C<7>96C<N6C<I:A6=9>H:[email protected]9>6I6HG69>D>HDIDE?J<69><[email protected]JCIJ@B:C:[email protected]JBJG76IJ6C;DH>A96C7:C967:C96[email protected]):C:CIJ6CJBJGB:B>A>@>E:G6C6CE:CI>C<6CI6G6A6>CJCIJ@B:C<:I6=J>JBJG;DH>A96G>B6H6G>7J6CI6=JCN6C<A6AJ.CIJ@B:C:[email protected]JBJG;DH>A9><[email protected]G69>D>HDIDE@6G7DC  N6C<7>6H69>H:7JIG69>[email protected]Kedua tangan ini memegangsebongkah uranium–235. Isotop dariuranium yang digunakan sebagaibahan dalam reaktor nuklir. Uraniummerupakan salah satu logam berat,sebongkah kecil uranium inimassanya 4,5 kg dan harganya lebihdari 200.000 dolar. Sebelummemegang uranium, tangan harusdilindungi dengan sarung tangankhusus.This two hand hold a slab ofUranium-235. It is uranium isotopused as material in nuclear reactor.Uranium is one of the heavy metal,that small uranium slab weights 4,5kg and the price is more than 200.000dollars. Before holding uranium,hands must be covered by a specialhandgloves.Informasiuntuk AndaTugas Anda 10.3Carilah foto-foto tentang kondisikota dan warga Hiroshima danNagasaki setelah pengeboman olehAmerika Serikat. Diskusikanlahbersama teman sekelas Andatentang dampak negatif bom atom.Diskusikan juga apakah ada dampakpositif dari bom atom.Information for You
Mudah dan Aktif Belajar Fisika untuk Kelas XII282"HDIDE@6G7DC6A6B>6==6CN6B:B>A>@>CDBDGB6HH66IDB I:I6E>G69>[email protected]B:B>A>@>CDBDGB6HH6 "HDIDE>C>I:G7:CIJ@9>6A6BE696A6E>H6C6IBDH;:GJB>76<>6C6I6H,>C6G@DHB>@96G>6C<@6H6AJ6GB:C67G6@6IDB6IDB9>6IBDH;:G76<>6C6I6H@>76ICN6[email protected]I:G7:[email protected]:A:@IGDCEGDIDCC:JIGDC96CE6GI>@:AA6>C#>@66IDBC>IGD<:CB:C6C<@6EC:JIGDC>IJ6IDBC>IGD<:C[email protected]7:GJ76=B:C?69>6IDB H6B7>AB:A:[email protected]EGDIDC+69>[email protected]>C>7:G6969>6IBDH;:GH:76<6>@6G7DC9>[email protected]>96DIDH>CI:H>HB:CN:[email protected] B6HJ@@:96A6BIJB7J=6CH:=>C<<6E6966@=>GCN6H:AJGJ=B6@=AJ@=>9JE[email protected]B:C<6C9JC<G69>[email protected],:A6>CI:GJHB:C:GJHI:G7:CIJ@ ?J<6[email protected]I:GJHB:C:GJHB:C<=>A6C<@6G:C6B:AJGJ=6A6BB6@=AJ@=>9JEN6C<HJ96=B6I>@696GG69>[email protected][email protected]7:[email protected]<I:GJH@6G:C6B:AJGJ=,:I>6E I6=JC6IDB6IDBG69>[email protected]>IJI>C<<6AH:E6GJ=$:CN6I66C>C>B:[email protected]96H6GE:C:I6E6CJBJG;DH>AN6C<E:GI6B6@6A>9>@:B76C<@6CDA:='**/"' 5E696 6CDCID=E:C6C<<6A6C9:C<6CB:C<<[email protected]>HDIDE@6G7DC696A6=E:C6C<<6A6CJH>6H:7J6=<JAJC<6CE:[email protected]:CN6C<9>I:[email protected]9>H:7J6=<J69>%6JI&6I>Gambar 10.29Magnetic Resonance ImagingGambar 10.30Karbon dapat digunakanuntuk menentukan usiasebuah gulungan perkamenyang ditemukan di sebuahgua di Laut Mati.):[email protected]=C96B:C9:C<6G6I6JB:B7686I:CI6C< ) & #"# &(#"&(!"("IJ696A6=E:G?6C?>6CI:CI6C<E:B76I6H6CE:CN:76G6C96CE:C<JG6C<6C7DB[email protected]>G9>9JC>66G>A6=>C;DGB6H>96G>7:G76<6>HJB7:GI:CI6C<E:G?6C?>6CI:GH:7JI':<6G6B6C6H[email protected]=N6C<I:GB6HJ@C:<6G67:G@:@J6I6C[email protected]>GJ6IA6=IJA>H6C96G>>C;DGB6H>N6C<C96[email protected][email protected]IJA>H6CI:GH:7JI@:E696<JGJC96-JA>H6CN6C<E6A>C<76<JH[email protected]9>EG:H:CI6H>@6CDA:=H>HL6N6C<7:GH6C<@JI6C9>9:E6C@:A6HMari Mencari TahuTantanganuntuk AndaApakah radioisotop yangdisuntikkan ke dalam tubuh pasienuntuk mendiagnosis penyakit,membahayakan pasien itu sendiri?Sumber:Physics for Scientist and Engineers, 2000Sumber:Fundamental of Physics, 2001
Fisika Inti dan Radioaktivitas283Tes Kompetensi Subbab D#/(),*&." 2)2*1'&,  ,:[email protected]?:C>H?:C>HG:[email protected]7:[email protected]@:<JC66CCN6 #:[email protected]EGDH:HE:GJ76=6C:C:G<>E696)%-'9:C<6CH>HI:B)0+H6BE6>9>=6H>[email protected]:C:G<>A>HIG>@ #:[email protected]E:C<<JC66CG69>D>HDIDE96A6B7>96C<@:[email protected]:G6C  ,:[email protected]76<>6C76<>6CJI6B696G>H:7J6=G:[email protected][email protected]>G  #:[email protected];JC<H>96G>6 BD9:G6IDG7 76I6C<@:C96A>8 E:G>H6>Rangkuman  "CI>6IDBI:G9>G>6I6HEGDIDC96CC:JIGDC$:9J6E6GI>@:AE:CNJHJC>CI>>C>9>H:7JI[email protected]:DC)GDIDC7:GBJ6I6CEDH>I>;H:96C<@6CC:JIGDCI>96@7:GBJ6I6CA>HIG>@  .CIJ@B:B7:G>@6CHE:H>;>@6H>I:G=696E@DBEDH>H>>CI>9><[email protected]>HI>A6=[email protected]>96N6C<9>[email protected]9:C<6CCDI6H>19:C<6C1?:C>HJCHJGCDBDGB6HH63CDBDG6IDB'?JBA6=C:JIGDCS3  )GDH:H=>A6C<CN6H:76<>6CB6HH6C:JIGDCB:C?69>:C:G<>>@6I>CI>9>H:7JI9:;:@B6HH6)GDH:H>C>I:G?69>E696E:B7:[email protected]H:BJ6[email protected]>96 C:G<>>@6I>CI>7:AJB96E6IB:C<<[email protected]@:HI67>A6C[email protected]>96@:HI67>A6C[email protected]>969>E:C<6GJ=>DA:=:C:G<>>@6IG6I6G6I6E:G[email protected]:DC -:G96E6II><6B686BE:B6C86G6C96G>JCHJGG69>JBN6>IJE:B6C86G6C6A;6E:B6C86G6C7:I696CE:B6C86G6C<6BB6 [email protected]E:CJ=696A6=[email protected]N6C<9>[email protected]H:?JBA6=JCHJGG69>[email protected]>;JCIJ@B:AJGJ=B:C?69>H:I:C<6=?JBA6=H:BJA6 6A6BG:[email protected]>>CI>7:[email protected][email protected]$:@:@6A6C'DBDGIDB96C'DBDG&6HH6H:GI6[email protected]$:@:@6A6CC:G<>96C&DB:CIJB +:[email protected]>;JH>696A6=7:G<67JC<CN69J6>CI>G>C<6CB:B7:CIJ@ H:7J6= >CI> A:7>= 7:G6I H6B7>AB:B7:[email protected]:C:G<>H6C<6I7:H6G +:[email protected]>;>H>696A6=G:[email protected]>E:B7:A6=6CHJ6IJ>CI>7:G6I@:I>@69>I:B76@>DA:=E6GI>@:A7:G:C:G<>I>C<<>N6C<@:AJ6G96G>H>[email protected]6I6J@:I>@6B:CN:G6EC:JIGDCA6B76I  +:[email protected][email protected]>G696A6=I:BE6II:G?69>CN6G:[email protected]>7:G6CI6>N6C<B:C<6C<@JI;>H>[email protected]>GN6C<I:G@:C96A>$DBEDC:C96H6GG:[email protected][email protected]>G696A6=I:G6HG:[email protected]:A:B:C76=6C[email protected]BD9:G6IDG76I6C<@:C96A>' "96CE:C9>C<>C  DB[email protected]>GI:G9>G>6I6H9J6B686BN6>IJ7DB;>H>C[email protected]>G96C7DB;JH>[email protected]>GDB;JH>[email protected]>GB:B6C;6[email protected]:C:G<>H6C<6I7:H6GN6C<9>A:[email protected]H:HJ96=G:[email protected]>E:B7:A6=6C>CI>[email protected]@:96=HN6I6CCN6I:GA>=6I9>@DI6!>GDH=>B696C'6<6H6@>#:E6C<  +69>D>HDIDE696A6=>HDIDE>HDIDEN6C<I>96@HI67>A+69>D>HDIDE9><[email protected]96A6BI:@CDAD<>BJI6H>G69>6H>I:@C>@EDA>B:G>H6H>G69>6H>I:@CDAD<>E:C9:I:@H>@:7D8DG6CI:@CDAD<>G69>DAD<>I:@CDAD<>E:C:CIJJBJGHJ6IJ76=6C96CA6>CA6>C
Mudah dan Aktif Belajar Fisika untuk Kelas XII284B:B76=6HB:B76=6HB:B76=6HB:B76=6H76<>6C76<>6CCN6B:B76=6HPeta Konsep'0'),1'","'-)1'3'10"CI>IDB+69>[email protected]>K>I6H+:[email protected]>"CI>+:[email protected]'[email protected]>GDB'[email protected]>G96C+69>D>HDIDE)6GI>@:A):CNJHJC"CI>B:B76=6H  "HDIDE  "HD76G  "HDIDC,I67>A>I6H"CI>IDB7:[email protected]?>@6R "CI>+>C<6C$"R "CI>:G6I$"R$96C"7:G?JBA6=<:C6EC:G<>"@6I"CI>!#:C>H,>C6G+69>[email protected]>;  ,>C6GA;6  ,>C6G:I6  ,>C6G 6BB6[email protected])6GJ=:G:I+69>[email protected]>;  -=DG>JB  ':EIJC>JB  .G6C>JB @I>C>JBA6I):C9:I:@H>+69>[email protected]>K>I6H  BJAH>>AB)DIG:I  ):C8686= :><:G&JAA:G  $6B6G$67JI0>AHDC ,>CI>A6IDG+:[email protected]>:G6CI6>+:[email protected]>>H>+:[email protected]>JH>+:[email protected]'[email protected]>G-:G6HG:[email protected]:A:B:C76=6C[email protected]BD9:G6IDG76I6C<@:C96A>' "E:C9>C<>CDB>H>96CDBJH>+69>D>HDIDE@:<JC66CCN6R -:@CDAD<>BJI6H>G69>6H>R &:C<[email protected]@:I:76A6C76=6CR &:C9:I:@H>@:7D8DG6CE>E6R +69>DAD<>Setelah mempelajari bab ini, tentu Anda telahmemahami bagian-bagian penyusunan inti danbagaimana pengaruh rekayasa penyusun inti tersebut.Anda juga tentu telah memahami mengenairadioaktivitas dan peluruhan serta perhitungan-perhitungan yang ada di dalamnya. Dari keseluruhanmateri yang ada pada bab ini, bagian mana yang menurutRefleksiAnda sulit dipahami? Coba Anda diskusikan denganteman atau guru Fisika Anda.Banyak sekali manfaat mempelajari Fisika Inti danRadioaktivitas. Salah satunya adalah dibangunnya PLTNyang hemat bahan bakar. Coba Anda cari manfaat lainmempelajari bab ini. Diskusikan hasilnya bersama teman-teman Anda.
Fisika Inti dan Radioaktivitas285Tes Kompetensi Bab 10 '*'&*&0*&012(4 ,5,%.*',% #,/  ,:7J6=6IDB  .B:B>A>@>6  :A:@IGDC EGDIDC96C C:JIGDC7  :A:@IGDC EGDIDC96C C:JIGDC8 :A:@IGDC EGDIDC96C C:JIGDC9 :A:@IGDC EGDIDC96C C:JIGDC: :A:@IGDC EGDIDC96C C:JIGDC  !6H>AHJ6IJE:AJGJ=6C>CI>G69>[email protected]>;696A6=H>C6G6A;6H>C6G<6BB696C>CI>+C"CI>>[email protected]696A6=6 )D9 G7 +6: 88 +C  ,:HJ96= ?6BH:E:G:C6B7:A6H76<>6CHJ6IJJCHJGG69>D6@I>;B6H>=7:GH>;6IG69>[email protected]>;[email protected]E6GJ=JCHJGI:GH:7JI696A6=6 B:C>I9  B:C>I7 B:C>I: B:C>I8 B:C>I 6A6BG:[email protected]>>CI>6IDBI>96@7:[email protected]6 [email protected]$:@:@6A6CC:G<>7 [email protected]$:@:@6A6C&6HH6IDB8 [email protected]$:@:@6A6C&DB:CIJB9 [email protected]$:@:@6A6C'DBDGIDB: [email protected]$:@:@6A6CC:G<>$>C:I>@  .B:AJGJ=B:C?69>>HDIDEI>B76A  )7DA:=:B>H>E6GI>@:A6A;696CDA:=:B>H>:A:@IGDCH:76CN6@6 9 7 : 8  6G>EGDH:HEGDH:H7:G>@JIN6C<B:[email protected]8DCID=96G>E:G>HI>L6;JH>696A6=6 E:B7:[email protected]=:A>JB96G>=>9GD<:C7 E:B7:[email protected]6>G96G>=>9GD<:C96C[email protected]><:C8 E:B7:[email protected]76G>JB96G>@G>EIDC96CJG6C>JB9 E:B7:[email protected]I>B76A96G>G69>JBDA:=E:AJGJ=6CG69>[email protected]>;: E:B7:[email protected][email protected]><:C96G>C6IG>JBN6C<9>I:B76@9:C<6CE6GI>@:A6A;6 :G9[email protected]<G6;>@E:AJGJ=6C7:G>@JI>C>[email protected]?JBA6=O6IG69>[email protected]>;H:I:A6= ?6B696A6=6'7'8'9':' )696H66IE:AJGJ9>I:B76@@6C@:E6966IDB '9>=6H>[email protected]EGDIDC9:C<6CG:[email protected]> '1#JBA6=EGDIDC96CC:JIGDC96A6B6IDB1B6H>C<B6H>C<696A6=6 96C9 96C7 96C: 96C8 96C ,J6IJEGDH:H;>H>  .B:C<>@JI>E:GH6B66C   C.6$G C#>@6E696EGDH:H;>H>>C>9>7:[email protected]:C:G<> &:/B6HH6C:JIGDC  HB6B6HH6>CI>  .  96C HB6 &:/[email protected]B6HH6>CI>6$G696A6=6  HB69  HB67  HB6: HB68 HB6  &6HH6>CI>%>696A6=  HB6#>@6B6HH6EGDIDCNN012N00203040tmenit4!E5   HB6B6HH6C:JIGDC4!C5  HB696C HB6 &:/:C:G<>>@6I>CI>%>696A6=6 &:/9 &:/7 &:/: &:/8 &:/  .GJI6C96N6I:B7JHH>C6GH>C6GG69>[email protected]>;9>BJA6>96G>N6C<E6A>C<@J6I696A6=6 6A;67:I696C<6BB67 <6BB66A;696C7:I68 7:I66A;696C<6BB69 6A;6<6BB696C7:I6: <6BB67:I696C6A;6  @I>K>I6H>HDIDEG69>[email protected]>;N6C<76GJ9>I:[email protected]7:G@JG6C<B:C?69>96G>=6G<66L6ACN696A6BH:A6C<[email protected] ?6B[email protected]E6GJ=>HDIDE>IJ696A6=6  ?6B9  ?6B7  ?6B: ?6B8   ?6B  ,J6IJJCHJGG69>[email protected]>;B:AJGJ=96CI>C<<6A ?JBA6=CN6H:I:A6= B:C>I#>@6BJA6BJA6B6HH6JCHJGI:GH:7JI <G6BH:I:A6=H:I:C<6=?6BB:AJGJ=B6HH6JCHJGN6C<7:AJBB:AJGJ=I>C<<6A6  <G6B9 <G6B7  <G6B: <G6B8 <G6B5-,  ,J6IJ76=6CG69>[email protected]>;:H>JB E6966L6ACN6B:B>A>@>A6?JG69>6H>;DIDC<6BB6H:7:H6G V E6GI>@:AI>6E9:I>@E67>A6[email protected]E6GJ=76=6CI:GH:7JI I6=JCA6?JG69>6H>CN6E696 I6=JC7:G>@JICN6696A6=6 V E6GI>@:A 9:I>@7 V E6GI>@:A 9:I>@8  V E6GI>@:A 9:I>@9 V E6GI>@:A 9:I>@: V E6GI>@:A 9:I>@
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