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Fisika · h_Bab 8 Fisika Atom
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Fisika Atom197197membuat ulasan tentang perkembangan teori atomSetelah mempelajari bab ini, Anda harus mampu:menganalisis berbagai besaran fisis pada gejala kuantum dan batas-batasberlakunya relativitas Einstein dalam paradigma Fisika Modern.Hasil yang harus Anda capai:Fisika AtomA. Evolusi ModelAtomB. Atom BerelektronBanyak>41@1CD9@5B>18=5>45>71BD5>D1>71D?=D?=[email protected];1>2181>41C1B@5>IECE>C5=E1J1DI1>7141491<1=9>9[email protected]1D?=2E;1>@1BD9;5<D5B;539< ;1B5>1 =1C98 141 @1BD9;5<@1BD9;5< CE21D?=9; *18E;18 >41DE:E1> @1B1 9<=EG1> [email protected]<1:1B9 1D?= +>DE; =5>:1G12 @5BD1>I11>D5BC52ED >41 81BEC =5>:1G12 D5B<5298 418E<E @5BD1>I11>@5BD1>I11>25B9;ED @1;18 >41 D18E D5>D1>7 C5B1D [email protected]; I1>7 21>I1; 497E>1;1>41<1= 4E>91 D5<5;?=E>9;1C9 C5;1B1>7 9>9 @1;18 >41 D18E 2181>[email protected] I1>7 497E>1;1> C521719 B1>7;1 @5C1G1D E<1>71<9; 5>71>[email protected]<1:1B9 C5<E; 25<E; 1D?= @1B1 9<=EG1> [email protected] =5=?4969;1C9 E>CEBE>CEB C589>771 =5=9<9;9 C961D I1>7 [email protected];1>'141 212 9>9 >41 1;1> [email protected]<1:1B9 5F?<EC9 =?45< 1D?= 41> 1D?=25B5<5;DB?> 21>I1; $1D5B9 9>9 [email protected];1> 41C1B @5>75D18E1> E>DE;25<1:1B 41> =5>[email protected]<9;1C9;1> D5;>?<?79 D5>D1>7 69C9;1 =1D5B91<Bab8Sumber: Chemistry: Matter and Its Changes, 2003Atom terdiri atas proton dan neutron yang terletak pada intiserta elektron yang mengorbit pada kulit.
Mudah dan Aktif Belajar Fisika untuk Kelas XII198A. Evolusi Model Atom)5:1; J1=1> 4E<E =1>EC91 CE418 D5BD1B9; E>DE; =5>75D18E9 2181>41C1B @5>IECE> C5<EBE8 =1D5B91< 41> J1D I1>7 141 49 1<1= 9>9 #1>41C1>[email protected];9B>I1 C1>71D C545B81>1 =5B5;1 =5>71=29< 1>1<?79 C52E18 BE=18I1>7 492E1D 41B9 21DE 41> ;1IE ;5=E491> 21DE D5BC52ED 49CECE> ?<58@1BD9;5<@1BD9;5<21DEI1>7<5298;539<41>C5D5BEC>I1;89B>I1=5B5;1[email protected] @141 ;[email protected]<1> 218G1 2181> C5=E1 =1D5B91< 41> J1D I1>7 14149 1<1= 9DE 49CECE> ?<58 CE1DE 2181> 41C1B1.Model Atom Demokritus 45 D5>D1>7 ;525B1411> 2181> 41C1B 9>9 ;1<9 @5BD1=1 49;5=E;1;1>?<58,;*077;9<189BD18E> )$"5=E491>,46280:;9 M  )$=5>75=21>7;1>@5>[email protected],;*077;945>71>=5=25B9>1=1,'%'+E>DE;2181>41C1B9>9%1=19>9491=29<41B92181C1/E>1>9I1>725B1BD9D941; [email protected] 492179 <179 !149,46280:;9 =5>I1D1;1> 218G1 C5=E1=1D5B91< 41> J1D I1>7 141 49 1<1= 9>9 49CECE> ?<58 21791> D5B;539< I1>7D941; [email protected] 492179 <179 I19DE 1D?='141 =1C1 D5BC52ED 21>I1; @1B1 69<CE6 I1>7 =5>75=E;1;1>@5>[email protected]>I1 =5>75>19 1D?= B7E=5>D1C9 I1>7 =5B5;1 7E>1;1> 2E;1>4941C1B;1>@14181<@5B3?211>=5<19>;1>25B41C1B;1><?79;1-1<[email protected]>@5>5=E1>=5B5;19>9C521D1CD5?B9[email protected]81<9>9D5<18=5>:149D?>771;@5>D9>7 E>DE; @5;5=21>71> D5?B9 69C9;1 1D?= 41> 69C9;1 9>D9 )59B9>745>71> @5B;5=21>71> J1=1> 21>I1; 69C9;1G1> 41> ;9=91G1> I1>7D5BD1B9; E>DE; [email protected]<1:1B9 D5?B9 1D?= 9>9 D5BEC =5=2E1D 5F?<EC9=?45<1D?= C589>771 [email protected];1> =?45< 1D?= [email protected] C5;1B1>7 9>92.Model Atom Dalton6/5(3:65  M  141<18 C5?B1>7 9<=EG1> >77B9C I1>7 ;1<9@5BD1=1 =5>I1D1;1> D5?B9 D5>D1>7 1D?= 25B41C1B;1> 81C9< 5;[email protected]=5>I1>7 49<1;E;1>69,7/!86;9: C5?B1>7 ;9=91G1> 41B9 'B1>39C I1>7=5>I1D1;1> 218G1 C5>I1G1 49CECE> ?<58 E>CEBE>CEB 45>71>@5B21>49>71> [email protected] 1C9< 5;[email protected]=5>!86;9: 9>9 49C52ED E;E='5B21>49>71> *[email protected] '141 !86;9: =5<1;E;1> 5;[email protected]=5> 45>71>=5B51;C9;1> E>CEB 894B?75> 41> E>CEB ?;C975> 1 =5>5=E;1> C5>I1G119B 45>71> @5B21>49>71> [email protected] I19DE  71B >41 <5298 :5<1C@5B81D9;1> D125< 25B9;ED#,),3;44,47,3(1(802659,70902(:642,81(2(53(/96(396(3),802;:+(3(4);2;3(:0/(5Tes Kompetensi Awal )52ED;1> ;[email protected]?>5> @5>IECE> C52E18 1D?= 41>:5<1C;1>;54E4E;1>[email protected];[email protected]?>5>D5BC52ED41<1=1D?= )52ED;1>41>:5<1C;1>=?45<=?45<1D?=I1>7@5B>18141=E<1941B91G1<[email protected]=?45<I1>7D5B21BE )52ED;1>>1=1>1=1;E<9D[email protected]5<5;DB?>=5>7?B29D41<1=1D?=41>[email protected]:E=<18=1;C9=E=5<5;DB?>I1>7[email protected]25B141@141[email protected];E<9DD5BC52ED?21 >41 @5B81D9;1> D125< @5B9?49; E>CEBE>CEB$5>EBED>4121719=1>1;18E;EB1>:1B9:1B91D?=41<1=1C1DE@5B9?4541>2C1DE7?<?>71>To k o hJohn Dalton(1766–1844)John Dalton adalah seorangilmuwan Inggris. Dia orang pertamayang mengemukakan tentang teoriatom berdasarkan hasil eksperimenyang dilakukan Joseph Proust. Daltonmenyatakan bahwa atom adalahbagian terkecil dari benda yang tidakdapat dibagi-bagi lagi.Sumber:www.allbiographies.com
Fisika Atom199)5<19>81C9<5;[email protected]=5>'B?ECD5;[email protected]=5><19>I1>749:149;1>13E1>?<58 1<D?> 41<1= =5=2E1D D5?B9 1D?=>I1 141<18 5;[email protected]=5> I1>749<1;E;1> ?<585:605,(<6090,841>!8,09:3,? '141  4E1 ?B1>7;9=91G1>9DE=5<1;E;1>5;[email protected]=5>45>71>=5=1>1C;1>=5B;EB9?;C941I1>7 498E2E>7;1> 45>71> E41B1 49 G1418 [email protected] 1C9< 5;[email protected]=5>=5>E:E;;1> =1CC1 C525<E= B51;C9 41> C5CE418 B51;C9 141<18 C1=1'5B>I1D11> 9>9 49;5>1< C521719 E;E= #1F?9C95BE1 81C9< 5;[email protected]=5> 9>9 =5=2E1D(3:65 [email protected] D5>D1>7;525B1411> 1D?= !9;1 CE1DE E>CEB D5B49B9 41B9 2181> 41C1B I1>7 D941;;?>D9>E D941; =E>7;9> 141 @5B21>49>71> [email protected] E>CEBE>CEB @5=25>DE;C5>I1G1 41> ;5;5;1<1> =1CC1 &<58 ;1B5>1 9DE @141   1<D?>=5>7ECE<;1> D5?B9 1D?= C521719 25B9;ED1 D?= [email protected];1> 21791> D5B;539< CE1DE J1D I1>7 D941; [email protected] 4921792179 <1792 )[email protected] E>CEB =5=9<9;9 C961D E>9; I1>7 C5CE19 45>71> C961D 1D?=@5>IECE>>I13 E1 1D?= 1D1E <5298 I1>7 25B1C1< 41B9 E>CEBE>CEB 25B<19>1> [email protected]25B712E>7 =5=25>DE; =?<5;E<4 '141 CE1DE @5BC5>I1G11> E>DE; =5=25>DE; =?<5;E< :E=<18 =1CC1C525<E= 41> C5CE418 @5BC5>I1G11> 141<18 C1=15 '141 CE1DE @5BC5>I1G11> E>CEBE>CEB @5=25>DE;>I1 C5<1<E 25B14141<1= @5B21>49>71> [email protected] 41> C545B81>13.Model Atom Thomson'141 1;89B 1214 . .$/64(93<(+0965 25B81C9< =5>5=E;1>65>?=5>1 5=9C9 D5B=1< 41<1= @5B3?211>>I1 E>DE; =5>[email protected];1> 2?<1<[email protected] 5>?=5>1 9>9 =5>4?B?>7 @1B1 69C9;1G1> =5>5<9D9 D5>D1>7 D12E>7C9>1B ;1D?45 *12E>7 C9>1B ;1D?45 D5B49B9 1D1C C52E18 D12E>7 [email protected] 71C4941<1=D12E>749@[email protected];5<E1B[email protected]D5;1>1>71CC5;9D1B  ==7C1DE5<5;DB?45>571D96;1D?4541>C1DE5<5;DB?41@?C9D961>?45"5D9;15<5;DB?45498E2E>7;1>45>71>CE=25BD571>71>D9>779;,M ;,1;1>495=9C9;1> CE1DE @1BD9;5< I1>7 25B75B1; =5>E:E 1>?45 1B9 81C9<@5>5<9D91> 49;5D18E9 218G1 @1BD9;5< I1>7 495=9C9;1> ;1D?45 9>925B=E1D1> >571D96'141 C5?B1>769C9;1G1> >77B9C25B>1=169,7/6/5$/64965=5<1;E;1> ;5=21<9 5;[email protected]=5> D5>D1>7 D12E>7 C9>1B ;1D?45 [email protected]45>71> [email protected] =?4969;1C9 +>DE; <5298 :5<1C>I1 >41 29C1 =5<981D(4)(8  25B9;EDTo k o hSir J.J. Thomson(1856–1940)Thomson adalah seorang ahli Fisikayang lahir di Checham Hill, GreaterManchester, Inggris. Dia belajar diCambridge dan meraih gelarprofesor pada 1884. Dia meraihhadiah Nobel Fisika tahun 1906.Eksperimennya yang terkenaltentang tabung sinar katode. Darieksperimennya, dia menemukannilai nisbah e/m.Sumber:www.allbiographies.com(99(0+86.,5?(5.08,(2902(5.8(4(99( 290.,5?(5.08,(2902(5.8(4 (99(08.8(4 #09((903",(290.8(4 7B1=?;C975> 7B1=894B?75>$(),3 ;[email protected]=5>'5B21>49>71>*[email protected]'B?ECD
Mudah dan Aktif Belajar Fisika untuk Kelas XII200Gambar 8.1Percobaan Thomson(4)(8  =5>E>:E;;1> @141 21791> D5>718 D12E>7 C9>1B ;1D?454925B9 =541> <9CDB9; 41> =541> =17>5D I1>7 1B18>I1 C1<9>7 D571; <EBEC*'++!$ I19DE =541> <9CDB9; 25B1B18 ;5 21G18 @141 71=21B 41>=541>=17>5D25B1B18;541<1=;5BD1C@14171=21B*[email protected]>[email protected]>5;[email protected]=5> I1>7 49<1;E;1> ?<58$/64965 141<18 C521719 25B9;ED  "5D9;1 41>   @1BD9;5< C9>1B ;1D?45 25B75B1; <EBEC  "5D9;1 =541> <9CDB9; 491;D96;1> C9>1B ;1D?45 25B75B1; ;5 1D1C 1<9>9 49C5212;1> 71I1 5<5;DB?CD1D9C 1>D1B1 @1BD9;5< 25B=E1D1> >571D9641> @5<1D ;EDE2 @?C9D96  5>71> [email protected] =5>:171 25C1B =541> =17>5D 491;D96;1> )5CE1945>71> ;19418 D1>71> ;1>1> 1B18 71I1 #?B5>DJ 141<18 ;5 21G185>71> =5>71DEB 25C1B>I1 C9>1B ;1D?45 D5BC52ED 1;1> 25B75B1;<EBEC ;5=21<91B9 5;[email protected]=5> D5BC52ED$/64965 =5>[email protected];1> @5B89DE>71>=1D5=1D9C C521719 25B9;ED  "5<1:E1> @1BD9;5< 41<1= D12E>7 C9>1B ;1D?45 [email protected];1> 41B9@5BE2181> 5>5B79 @?D5>C91< <9CDB9; =5>:149 5>5B79 ;9>5D9; @1BD9;5<D5BC52ED(<9CDB9;#@1BD9;5<%.%.M "5D5B1>71> =E1D1> @1BD9;5< C9>1B ;1D?45% =1CC1 @1BD9;5< C9>1B ;1D?45. ;[email protected]> @1BD9;5< C9>1B ;1D?45 2541 @?D5>C91< I1>7 4925B9;1>  "5D9;1 @1BD9;5< C9>1B ;1D?45 [email protected] 25B75B1; <EBEC G1<[email protected]> 4925B9=541> <9CDB9; 41> =5>41> =17>5D 25B1BD9<3 . .M 5>71> =5>CE2CD9DEC9;1>!,89(4((5@ ;5!,89(4((5@ 1;1>[email protected];1>% M katodeanodelayar fluoresensi+USABCBFvJika ada elektron yang bergerakdengan kecepatan v dalam suatumedan magnet B, arah gayaLorentznya mengikuti kaidah tangankanan.Ingatlah
Fisika Atom201pengamatmikroskopisminyak disemprotlubang kecilradiasi sinar-Xpelat negatiftetes minyak5C1B1>41>[email protected]49;5D18E941B9@5>7E;EB1>C589>771*8?=C?>=5>[email protected];1>@5B21>49>71>=E1D1>41>=1CC1%@1BD9;5<C9>1B;1D?45C521719 25B9;ED%  P  ;7M$/64965 =5<1;E;1> 5;[email protected]=5> 9>9 25BE<1>7E<1>7 I19DE 45>71>=5>771>D9 71C 41<1= @5<1D ;1D?45 45>71> E>CEB <19>>I1 41> =5>771>D971C41<1=C9>1B;1D?459>9;1>[email protected]81C9<I1>7[email protected];1>$/64965[email protected] C1=1 "5=E491>$/64965 =5>[email protected]<;1> 218G1 @1BD9;5< C9>1B;1D?45 9>9 [email protected];1> 2181> I1>7 141 49 [email protected] J1D$/64965 =5=25B9>1=1@1BD9;5<9>9'*(-+$+[email protected]@1BD9;5<9>9<529849;5>1<45>71>>1=1$#,*'&%18 [email protected];18 >41 D18E =5>[email protected]$/64965 =5>[email protected]<;1> 218G15<5;DB?> 9>9 21791> 41B9 1D?= $5>[email protected] 91 D941; =5>[email protected]<;1> 218G15<5;DB?>9>9141<181D?=1D1E45>71>;1D1<19>1D?=25B=E1D1>>571D9641 4E1 1<1C1> I1>7 =5>41C1B9 ;[email protected]<1>$/64965 I19DE C52171925B9;ED  "?>[email protected]41C1BD5>D1>71D?=I1>7=5>I1D1;1>218G11D?=9DE>5DB1<  )11D 9DE 69C9;1G1> D5<18 =5>75D18E9 =1CC1 41B9 1D?= 894B?75>I1>7[email protected];1> 1D?= D5B9>71> 41B9 5;[email protected]=5> D5>D1>7 5<5;DB?<9C9C*5B>I1D1 >9<19% :1E8 <5298 ;539< C5;1B1>7 D5<18 D5B2E;D9 B1C9?>I1141<18      41B9 =1CC1 1D?= 894B?75>D1C 41C1B 9DE<18$/64965 =5>7ECE<;1> C52E18 =?45< 1D?= I1>749;5>1< 45>71> =?45< 1D?= ;E5 ;9C=9C I19DE C521719 25B9;ED  D?=25B25>DE;2E<1D@141D45>71>=E1D1>@?C9D96D5BC521B;5C5<EBE821791> 2?<1 D5BC52ED  $E1D1> @?C9D96 9>9 49>5DB1<;1> ?<58 =E1D1> >571D96 I1>7 =5<5;1D@141 @5B=E;11> 2?<1 D5BC52ED"525B81C9<1>$/64965 =5>5=E;1> C1<18 C1DE ;[email protected]>71> @EJJ<51D?= 9>9 =5=25B9;1> 9>[email protected] 2179 69C9;1G1> <19>>I1 =5<1;E;1>5;[email protected]=5>D5D5C=9>I1;I1>749<1;E;1>?<58"6),8:03302(5C5?B1>769C9;1G1> 41B9 =5B9;1 )5B9;1D ;[email protected]=5> D5D5C =9>I1; $9<<9;1> 9>925B81C9< =5>[email protected];1> 25C1B>I1 =E1D1> 41> =1CC1 41B9 5<5;DB?> +>DE;<5298 :5<1C>I1 C9<18;1> >41 @5B81D9;1>(4)(8  25B9;ED)[email protected] [email protected]<981D;1> @141(4)(8 03302(5 25B5;[email protected]=5>45>71> =5>[email protected]?D;1> =9>I1; ;5 41<1= C52E18 D12E>7 1D1E ;?D1;"?D1; D5BC52ED =5=9<9;9 4E1 @5<1D 25B=E1D1> I19DE @5<1D @?C9D96 @14121791> 1D1C 41> @5<1D >571D96 @141 21791> 21G18 $9>I1; I1>7[email protected]?D;1>D5BC52ED@14121791>1D1C@5<1D@?C9D96=5=25>DE;D5D5C1>Sumber: Chemistry, 2001Gambar 8.2Model Atom ThomsonGambar 8.3Percobaan tetes minyak Millikanmuatan negatif
Mudah dan Aktif Belajar Fisika untuk Kelas XII202;1B5>1 @5>71BE8 71I1 25B1D *5D5C1> D5BC52ED :1DE8 ;5 21G18 =5<5G1D9C52E18 <E21>7 ;539< @141 @5<1D @?C9D96 9 C9>9 D5D5C1> =9>I1;49C9>1B945>71> C9>1B. [email protected] D5D5C1> D5BC52ED 25B=E1D1> >571D96 &<58;1B5>1@5<1DD5BC52ED25<E=4925B9=E1D1>D5D5C1>=9>I1;D5BC52EDD5BEC25B75B1;;5 21G18)5<19> 71I1 25B1D @141 D5D5C1> =9>I1; D5BC52ED 25;5B:1 :E71 71I1)D?;5C 41> 71I1 B389=545C 9>71D ;5=21<9 =1D5B9 D5>D1>7 6<E94149"5<1C .  !149 C531B1 =1D5=1D9C [email protected] 49DE<9C;1> C521719 25B9;ED%-* . M&<58 ;1B5>1 D5D5C1> =9>I1; 491CE=C9;1> 25B25>DE; 2?<1!,89(4((5@  [email protected] 49DE<9C;1> =5>:149%* * -* . M"5D5B1>71>% =1CC1 :5>9C =9>I1;- =1CC1 :5>9C E41B1* :1B9:1B9 D5D5C1> =9>I1;. F?<E=5 D5D5C1> =9>I1; F9C;?C9D1C E41B1-1<[email protected]> 141 71I1 )D?;5C 41> 71I1 B389=545C D5D5C1> =9>I1;[email protected]25B75B1;;521G18;1B5>171I125B1D>I1<529825C1B)525<E=D5D5C1>=9>I1;D5BC52ED[email protected]49@5<1D>571D962541@?D5>C91<491;D96;1>C589>771=E>3E<71I15<5;DB?CD1D9C;51D1C1>D1B1D5D5C1>=9>I1;41>@5<1D@?C9D96!9;1 2541 @?D5>C91< 491DEB CE1DE C11D 1;1> D5B:149 ;5C5D9=21>71> 1>D1B171I1 25B1D 71I1 B389=545C 41> 71I1 5<5;DB?CD1D9C 141<18%- ) M5>71>=5>75<9=9>1C9;1>!,89(4((5@ 41>!,89(4((5@1;1>[email protected];1>) M*. M)*.M"5D5B1>71>) =E1D1> @1BD9;5< F9C;?C9D1C. ;[email protected]> D5D5C1> =9>I1; =541> <9CDB9;1<1= 5;[email protected]=5>>I103302(5 =5>7E;EB <1>7CE>7 25C1B>I141>. [email protected] E>DE; =5>[email protected];1> >9<19 F9C;?C9D1C03302(5 =5<1;E;1>5;[email protected]=5> [email protected]$5>EBED @5>[email protected] >41 [email protected];18 =E1D1> @1BD9;5< ) 29C1 <1>7CE>7[email protected];1> 45>71> =5>77E>1;1>!,89(4((5@ "5>41<1 I1>7 49[email protected] E>DE; =5>77E>1;1>!,89(4((5@ 141<18 @1>:1>7 :1B9:1B9 *41B9 D5D5C1> =9>I1; D941; [email protected] 49E;EB <1>7CE>7 '1>:1>7 :1B9:1B9 D5D5C1>=9>I1; [email protected] 49;5D18E9 45>71> =5>77E>1;1>!,89(4((5@ FSFAmgGambar 8.4Gaya berat, gaya Archimedes, dangaya stokes bekerja pada tetesanminyak pada percobaan Millikan.Gambar 8.5Tetesan minyak berada dalamkesetimbangan karena adanyagaya berat, gaya Archimedes, dangaya elektrostatis.FelektrostatisFAmgTugas Anda 8.1Dengan menggunakan logika danpemahaman Anda tentang konsepgerak lurus, apakah Anda dapatmenduga bagaimana Millikanmengukur kecepatan (v) daritetesan minyak tersebut? Jelaskandengan alasan-alasan ilmiahmenurut pendapat Anda.
Fisika Atom203*%-M*.*%-.M )E2CD9DEC9;1>!,89(4((5@ ;5!,89(4((5C589>771[email protected];1>)%-.. M &<58 ;1B5>1-%!,89(4((5@  [email protected] 49DE<9C;1> =5>:149)%..  M )5D5<18 =5>7E<1>7 5;[email protected]=5> D5BC52ED [email protected] ;1<903302(5=5>[email protected];1> ;[email protected]<1> C521719 25B9;ED  5C1B>I1 =E1D1> D5D5C1> =9>I1; D941; @5B>18 25B>9<19 <5298 ;539<41B9   P M   $E1D1> D5D5C1>>I1 C5<1<E ;5<[email protected]> 2E<1D 41B9    P M 1B9 ;[email protected]<1> 9>9 [email protected];1> 81C9< 218G1 =E1D1>  5<5;DB?>141<18   P M  P M 41> =1CC1>I1 141<18  P  ;7%%  P         P  M ;74.Model Atom Rutherford*5?B9 1D?= *8?=C?> @141   49E:9 ?<58 C5?B1>7 69C9;1G1> 1C1< >77B9C85,9:";:/,8-68+ 1=5>7E:9;525>1B1>D5?B9*8?=C?>45>71>=5<1;E;1>@5B3?211>=5>77E>1;1>@1BD9;5<1<61I1>749D5=21;;1>@141C52E18 ;[email protected]>7 <?71= 5=1C I1>7 C1>71D [email protected] '1BD9;5< 1<61 141<18 @1BD9;5<I1>7 [email protected]>31B;1> ?<58 E>CEB B149?1;D96 25B=E1D1> <9CDB9; @?C9D96 I1>725C1B>I14E1;1<9=E1D1>5<5;DB?>41>=1CC1>I1[email protected];1<9=1CC1@B?D?>);5=1 @5B3?211> (ED85B6?B4[email protected] >41 <981D @141(4)(8sumber partikel alfabeberapa partikelalfa dipantulkan kembalikeping tipis emaspancaranalfasebagian partikelalfa dibelokkansebagian partikel alfamenembus keping logamlayar detektorGambar 8.6Percobaan RutherfordTo k o hErnest Rutherford(1871–1937)Ernest Rutherford lahir di NewZealand pada 1871. Ia mendapatbeasiswa di Universitas Cambridge,Inggris pada 1894. Di sana, ia mulaimelakukan penelitian tentang radiasielektromagnetik, tetapi kemudianperhatiannya beralih ke sinar-X danradioaktivitas. Ia menunjukkan bahwaada perbedaan tipe radioaktivitas,yang ia namakan radiasi alfa, beta, dangamma. Ia mendapat hadiah Nobeluntuk bidang kimia pada 1908. Pada1911, Rutherford menjadi seorangprofesor di Universitas Manchester, iamenemukan bahwa hampir seluruhmassa atom berkumpul di inti atom.Sumber:Science Encyclopedia, 1998
Mudah dan Aktif Belajar Fisika untuk Kelas XII204partikel alfaintiatommenembusdibelokkandipantulkan";:/,8-68+ =5=9<9;9 1CE=C9 218G1 :9;1 D5?B9 1D?= *8?=C?> 25>1BC5<EBE8 @1BD9;5< 1<61 45>71> 5>5B79 I1>7 25C1B 81BEC =5>5=2EC <EBEC;[email protected]>7 [email protected] 5=1C D5BC52ED ;1B5>1 1D?=1D?= ;[email protected]>7 <?71= 5=1C >5DB1<D941; =5>781<1>79 @1BD9;5< 1<61 I1>7 25B=E1D1> <9CDB9; @?C9D96 )5D5<1849<1;E;1> [email protected] ;1<9 @5B3?211> [email protected]<;1> 218G1 C521791> 25C1B@1BD9;5< 1<61 =5>5=2EC ;[email protected]>7 <?71= [email protected] <EBEC =5>75>19 <1I1B;1>[email protected] [email protected] @1BD9;5< 1<61 I1>7 <19>>I1 4925<?;;1> 218;1> 141 I1>7[email protected]>DE<;1>)[email protected]CE4ED@5=25<?;1>41>@5=1>DE<1>C9>1B1<61D5BC52ED49E;EB 45>71> D5<9D9 ?<58";:/,8-68+1;D1 9>9 ;5=E491> 491>1<9C9C ?<58";:/,8-68+ C521719 25B9;ED5B41C1B;1>E;E=?E<?=2@1BD9;5<1<61I1>725B=E1D1>@?C9D9681>I11;1> 4925<?;;1> 1D1E [email protected]>DE<;1> ?<58 CE1DE =E1D1> C5:5>9C I19DE=E1D1>@?C9D96BD9>I141<1=1D?=<?71=5=1C81BEC141=E1D1><9CDB9;@?C9D96 41> D941; D5BC521B 49 C5<EBE8 1D?= =5<19>;1> [email protected] 49 CE1DE[email protected] C589>771 =5>?<1; @1BD9;5< 1<61 D1C 41C1B 61;D1 9>9";:/,8-68+25B;[email protected]<1> C521719 25B9;ED1 $E1D1><9CDB9;1D?=41>C521791>25C1B=1CC11D?=[email protected]49CE1DED9D9; I1>7 49C52ED ?<58";:/,8-68+ C521719 9>D9 1D?= >D9 1D?= 9>9[email protected];1> CE1DE 415B18 I1>7 C1>71D ;539< 45>71> 491=5D5B C5;9D1BM =2 '141:1B1;I1>7B5<1D96:1E841B99>D91D?=D5BC52ED@1BD9;5<25B=E1D1>>571D96 1D1E 5<5;DB?> 25B541B =5>75<9<9>79 9>D9 $E1D1> <9CDB9;@?C9D96I1>7[email protected]499>D91D?=>9<19>I1C1=125C1B45>71>:E=<18=E1D1><9CDB9; >571D96 41B9 5<5;DB?>5<5;DB?> I1>7 =5>75<9<9>79>I1$5C;[email protected]> <5298 219; [email protected] D5?B9 !! *8?=C?> >1=E> D5?B9 1D?=(ED85B6?B4 =1C98 =5>[email protected]> ;5<5=181> "5<5=181> D5?B9 1D?=(ED85B6?B4 141<18 C521719 25B9;ED  *5?B9 1D?= (ED85B6?B4 D941; [email protected] =5>:5<1C;1> [email protected];DBE= 3181I1I1>7 [email protected]>31B;1> ?<58 1D?= 894B?75> ;5D9;1 71C 894B?75> D5BC52ED[email protected]>1C;1> 1D1E 49=1CE;;1> ;5 41<1= D12E>7 41> 4925B9 2541@?D5>C91< <9CDB9; I1>7 D9>779 1>D1B1 E:E>7E:E>7 D12E>7 D5BC52ED  *5?B9 1D?= (ED85B6?B4 D941; [email protected] =5>:5<1C;1> ;5CD129<1> 1D?=5B41C1B;1> E;E= ?E<?=2 5<5;DB?> I1>7 25B9>D5B1;C9 45>71>9>D91D?=1;1>=5>71<1=971I1?E<?=2I1>7:E7125B6E>7C9C52171971I1 C5>[email protected]< ;921D>I1 5<5;DB?> =5>71<1=9 @[email protected]>@[email protected]> C5>[email protected]< $5>EBED D5?B9 75<?=21>7 5<5;DB?=17>5D9;I1>749;5=E;1;1>?<58(>=,33:9;1=E1D1>5<5;DB?>=5>71<1=9@[email protected]> =E1D1> D5BC52ED 1;1> =5=1>31B;1> 75<?=21>75<5;DB?=17>5D9; !9;1 45=9;91> 5>5B79 5<5;DB?> 25B;EB1>7 41>1;89B>I1 1;1> :1DE8 D5BD1B9; ;5 9>D9 1D?=5.Spektrum Atom Hidrogen)E1DE71CI1>749=1CE;;1>;541<1=D12E>741>;54E1E:E>7D12E>7D5BC52ED 4925B9 2541 @?D5>C91< <9CDB9; I1>7 D9>779 1;1> =5=1>31B;1>3181I1 "5D9;1 71C 894B?75> 49=1CE;;1> 41<1= D12E>7 @5<E3ED1> 71C;5=E491>49<1<E9?<58C9>1B;1D?45=1;171C894B?75>1;1>=5=1>31B;1>3181I1 181I1 9>9 ;5=E491> 491>1<9C9C ?<58+(#,*'%,* I19DE C52E181<1D E>DE; =5<981D 41> =5=?DB5D [email protected];DBE= 3181I1 C5;1<97EC =5>7E;EB@1>:1>7 75<?=21>7>I1 5B9;ED 9>9 141<18 [email protected];DBE= 3181I1 @141 415B18[email protected]; I1>7 [email protected]>31B;1> ?<58 71C 894B?75>inti atomelektronGambar 8.7Skema penyimpangan sinar alfa.Gambar 8.8Model atom Rutherford
Fisika Atom205)5?B1>7 7EBE C5;?<18 =5>5>718 25B;521>7C11> )G54916/(55,9(34,8 =5>31D1D 218G1 ;5<[email protected]?; @1>:1>7 75<?=21>7 [email protected];DBE= 71B9C@1>31B 894B?75> 41<1= 415B18 [email protected]; [email protected] 493?3?;;1> C531B1 [email protected]45>71> BE=EC C521719 25B9;ED&#&M Keterangan:& 29<1>71> I1>7 25B>9<19 =E<19 41B9 #;?>CD1>D1 >= @1>:1>7 75<?=21>7 >=!,89(4((5@  49;5>1< C521719 BE=EC 1<=5B 41> 45B5D1> 71B9C[email protected];DBE= I1>7 3?3?; 45>71> @5BC1=11> D5BC52ED 49>1=1;1> 45B5D1<=5B"?+),8. ;5=E491> =5>5=E;1> BE=EC [email protected] @141 E>CEB 1<;1<9#9 %1 " 41> C 5B5D 1<=5B E>DE; [email protected];DBE= 894B?75> 49DE<9C41<1=29<1>71> 75<?=21>7. 9<1>71> 75<?=21>7 E>DE; 45B5D 1<=5B45B5D 3181I1[email protected]; 141<18 45>71>  &&M Keterangan:;?>CD1>D1(I425B7  P ='1>:1>7 75<?=21>7 @141 45B5D [email protected];DBE= 1D?= 894B?75> [email protected]<;1>45>71> @5BC1=11> C521719 25B9;ED  5B5D #I=1> 45B5D E<DB1 E>7E 45>71>  &&  5B5D 1<=5B 45B5D 3181I1 [email protected]; 45>71> &&  5B5D '1C385> 45B5D 9>6B1 =5B18  45>71>&& 5B5D B13;5DD 45B5D 9>6B1 =5B18  45>71>&& 5B5D '6E>4 45B5D 9>6B1 =5B18  45>71>&&warnafrekuensi (Hz)merahbiruungu4 × 10145 × 10146 × 10147 × 10148 × 1014Gambar 8.9Spektrum hidrogen pada daerahtampakTantanganuntuk AndaDiskusikanlah bersama teman Anda,apakah Anda dan teman Anda dapatmenduga mengapa dalameksperimennya Rutherfordmenggunakan sinar  dan lempengemas?Tantanganuntuk AndaHitunglah panjang gelombangterpendek dan terpanjang untukderet Balmer, deret Lyman, deretPascha, deret Bracket, dan deretPfund.Sumber:Konsep Fisika Modern, 1983
Mudah dan Aktif Belajar Fisika untuk Kelas XII206'14145B5D#I=1>:9;1;?>CD1>D1(I425B7  P  =89DE>7@1>:1>775<?=21>71[email protected]>:1>741>2[email protected]>45;!1G12+>DE;45B5D#I=1>25B<1;E@5BC1=11>C52171925B9;ED 45>71>   &&1'1>:1>775<?=21>7[email protected]>:1>74981C9<;1>E>DE;&      =     =  P M=2'1>:1>775<?=21>7[email protected]>45;4981C9<;1>E>DE;&K   =   =K =Contoh 8.16.Model Atom Bohr)5D5<18";:/,8-68+=5>75=E;1;1>218G1=1CC141>=E1D1>@?C9D961D?= [email protected]> @141 CE1DE 415B18 ;539< 49 @EC1D 1D?= 69C9;1G1>1C1<5>=1B;0,396/8 @141   =5>75=E;1;1> 218G1 CDBE;DEB 1D?=[email protected] 45>71> C9CD5= D1D1 CEBI1 >D9 1D?= 25B141 49 @EC1D C9CD5= 1D?=41>5<5;DB?>25B141@141<9>D1C1>D5BD5>DEI1>749C52ED;E<9D1D?=+>DE;=5>7E1D;1>D5?B91D?=I1>749ECE<;1>>I16/8=5>IECE>4E1@?CDE<1D41<9< D5>D1>7 1D?=  '?CDE<1D @5BD1=11<1=CE1DEC9CD5=1D?=5<5;DB?>D941;=5=1>31B;1>B1491C9;5D9;191 =5>7?B29D 9>D9 1D?= #9>D1C1><9>D1C1> 5<5;DB?> =5>7?B29D D1>@1=5=1>31B;1> B1491C9 49>1=1;1> <9>D1C1> CD1C9?>5B 1D1E ?B29D CD1C9?>5B'?CDE<1D 9>9 25B<1G1>1> 45>71> D5?B9 5<5;DB?=17>5D9; ;<1C9;  '?CDE<1D ;54E1'5=1>31B1>41>@5>[email protected]>75<?=21>75<5;DB?=17>5D9;41<1=CE1DE1D?= 25B8E2E>71> 45>71> DB1>C9C9 5<5;DB?> 41B9 4E1 <9>D1C1> CD1C9?>5B+>DE; C545B81>1>I1 @5B81D9;1>(4)(8  $?45< 1D?= ?8BE>DE; 1D?= 894B?75> [email protected]<981D;1> 218G1 C52E18 5<5;DB?> =5>79D1B9C52E18 9>D9 1D?= 25B=E1D1> @?C9D96 !1B9:1B9 ?B29D <9>7;1B1>>I1*41>5<5;DB?> 25B=1CC1% 25B75B1; 45>71> <1:E <9>51B [email protected]. 1I1 D1B9;?E<?=2 [email protected]> =5=25B9;1> @[email protected]> C5>[email protected]< C589>7713?E<?=2C5>[email protected]<))%. %.****&<58 ;1B5>1 E>DE; 1D?= 894B?75>  @5BC1=11> D5BC52ED =5>:149%.%.***>5B79;9>5D9;5<5;DB?>141<18&<58;1B5>1# %.%.#*=1;1#*M Gambar 8.10Model atom Bohr (Z = 1) untukhidrogenmvFrintielektron+Ze
Fisika Atom207[email protected]> 5>5B79 @?D5>C91< 5<5;DB?> 141<18 5>5B79 @?D5>C91< ?E<?=2 I1>725C1B>I1 C521719 25B9;ED(*M C589>771 5>5B79 D?D1< I1>7 49=9<9;9 ?<58 5<5;DB?> 141<18#(** *M "5D5B1>71>P M  %= =E1D1> <9CDB9; * :1B9:1B9 <9>D1C1> =a.Jari-Jari Lintasan Stasioner9C9;1 ;<1C9; =5B1=1<;1> 218G1 C52E18 =E1D1> 5<5;DB9; I1>7=5>71<1=9@[email protected]>[email protected]5<5;DB?>I1>7=5>7?B29D41<1==?45<1D?=81BEC =5B1491C9;1> 5>5B79 5<5;DB?=17>5D9; C531B1 ;?>D9>E "5D9;1 5>5B799>9 [email protected]>31B;1> 5>5B79 D?D1< 5<5;DB?> =5>EBE> 41> 5<5;DB?> 1;1>25B75B1; [email protected]< =5>E:E 9>D9 1D?= C589>771 1D?= 1;89B>I1 :1DE8 ;5 9>D91D?= +>DE; =5>71D1C9 ;5CE<9D1> 9>96/8 =5>7ECE<;1> 7171C1> ?B29DCD1C9?>5B@?CDE<1D@5BD1=11B9C9>96/8=5>[email protected]<;1>218G141<1=;51411> 9>9 =?=5>DE= CE4ED ?B29D1< 5<5;DB?> 25B>9<19 ;5<[email protected]> 41B981B71 1D1E 49DE<9C 45>71>M ,5;D?B =?=5>DE= CE4ED 41<1= 69C9;1 ;<1C9; 494569>9C9;1> C521719+>DE;=?=5>DE=CE4ED5<5;DB?>I1>725B541B=5>75<9<9>799>D9 1D?=* D571; <EBEC( C589>771 @5BC1=11> =?=5>DE= CE4ED [email protected]49C545B81>1;1> =5>:149*(%.* !149 =5>EBED @?CDE<1D ?8B=?=5>DE= CE4ED 141<18%.* &M "5D5B1>71>&29<1>71>2E<1D&   5>71> =5=1CE;;1> 81B71. @141!,89(4((5@  ;5 41<1=!,89(4((5@  [email protected]?<58#* %.* &%%** &*%**%M !9;1% [email protected];1>*&To k o hNiels Bohr(1885–1962)Pada awal 1900-an, struktur atommenjadi lebih jelas, namun hukumFisika pada saat itu tidak dapatmenjelaskan mengapa elektrontidak cepat menghasilkan spiralmenuju inti. Niels Bohr, muridRutherford, membantu memecah-kan misteri itu dengan menunjukkanbahwa elektron-elektron hanyadiberi energi tertentu. Iamenemukan bahwa elektron-elektron yang memiliki energiterendah mengorbit paling dekat keinti, dan elektron dengan energitinggi mengorbit paling jauh. Pada1913, Niels Bohr juga menjelaskanhubungan antara materi dan cahaya.Ia menunjukkan bahwa jika elektronberpindah dari satu tingkat energike tingkat energi lainnya, elektron-elektron itu mengeluarkan ataumenyerap paket radiasi dalambentuk cahaya. Paket ini dinamakanfoton.Sumber:Jendela Iptek, 1997
Mudah dan Aktif Belajar Fisika untuk Kelas XII2081B9!,89(4((5@  [email protected] [email protected]?<58 :1B9:1B9 5<5;DB?> I1>7[email protected];5>1>;1> E>DE; [email protected] <9>D1C1> 5C1B1>? 494569>9C9;1> C521719:1B9:1B9?8B+>DE;1D?=894B?75>6/8=5>[email protected];1>81B71?   >= 1D1E   1>7CDB?= 5B41C1B;1> D5?B9 1D?= ?8B 9>9 :1B9:1B9 ?B29D5<5;DB?>81>I1[email protected]25B>9<19??? ? ?41>C5D5BEC>I1!1B9:1B9 1D?= =5>EBED D5?B9 9>9 D941; @5B>18 25B>9<19 ? 1D1E ?b.Energi Elektron Berdasarkan Teori Bohr5C1B 5>5B79 5<5;DB?> [email protected] [email protected]?<58 45>71> =5>7712E>7;1>!,89(4((5@ 41>!,89(4((5@  I19DE&%&M '5BC1=11> 9>9 =5>I1D1;1> 218G1 5>5B79 5<5;DB?> D5B;E1>D9C1C9BD9>I1 81>I1 >9<19>9<19 5>5B79 D5BD5>DE I1>7 [email protected];5>1>;1> !9;1 41B9@5BC1=11> D5BC52ED C5=E1 >9<19 [email protected]>I1 4989DE>7 [email protected] @5BC1=11>I1>7 <5298 C545B81>1 [email protected] 25B9;ED 5,&&M '141D9>7;1DD5B5>418>9<19& 5>5B795<5;DB?>C525C1BM 5,41> 25B541B @141 :1B9:1B9 ?8B   L *9>7;1D 5>5B79 5<5;DB?> @141;51411> I1>7 <5298 D9>779 49DE>:E;;1> @141(4)(8 '1415<5;DB?>41>9>D91D?=I1>7[email protected]C1>71D:1E8I19DEE>DE;&[email protected]?<58 !9;15<5;DB?>9DE25BDB1>C9C91D1E[email protected]>41841B9<9>D1C1> <E1B ;5 <9>D1C1> 41<1= C589>771 91 25B141 @141 ?B29D D5BD5>DE41<1= <9>D1C1>& D5BD5>DE 5<5;DB?> 1;1> =5=9<9;9 81B71 5>5B79 <5298;539< [email protected] ;51411> C5=E<1    '141 ;51411> D5BC52ED 1;1>[email protected]>31B;1> 5>5B79 C525C1B> )521<9;>I1 :9;1 5<5;DB?> @141 ;51411>& 5<5;DB?>>I1 [email protected] 492521C;1> 41B9 9;1D1> 9>D9 45>71> =5=25B9>I15>5B79 C525C1B> >5B79 9>9 49;5>1< 45>71> 5>5B79 9;1D ;51411>& !9;15>5B79 I1>7 492521C;1> =5<52989 5>5B79 9;1D ;5<52981> 5>5B79 4[email protected]=E>3E< C521719 5>5B79 ;9>5D9; 5<5;DB?> I1>7 ;9>9 D5<18 2521C 41> D941;D5B9;1D <179 @141 9>D9 1D?=?8B[email protected]?CDE<1D;1>218G1=5C;[email protected]>5<5;DB?>D941;=5=1>31B;1>B1491C9 5<5;DB?=17>5D9; ;5D9;1 25B541B @141 CE1DE D9>7;1D D5BD5>DE5<5;DB?> [email protected] [email protected]>418 41B9 CE1DE ;51411> 5>5B79 D5BD5>DE ;5;51411>5>5B79 I1>7 <19> )5<9C98 5>5B79 1>D1B1 4E1 ;51411> D5BC52ED =E>3E<C521719 C52E18 B1491C9 75<?=21>7 5<5;DB?=17>5D9; 25B5>5B79  BD9>I1:9;15<5;DB?>[email protected]>41841B9;51411>1G1<;5;51411>1;89B1;1>D5B:149@1>31B1> 1D1E @5>[email protected]> B1491C9 5<5;DB?=17>5D9; B5;E5>C9 75<?=21>75<5;DB?=17>5D9; I1>7 [email protected] 1D1E [email protected]>31B;1> 41B9 4E1 ;51411>CD1C9?>5B 141<18!  M "5D5B1>71>! 5>5B79 =E<1=E<1 !;?>CD1>D1'<1>3; P M !C 5>5B79 1;89B ! 6B5;E5>C9 B1491C9 75<?=21>7 5<5;DB?=17>5D9; JGambar 8.11Tingkat-tingkat energi atomhidrogen.nn = 4n = 3n = 2E = –0,8 eVE = –1,5 eVE = –3,4 eVn = 1E = –13,6 eVE = 0Pembahasan SoalDalam model atom Bohr, energiyang dibutuhkan oleh elektronhidrogen untuk pindah dari orbitdengan bilangan kuantum 1 ke 3adalah ....a.1,50 eVb.1,90 eVc.2,35 eVd.12,10 eVe.13,60 eVUMPTN 1992Pembahasan:Energi yang dibutuhkanE = E3E1Diketahui bahwa energi dasar = E1= –13,6 eVMaks,E3 = 12En = 213, 6 eV3Jadi,E= 13, 6 eV9 – (– 13,6 eV )= 12,10 eVJawaban: d
Fisika Atom2099DE>7<18;[email protected]>5>5B79;9>5D9;5>5B79@?D5>C91<41>5>5B79D?D1<5<5;DB?>@14129<1>71>;E1>DE=& 25B41C1B;1>D5?B9?8BE>DE;1D?=894B?75>(=()9;5D18E9& % P M ;7 P M !C P M *  P M =#P %= 1;[email protected]>5<5;DB?>4989DE>745>71>=5>5>DE;1>:1B9:1B9?B29D& D5B<5298418E<EI19DE* &  P M = P M ==1;1.   !C    ;7  =& %*. P = C2>5B79;9>5D9;5<5;DB?>#4981C9<;1>=5<1<E9@5BC1=11>  ;7   = C# %. #  P M !3>5B79@?D5>C91<5<5;DB?>(4981C9<;1>=5<1<E9@5BC1=11>    %=   ! =( #*4 >5B79D?D1<5<5;DB?>4981C9<;1>=5<1<E9@5BC1=11> # (  P M !M P M !M  P M !Contoh 8.2Kata Kunci• model atom Demokritus• model atom Dalton• Hukum Perbandingan Tetap• Hukum Lavoisier• model atom Thomson• tetes minyak Millikan• model atom Rutherford• model atom Bohr• jari-jari Bohr• orbit stasioner• energi elektron terkuantisasiTantanganuntuk AndaJika sebuah atom terdiri atasbeberapa atom, apakah ada gayaelektrostatik antarelektrontersebut? Kemudian, bagaimanalintasan orbit elektron tersebut?!9;1:1B9:1B95<5;DB?>I1>725B75B1;@141<9>D1C1>CD1C9?>5B*L[email protected];18;5<1:E1>5<5;DB?>D5BC52ED9;5D18E9=1CC141>=E1D1>>I1% P M ;741> P M !1G12"5<1:E1>5<5;DB?>.4981C9<;1>45>71>=5>77E>1;1>@5BC1=11># #%.#**  %=    = C ;7   =.#%*!149;5<1:E1>5<5;DB?>D5BC52ED141<18 P = CContoh 8.3)52E185<5;DB?>@1411D?=894B?75>[email protected]>41841B95>5B795;C9D1C9&;5& [email protected];186B5;E5>C9@1>31B1>6?D?>>I1(=()9;5D18E9 5,&& 5,  P M !&  P M !CContoh 8.4
Mudah dan Aktif Belajar Fisika untuk Kelas XII210B. Atom Berelektron Banyak1.Kelemahan Teori Atom Bohr"5B1>7;1 41C1B D5?B9 1D?= ?8B C525>1B>I1 =5>713E ;[email protected] =?45<1D?= (ED85B6?B4[email protected] ;5<5=181> D5?B9 1D?= ?8B I1>7 [email protected] [email protected]>1;1>C589>771 [email protected] =5>I9>7;[email protected] =9CD5B9 D5>D1>7 1D?= 141<18 C521719 25B9;ED  *5?B9 1D?= ?8B D941; [email protected] =5>:5<1C;1> C531B1 B9>39 D5>D1>7 71B9C[email protected];DBE= *5BED1=1 @5B25411> @1>:1>7 75<?=21>7 41> 9>D5>C9D1C71B9C [email protected];DBE= D5BC52ED  !E=<18 5<5;DB?> I1>7 D5B<921D 41<1= 1D?= 81>I1 C1DE 5<5;DB?>C589>771 E>DE; 1D?= 25B5<5;DB?> 21>I1; D941; [email protected] 497E>1;1><179 ?>D?8>I1 1D?= 894B?75> =5=9<9;9 C1DE 5<5;DB?> 41> 71I15<5;DB?CD1D9C I1>7 141 81>I1 71I1 D1B9;=5>1B9; 1>D1B1 9>D9 1D?=41> 5<5;DB?> [email protected]> E>DE; 1D?= I1>7 =5=9<9;9 <5298 41B9 C1DE5<5;DB?> C5<19> 71I1 D1B9;=5>1B9; =1C98 141 71I1 D?<1; 1>D1B15<5;DB?> I1>7 C1DE 41> 5<5;DB?> I1>7 <19>6/8=5>71219;1> 71I1D?<1; 9>9  D?=1D?= 25B712E>7 =5=25>DE; J1D 1D1E =1D5B9 >D5B1;C9 1>D1B1D?= =5>I5212;1> C961DC961D I1>7 25B2541 1>D1B1 E>CEB I1>7 C1DE41>E>CEBI1>7<19>'5>I5212@5B25411>C961DC961DD5BC52EDD5B>I1D1D941; [email protected] 49D5B1>7;1> ?<58 D5?B9 1D?= ?8BB5;E5>C9@1>31B1>6?D?>4981C9<;1>45>71>=5>789DE>741>D5B<5298418E<E  5,5,  5,   ! &   5,5,   5,   !& 1       !   !  !C    J $5>[email protected]$/64965 29C1 =5>[email protected]<;1> 218G15<5;DB?>[email protected];1>21791>41B91D?= !5<1C;1> ;5<5=181>;5<5=181> 41<1= D5?B9 1D?=(ED85B6?B4 9DE>7 @1>:1>7 75<?=21>7 6?D?> [email protected]>45; 41>[email protected]>:1>741B945B5D1<=5B1D?=894B?75>9DE>7@1>:1>775<?=21>76?D?>I1>7[email protected]>31B;1>1;921D DB1>C9C9 41B9&;5& DB1>C9C9;5 [email protected];1>45B5D'1C385>1B9 29<1>71> ;E1>DE= ;5 [email protected];18 DB1>C9C9 I1>7=5>781C9<;1>@1>:1>775<?=21>7  L41B945B5D#I=1>1B929<1>71>;E1>DE=;[email protected];18DB1>C9C9I1>7=5>781C9<;1>@1>:1>775<?=21>7 L41B945B5D1<=5B 9DE>7;[email protected]>5>5B79;9>5D9;5>5B79@?D5>C91<41>5>5B79D?D1<5<5;DB?>@141?B29D;5?8BE>DE;1D?=894B?75> *5>DE;1><18@1>:1>775<?=21>76?D?>I1>7[email protected]1D?=894B?75>:9;15<5;DB?>25B5;C9D1C941B9& ;5D9>7;1D&  <5;DB?>1D?=894B?75>[email protected]25B5;C9D1C9;5D9>7;1D5>5B79I1>7<5298D9>7791;921D@5>5=21;1>*5>DE;1>6B5;E5>C96?D?>3181I1I1>7[email protected]?<581D?=894B?75>171B5<5;DB?>25B5;C9D1C941B9& ;5D9>7;1D&   D?= 894B?75> 49D5=21; 45>71> 5<5;DB?> I1>7=5=9<9;95>5B79 5,*5>DE;1>@1>:1>775<?=21>7B1491C9I1>7[email protected]>31B;1>71C894B?75>Tes Kompetensi Subbab A,81(2(53(/7(+();2;3(:0/(5
Fisika Atom211 $?45<1D?=?8B=5<1>771B@B9>[email protected];5D941;@1CD91>I1>749;5=E;1;1>?<58,09,5),8.1<1= =5>71D1C9 ;5;EB1>71> D5BC52ED [email protected] 69C9;1G1> [email protected]6;09+,86.30,&63-.(5.!(;308=05#*/86+05.,841>&(85,8,09,5),8. [email protected];5>1<;1> =5;1>9;1 75<?=21>7 1D1E =5;1>9;1;E1>DE= E>DE; =5>771=21B;1> ;51411> 5>5B79 5<5;DB?> 41<1=  1D?=2.Bilangan Kuantum<5;DB?>5<5;DB?> 25B75B1; =5>75<9<9>79 9>D9 41> 49;5<[email protected]?;;1>;541<1= ;E<9D;E<9D $5>EBED D5?B9 1D?= ?8B E>DE; =5>I1D1;1> @?C9C95<5;DB?>81>I1[email protected]<E;1>C1DE!$&&#-&,-%I19DE29<1>71>;E1>DE=ED1=1 5B2541 45>71> D5?B9 1D?= =5;1>9;1 ;E1>DE= @141 D5?B9 9>95<5;DB?>41<1=CE1DE1D?=4971=21B;1>41<1=[email protected]29<1>71>;E1>DE=I19DE  29<1>71> ;E1>DE= ED1=1 C9=2?<&  29<1>71> ;E1>DE= ?B29D1< C9=2?<  29<1>71> ;E1>DE= =17>5D9; C9=2?<% 29<1>71> ;E1>DE= [email protected]> C9=2?<%Ca.Bilangan Kuantum Utama (n)9<1>71> ;E1>DE= ED1=1 & =5>I1D1;1> 25C1B 5>5B79 D?D1< 41<1=;E<9D 1D?= 1< 9>9 25B1BD9 E>DE; =5>75<E1B;1> 5<5;DB?> 41B9 ?B29D>I1[email protected]<E;1> C5:E=<18 5>5B79 >5B79 D5B5>418 49=E<19 41B9 ;E<9D";5=E491> ;E<9D # $ % & 41> C5D5BEC>I1 D?= 894B?75> =5=9<9;95>5B79 D?D1< C5CE19 45>71> @5BC1=11> 5,&&M +>DE; 9?> 5 I1>7 81>I1 =5=9<9;9 C52E18 5<5;DB?> 45>71>0 25C1B 5>5B79 D?D1< 5<5;DB?>>I1 141<18 5,5,&0&&M >5B79 D?D1< 5<5;DB?> 41<1= 1D?= 141<18 ;?>CD1> 41>,*#-&,!++!?<58 29<1>71> ;E1>DE=& 9<1>71> ;E1>DE= ED1=1 =5=9<9;9 >9<19     C541>7;1> >1=1 ;E<9D C5CE19 45>71> 25C1B >9<19& I19DEE>DE;& >1=1;E<9D"E>DE;& >1=1;E<9D#E>DE;& >1=1;E<9D$E>DE;&>1=1;E<9D%41>C5D5BEC>I11>I1;>I1 5<5;DB?> =1;C9=1< I1>7 [email protected] =5>79C9 [email protected] ;E<9D [email protected]49DE<9C;1> 45>71> BE=EC& 45>71>&   M $9C1<>I1E>DE;;E<9D#29<1>71>;E1>DE=ED1=1>I1& !14921>I1;>I15<5;DB?>=1;C9=1<I1>7[email protected]=5>79C9;E<9D#141<18  5<5;DB?>
Mudah dan Aktif Belajar Fisika untuk Kelas XII212Gambar 8.12Bentuk-bentuk orbital(a) Orbital s merupakan sebuah bola;(b) Orbital p memiliki bentukseperti balon yang terpilin dua;(c) Orbital d memiliki bentukseperti empat buah balon yangterpilin.D?==5=9<9;9 5<5;DB?>*5>DE;1>141[email protected];E<9D41>[email protected]5<5;DB?>@141[email protected];E<9D(=()5B41C1B;1>;?>697EB1C95<5;DB?>BE=EC &[email protected];1>;E<9D"=5=9<9;9 5<5;DB?>;E<9D#=5=9<9;95<5;DB?>41>5<5;DB?>=5>[email protected];E<9DC589>771 ' !149@1411D?='[email protected] ;E<9D"M#M$Contoh 8.5b.Bilangan Kuantum Orbital ()>41D5<18=5>75D18E9218G15<5;DB?>25B?D1C9=5>79D1B99>D91D?=@141 ?B29D>I1 9<1>71> ;E1>DE= ?B29D1< =5>I1D1;1> =?=5>DE= CE4ED5<5;DB?> I1>7 25B?D1C9 [email protected] @?B?C 9>D9 1D?= $5<1<E9 @5BC1=11> *'!&* 25C1B =?=5>DE= CE4ED 5<5;DB?> 141<18 M 45>71>  P M !C%9<19 25B71>DE>7 @141 >9<19 29<1>71> ;E1>DE= ED1=1& I19DE =E<1941B9 >?< [email protected] 45>71> & M  1D1E 49>I1D1;1> C521719    &M )[email protected] ?B29D1< =5=9<9;9 >1=1 41> 25>DE; D5BD5>DE %1=1 ?B29D1< I1>749>I1D1;1> ?<58 >9<19141<18   49>1=1;1> CE2;E<9D++ *(   49>1=1;1> CE2;E<9D((*!&!($   49>1=1;1> CE2;E<9D!-+   49>1=1;1> CE2;E<9D-&%&,$(4)(8  [email protected]<981D;1> 25>DE; [email protected] ?B29D1< 9<1>71> ;E1>DE=?B29D1< :E71 C5B9>7 49C52ED 45>71> 29<1>71> ;E1>DE= 1J9=ED321*5>DE;1>=?=5>DE=CE4ED5<5;DB?>E>DE; P M !C(=()5>71>=5>77E>1;1>!,89(4((5@ =1;1   !C P M !CContoh 8.6Atom adalah partikel yang sangatkecil sehingga tidak dapat diamatidengan cahaya tampak.Menggambarkan struktur atommerupakan pekerjaan yang sangatmenarik. Untuk mempelajari atom,para ahli mempelajarinya dari cahayayang diesensikan oleh atom-atomdari unsur murni. Spektrum cahayatersebut mengandung informasitentang struktur, atom, energiionisasi, dan lain-lain.Atom are tiny, and not observableusing visible light. Trying to figure outthe structure of atoms is a facinatingtask. A major source of informationabout atoms comes from a study ofthe light emitted by the atoms of apure material. The spectrum of thelight give information about atomstructure, ionization energy, etc.Informasiuntuk AndaInformation for You
Fisika Atom213$(),3 $?=5>DE=)E4ED&B29D1<<5;DB?>        %1=1+(! CE2;E<9D"51411> =?=5>DE= CE4ED ?B29D 5<5;DB?> 49>1=1;1> 45>71> CE2;E<9DI19DE CE2;E<9D+ E>DE; ;51411>  CE2;E<9D(E>DE;;51411> CE2;E<9DE>DE;;51411>  41> C5D5BEC>I1 '5B81D9;1>$(),3 5C1B>I1=?=5>DE=CE4ED?B29D1<5<5;DB?>E>DE;45B5D@5BD1=1I1>725B1C1< 41B9 [email protected];DBE= I19DE 45B5D++ *(((*!&!($!-+ 41>-&%&,$ 141<18)E2;E<9D+  25C1B =?=5>DE= CE4ED>I1)E2;E<9D(  25C1B =?=5>DE= CE4ED>I1 )E2;E<9D  25C1B =?=5>DE= CE4ED>I1)E2;E<9D  25C1B =?=5>DE= CE4ED>I112E>71> 29<1>71> ;E1>DE= ED1=1 & 45>71> 29<1>71> ;E1>DE=?B29D1<  291C1>I1 497E>1;1> E>DE; =5>I1D1;1> ;51411> 5<5;DB?>41<1= CE1DE 1D?= $9C1<>I1 + =5>I1D1;1> ;51411> 5<5;DB?> 45>71>&  C541>7;1> =5>I1D1;1>;51411>5<5;DB?>45>71>& 41>   45=9;91> C5D5BEC>I11>I1;>I1 5<5;DB?> =1;C9=E= 41<1= CE2;E<9D+ 141<18  5<5;DB?>41<1=CE2;E<9D(141<185<5;DB?>CE2;E<9D141<18 5<5;DB?>CE2;E<9D 141<18  5<5;DB?> 41> C5D5BEC>I1 [email protected]$(),3 c.Bilangan Kuantum Magnetik (m)&<58 ;1B5>1 5<5;DB?> 25B=E1D1> <9CDB9; 75B1; 5<5;DB?> [email protected][email protected]>71BE89 ?<58 =541> =17>5D9; ;921D>I1 5<5;DB?> I1>7 25B75B1;49 41<1= ?B29D>I1 =5=9<9;9 =?=5> =17>5D9; $?=5> =17>5D9; 41B95<5;DB?> 9>9 49>I1D1;1> 45>71> 29<1>71> ;E1>DE= =17>5D9; =9<1>71> ;E1>DE= =17>5D9; =5>I1D1;1> 1B18 =?=5>DE= CE4ED5<5;DB?>!9;1[email protected];1>1B18=541>=17>5D9;<E1BC5:1:1B45>71>CE=2E0 ;5=E>7;9>1> 41<1= 1B180 49>I1D1;1> 45>71> @5BC1=11>0%M 9<1>71> ;E1>DE= =17>5D9; = =5=9<9;9 >9<19 1>D1B1 M41> $9C1<>I1E>DE; 81B71= 1D1E[email protected] ?B29D1<E>DE; 81B71=M  41> 1D1E[email protected] ?B29D1<E>DE; 81B71=M M    1D1E[email protected]?B29D1<5C1BJ[email protected] 49<981D @141(4)(8 $(),3 1>I1;<5;DB?>@141)[email protected])E2;E<9D)E2;E<9D+( 1>I1;%5     1>I1;5<5;DB?>    P21>I1;=20–2m= 2m= 1m= 0m= 1m= 2= 2LzGambar 8.13Arah dan besar momentum sudutLz untuk  = 2
Mudah dan Aktif Belajar Fisika untuk Kelas XII214'141(4)(8  [email protected]<981D;1> F5;D?BF5;D?B =?=5>DE= CE4ED45>71> 29<1>71> ;E1>DE= ?B29D1< D5BD5>DE 9<1>71> ;E1>DE= =17>5D9;:E71 =5>771=21B;1> ;535>45BE>71> ;54E4E;1> ?B29D1< 49 41<1= BE1>7[email protected] D5B<981D @141(4)(8 321Gambar 8.14Arah momentum sudut-sudut orbital s, p, dan d(a) orbital hanya memiliki 1kemungkinan arah;(b) orbital p memiliki 3kemungkinan; dan(c) orbital d memiliki 5kemungkinan.zzzZ00Z2hZ2h12ZhZ2hZ0Z0Z2hZhGambar 8.15Elektron dalam subkulit s, p, dan d.321Gambar 8.16Arah perputaran dan vektormomentum sudut S.dxydxzdyzdx2y2dx2y2spxpypz1212Z4hSpZ4hSpS$(),3 "[email protected]<1>"[email protected]9<1>71>"E1>DE=9<1>71>;E1>DE=ED1=1&   9<1>71>;E1>DE=?B29D1<   >M 9<1>71>;E1>DE==17>5D9;%MM M    9<1>71>;E1>DE=[email protected]>%C03(0?(5.07,82,5(52(5(4(6:(90*E>:E;;1><18218G1;E<9D=1;C9=E=[email protected]?<585<5;DB?>(=()"E<9D=5=9<9;929<1>71>;E1>DE=& +>DE;& >9<1929<1>71>;E1>DE=?B29D1<>I1 41> +>DE; [email protected]   P   2E18>9<19%+>DE; [email protected]   P   2E18>9<19%!E=<18 2E18>9<19%Contoh 8.7d.Bilangan Kuantum Spin (ms)9<1>71> ;E1>DE= [email protected]> %C =5>I1D1;1> 1B18 @[email protected]> 5<5;DB?>[email protected] CE=2E>I1 [email protected]> I1>7 [email protected] =5>9=2E<;1> =?=5> =17>5D9;%9<1929<1>71>;E1>DE=[email protected]>1414E1I19DE%CE>DE;1B18@ED1B1>5<5;DB?> ;5 ;1>1> 41>%C E>DE; 1B18 @ED1B1> 5<5;DB?> ;5 ;9B9$1C9>7=1C9>7 49DE<9C 45>71> >?D1C9 1B18 @1>18 ;5 1D1C 41> ;5 21G18)E2;E<9D+ =5=9<9;9 C52E18 ?B29D1< 41> @1<9>7 21>I1; 499C9 4E1 5<5;DB?>)E2;E<9D(=5=9<9;9 D971 ?B29D1< (H(I(J 41> @1<9>7 21>I1; 499C9 ?<58 P 5<5;DB?><5;DB?>41<1=CE2;E<9D+(41>[email protected]4971=21B;1>45>71> 4917B1= ?B29D1< [email protected](4)(8 5>41I1>7[email protected]=5=9<9;9=?=5>DE=CE4ED,5;D?B=?=5>DE=CE4ED I1>7 25B;19D1> 45>71> 29<1>71> ;E1>DE=+ 9>9 141<18I1>7@1>:1>7>I1 M B18 =?=5>DE= CE4ED 49D5>DE;1> ?<58 ;[email protected]?>5> F5;D?B @141 CE=2E0I19DE CE=2E D571; @141 C9CD5= ;??B49>1D D971 49=5>C9C45>71>%C1D1EM 1=21B[email protected]>41>F5;D?B=?=5>DE=CE4ED+[email protected];@141(4)(8 
Fisika Atom215+>DE; 2E18%[email protected]?<58 2E185<5;DB?>!149E>DE;2E18%[email protected]?<58P 2E185<5;DB?>(:(:(5ME>DE;& 29<1>71>;E1>DE=?B29D1<>I1  41> ME>DE;&29<1>71>;E1>DE=?B29D1<>I1   41> 41>C5D5BEC>I1*5<18 >41 ;5D18E9 218G1 29<1>71> ;E1>DE= =17>5D9; 5B1D8E2E>71>>I1 45>71> =541> =17>5D9; I1>7 49D9=2E<;1> ?<58 75B1;5<5;DB?> 21719=1>1 :9;1 1D?= 894B?75> [email protected];1> 41<1= =541>=17>5D 8?=?75> '5B81D9;1> 75B1; 5<5;DB?> 41<1= =541> =17>5D@141(4)(8  !9;1 C52E18 5<5;DB?> 25B=1CC1% 25B75B1; 41<1=?B29DI1>725B:1B9:1B9*45>71>6B5;E5>C9=?=5>DE=CE4EDI1>749=9<9;95<5;DB?> 141<18%5.*%5* C541>7;1> 1B18 =?=5>DE=>I125BCE4ED[email protected]CE=2E05C1B>I11BECI1>7D9=2E<1;921D75B1;1>5<5;DB?> 494569>9C9;1> C521719 21>I1;>I1 =E1D1> I1>7 =5>71<9B [email protected]45D9; !149 1BEC I1>7 49D9=2E<;1> 75B1;1> 5<5;DB?>)) >41:E71=5=181=9218G175B1;1>5<5;DB?>:E71=5>9=2E<;1>=541>=17>5D 9>71D =541> =17>5D 49 C5;9D1B 1BEC <9CDB9; "5D9;1 49 [email protected]5<5;DB?>21>I1;4925B9;1>=541>=17>5DI19DE=541>=17>5D41B9<E1B=1;11;1>D5B:1499>D5B1;C91>D1B14E1=17>5D49[email protected]9>9 [email protected]<9;1C9>I1141<18 [email protected] =5=25B9;1> D?BC9 I1>7 =5>I5212;1> 75B1;1> 5<5;DB?>25BE218 5C1B>I1 D?BC9 1;921D =541> =17>5D141<18PM 45>71> M "5D5B1>71>=?=5>=17>5D9;<E1C41B92941>75<5;DB?>&<58 ;1B5>1M41>  B >41 [email protected] =5>E<9C;1>*M*%%*M *1>41>571D96=5>E>:E;;1>1B18%25B<1G1>1>45>71>1B18=?=5>DE=CE4ED !149 25C1B>I1 D?BC9 I1>7 49C5212;1> ?<58 =541> =17>5D 141<18% C9>M *?BC9 9>9<18 I1>7 =5=ED1B ?B29D 5<5;DB?> C589>771 25BE218 1B18'5B81D9;1>(4)(8  I1>7 =5<E;9C;1> ?B29D?B29D 5<5;DB?> 41>@5B81D9;1> @5BE2181> 1B18 @ED1B1>>I1 E>DE; =5>75D18E9 [email protected];5=E>7;9>1>@5BE2181>75B1;1>5<5;DB?>[email protected];9D1<981D=5<1<E95>5B79=17>5D9; 41B9 @5>71BE8 75B1;1> 5<5;DB?> 41B9 =541> =17>5D <E1B5C1B 5>5B79 =17>5D =5=5>E89 @5BC1=11>3?C3?C %Gambar 8.17Gerak elektron dalam medanmagnet B.Tantanganuntuk AndaTentukan besar momentum sudutuntuk subkulit:a.f;b.g;ch.LZGambar 8.18Arah momentum sudut elektron.Lz = meZL
Mudah dan Aktif Belajar Fisika untuk Kelas XII216Gambar 8.19Terpecahnya garis spektrumakibat medan magnet.5C1B1>%49>1=1;1> @5=21>49>7 79B?=17>5D9; /*'%&,!*,!''5B81D9;1>(4)(8  1=21B D5BC52ED =5>E>:E;;1> 218G13?C%C589>771;9D1@5B?<58 %3?C%  % % %M &<58 ;1B5>1%5 =5=9<9;9 [email protected] >9<19 41> 25BC961D 49C;B9D 5>5B799>D5B1;C9 =541> =17>5D9; 9>9 :E71 =5=9<9;9 [email protected] >9<19%%)521719 3?>D?8 :9;1 29<1>71> ;E1>DE=  5>5B79 5<5;DB?> 1;1>=5>71<1=9 @5BE2181> C521719 25B9;ED"5D9;1%5   5>5B79 5<5;DB?> =5>:149D?D5<5;DB?> 1G1<M%"5D9;1%5   5>5B79 5<5;DB?> [email protected] D941; 25BE218"5D9;1%5  M  5>5B79 5<5;DB?> =5>:149D?D5<5;DB?> 1G1<%!149 D9>7;1D 5>5B79 5<5;DB?> @5318 =5>:149  21791> +>DE; 5>5B79 5<5;DB?> 1;1> @5318 =5>:149  21791> C5CE19 45>71> >9<19%9>9<18 @5>D9>7>I1 29<1>71> ;E1>DE= =17>5D9; 41<1= =5>5>DE;1> 75B1;?B29D 5<5;DB?>'5318>I1 D9>7;1DD9>7;1D 5>5B79 9>9 D5<18 491=1D9 ?<58',,4(5=5<1<E9 5;[email protected]=5>>I1 1 =5>71=1D9 [email protected];DBE= 1D?= 894B?75> ;5D9;14925B9 =541> =17>5D9; ;E1D D5B>I1D1 71B9C71B9C [email protected];DBE= I1>7491=1D9@5318 =5>:149 [email protected] 21791>'5318>I171B9C[email protected];DBE=9>9D5B>I1D11;921DDB1>C9C941B9D9>7;1D5>5B79I1>7 [email protected] 9DE [email protected] >41 @181=9 @141(4)(8  '5BE2181>;539< 5>5B79 =5=5>E89 @5BC1=11> C589>771 [email protected] =5=5>71BE89@1>:1>775<?=21>7=5<1<E9=5D?454965B5>C91C9 1;1>[email protected]?<58  D1E 45>71> =5>71=29< >9<19 =ED<1;>I1 [email protected]?<58 M 
Fisika Atom2179DE>7<18@5BE2181>@1>:1>775<?=21>76?D?>I1>7D5B:1491;921DDB1>C9C941B9 (;5+[email protected]<11D?=894B?75>[email protected];1>41<1==541>=17>5DC525C1B  *(=() M    &&M    !149@1>:1>775<?=21>7I1>7[email protected]>31B;1>141<18    P !C P = C  5, P ! 5,   P ='5BE2181>5>5B79 P M ! *  * P M !!14925B41C1B;1>!,89(4((5@ [email protected]?<58   P =P !C P = C  P M !  P M =3.Sifat Atom)961DC961D CE1DE E>CEB [email protected] 491=1D9 45>71> =5<981D CDBE;DEB1D?=>I1)ECE>1>5<5;DB?>41<1=CE1DE1D?=[email protected][email protected];19C52171941C1BE>DE; =5>75D18E9 C961DC961D 1D?= D5BD5>DE '141 C521791> E>CEB ;E<9D;E<9D 1D?= 141 I1>7 D5B9C9 @5>E8 5<5;DB?> 41> 141 I1>7 ;?C?>7"E<9DI1>7 D941; @5>E8 D5B9C9 5<5;DB?> 25B141 @141 ;E<9D @1<9>7 <E1B <5;DB?>@141 ;E<9D D5B<E1B 9>9 49>1=1;1>$#,*'&.$&+!'5>79C91> 5<5;DB?> 49=E<19 41B9 D9>7;1D 5>5B79 D5B5>418 "?>697EB1C9I1>7=1>[email protected][email protected]@141CE2;E<9DI1>7D5B9C9@5>E8!9;1CE2;E<9DD5<18D5B9C9 @5>E8 C9C1 5<5;DB?> 1;1> =5>79C9 CE2;E<9D C5<1>:ED>I1 $9C1<>I1141 C1DE 5<5;DB?> I1>7 D5B9C9 @141 CE2;E<9D D5B<E1B =1;1 5<5;DB?> 9>935>45BE>7 =E418 <[email protected] [email protected] 1D?= =5>:149 CD129< '5<[email protected]> 5<5;DB?>9>9 [email protected] D5B:149 45>71> 31B1 25B9;1D1> 45>71> 1D?= <19>)521719 3?>D?8 1D?= %1 I1>7 =5=9<9;9 ;?>697EB1C9 +(++"E<9D D5B49B9 1D1C CE2;E<9D+(41> 1B9 ;?>697EB1C9 1D?= %1 @141(4)(8 D5B<981D 81>I1 141 C1DE 5<5;DB?> I1>7 =5>79C9 ;E<9DI19DE@141?B29D++>DE;=5>:149CD129<1D?=%135>45BE>7=5<[email protected];1>C1DE 5<5;DB?> D5B<E1B>I1 I1>7 [email protected] @141 ;E<9D )521<9;>I1 :9;1@141 CE2;E<9D D5B<E1B ;5;EB1>71> C1DE 5<5;DB?> E>DE; =5>:149 CD129<1D?= 9>9 35>45BE>7 =E418 =5>5B9=1 C1DE 5<5;DB?> 41B9 <E1B'5B81D9;1>:E71(4)(8 '1411D?= $>;E<9DD5B<E1B>I1I19DE;E<9D D5B9C9  5<5;DB?> "E<9D D5B9C9 =1;C9=1<  5<5;DB?> 25B1BD9[email protected] ;5;EB1>71>  5<5;DB?> C589>771 1D?= $> 35>45BE>7 =5>5B9=1C1DE 5<5;DB?> 41B9 1D?= <19> [email protected] =5>:149 CD129< D?= %1 41>$>[email protected] 25B712E>7 =5>:149 =?<5;E< I1>7 CD129< ;1B5>1 @141 [email protected]1D?=1;1> =5=9<9;9 ;E<9D 1D1E CE2;E<9D I1>7 D5B9C9 @5>E8 ?<58 5<5;DB?>Contoh 8.8Gambar 8.21(a) Atom Mn menerima elektrondari atom Na.(b) Atom Na yang tidak stabil.21elektron dilepasNaNaGambar 8.20(a) Atom Na, kulit terluarnya terisisatu elektron.(b) Atom Na yang stabil setelahmelepas elektron terluarnya.21eNaMn
Mudah dan Aktif Belajar Fisika untuk Kelas XII2181B9 EB191> D5BC52ED [email protected] 491=29< ;[email protected]<1> 218G1 1D?=1D?=35>45BE>7 E>DE; =5=9<9;9 ;?>697EB1C9 [email protected] 71C =E<91 I19DE =5=9<9;9;51411> I1>7 CD129< 45>71> 31B1 =5<[email protected] 1D1E =5>5B9=1 5<5;DB?>4.Sistem Periodik)9CD5= @5B9?49; E>CEBE>CEB 49CECE> 25B41C1B;1> ;5>19;1> >?=?B1D?= 1D1E 25B41C1B;1> :E=<18 5<5;DB?> )9CD5= @5B9?49; 25BDE:E1>=5>:5<1C;1>C961DE>CEBE>CEB@141@5B9?49;41>7?<?>71>D5BD5>DEC5BD1=5>:5<1C;1>=5>[email protected]E>CEBE>CEB41<1=C1DE@5B9?45=5=9<9;9C961DI1>725B2541 1>D1B1 7?<?>71> I1>7 C1DE 41> 7?<?>71> I1>7 <19>>I1+>CEBE>CEB 7?<?>71> 1<;1<9 41> 1<;1<9 D1>18 ;54E1>I1 D5B=1CE;7?<?>71>+ ;1B5>1 41<1= ;?>697EB1C9 5<5;DB?> 491;89B9 45>71> CE2;E<9D+!1B9:1B91D?=49C525<18;9B9B5<1D96<529825C1B4921>49>7;1>45>71>E>CEBE>CEB C525<18 ;1>1>>I1 41>I1 5<5;DB?> D5B<E1B 9>9 =5=25B9;1>C961D;?>4E;D?B <9CDB9; I1>7 219; "5B51;D961>>I1 3E;[email protected] D9>779 E>DE;25B51;C945>71>E>CEB<19>D5BED1=145>71>E>CEB7?<?>71>81<?75>;1B5>1I1>7C1DE =E418 =5<[email protected];1> 5<5;DB?> 41> I1>7 <19> =5=9<9;9 ;535>45BE>71>25C1B E>DE; =5>5B9=1 5<5;DB?>+>CEBE>CEB7?<?>71>(I1>7D941;D5B9C9@5>E8?<585<5;DB?>41<1=;?>697EB1C9>I1 D5B<981D ;5;EB1>71> 5<5;DB?> E>DE; =5=9<9;9 ;?>697EB1C9[email protected] 71C =E<91 !9;1 >41 @5B81D9;1> 7?<?>71> 81<?75> E>CEBE>CEB9>9 35>45BE>7 =E418 =5>1>7;[email protected] 5<5;DB?> E>DE; =5=25>DE; C5>I1G19;1D1;1> E>CEBE>CEB D5BC52ED =5=9<9;9 ;5B51;D961> I1>7 D9>7794921>49>7;1> 45>71> E>CEB 7?<?>71>( <19>>I1?<?>71>71C=E<91=5=9<9;9;?>697EB1C95<5;DB?>I1>7CE418@5>E8@141 ;E<9D D5B<E1B>I1 "535>45BE>71> =5>1>7;[email protected] 1D1E =5>5B9=15<5;DB?> C1>71D ;539< 1< 9>9 =5>I5212;1> E>CEB 71C =E<91 D941;=5=25>DE; C5>I1G1 45>71> E>CEB <19>'B9>[email protected] '1E<9 1DEB1> E621E 41> ;19418 E>4 C1>71D =5=21>DEE>DE; =5=181=9 ;5D5B1DEB1> CECE>1> 5<5;DB?> 1D1E CE2;E<9D 41<1=416D1B 25B;1<1 "?>697EB1C9 5<5;DB?> 41<1= 1D?= 141<18 CECE>1>5<5;DB?> 41<1= 1D?= C5CE19 45>71> D9>7;1D 5>5B79>I1 1<1=@5=2181C1> 9>9 1;1> >41 D9>:1E ;?>697EB1C9 5<5;DB?> @5B CE2;E<9D5>71>;?>697EB1C95<5;DB?>D5BC52ED[email protected]49;5D18E929<1>71>;E1>DE=I1>7 25B;19D1> 41> C961DC961D>I1 [email protected] 49;5D18E9 41B9 :E=<18 5<5;DB?>D5B<E1B DEB1> @5>E<9C1> ;?>697EB1C9 5<5;DB?> 25B41C1B;1> 81<81<25B9;ED 9>9a.Aturan Aufbau$5>EBED 1DEB1> E621E 5<5;DB?> 41<1= CE1DE 1D?= 1;1> =E<19=5>79C9 CE1DE ?B29D1< 41B9 D9>7;1D I1>7 5>5B79>I1 @1<9>7 B5>418 [email protected]I1>7@1<9>7D9>779*[email protected]D9>7;1D1>5>5B79499C95<5;DB?>C521>I1;=E>7;9>[email protected]@5>E8*[email protected];1<9;51411>&@5>E8;51411>25B9;ED>I1=E<19499C945=9;91>C5D5BEC>I1'B9>[email protected]@5>79C91>9>9[email protected]4971=21B;1>41<1=25>DE; 4917B1= @141(4)(8 '5B81D9;1> 8E2E>71> 29<1>71> ;E1>DE= ED1=1 & 41> 29<1>71>;E1>DE= ?B29D1< 1D1E 1J9=ED  C521719 25B9;ED +BED1> D9>7;1D 5>5B79C5CE19 45>71> EBED1> 1B18 @1>18 I19DE+ + ( + (+ (+(+45>71>+ 5<5;DB?>(5<5;DB?> 5<5;DB?> 5<5;DB?>Tantanganuntuk AndaJelaskan sifat-sifat yang dimiliki atomberikut ini.1.4020Ca2.3031Ga3.8035BrGambar 8.22Pengisian elektron menurutaturan Aufbau.1s2s3s4s5s6s7s2p3p4p5p6p3d4d5d6d4f
Fisika Atom219)521719 3?>D?8 @5B81D9;1> 31B1 @5>E<9C1> ;?>697EB1C9 5<5;DB?>25B9;ED  D?==5=9<9;9>?=?B1D?=25B1BD941<1=@141[email protected]1D?=>I1[email protected] 5>1= 5<5;DB?> C589>771 ;?>697EB1C9>I1  + + (  D?= " =5=9<9;9 >?=?B 1D?=  25B1BD9 @141 [email protected] 1D?=>I1[email protected]  5<5;DB?> C589>771 ;?>697EB1C9 5<5;DB?>>I1 "  + +( + (+  D?= ? =5=9<9;9 >?=?B 1D?=  25B1BD9 @141 [email protected] 1D?=>I1[email protected]  5<5;DB?> C589>771 ;?>697EB1C9 5<5;DB?>>I1 ? + +( + (+ 1B1 @5>E<9C1> D5BC52ED 3E;[email protected] @1>:1>7 C589>771 81BEC 49<1;E;1>@5>I9>7;1D1> 25B41C1B;1> ;?>697EB1C9 71C =E<91 I19DE5  +%5  + + ( B  + + ( + ( "B  + + ( + (+  (5>71> 45=9;91> ;?>697EB1C9 5<5;DB?> @141 3?>D?8 D5BC52ED49C9>7;1D C521719 25B9;ED + + (49C9>7;1D 5 + ( " + + ( + (+49C9>7;1D B + ?  + + ( + (+ 49C9>7;1D B +c.Aturan Hund$5>EBED;5+41<1=?B29D1<I1>7C5D9>7;1D5<5;DB?>5<5;DB?>D941;2?<58 [email protected]>71> C525<E= C5<EBE8 ?B29D1< C5D9>7;1D D5B9C9 ?<58C52E185<5;DB?> '5>[email protected]> 5<5;DB?> @141 ?B29D1<( I1>7 =5=9<9;9 D9>7;1D5>5B79 I1>7 C1=1 @141 CE2;E<9D I1>7 C1=1 =1C9>7=1C9>7 499C9 45>71>C1DE5<5;DB?>D5B<5298418E<E45>71>1B18[email protected]>I1>7C1=121BE;5=E491>499C9 45>71> 5<5;DB?> 25B9;ED>I1 45>71> 1B18 I1>7 25B<1G1>1>1< 9>9 25B1BD9 C5=E1 5<5;DB?> 25B=E1D1> C1=1 C589>771 5<5;DB?>1;1> =5>[email protected] ?B29D1< I1>7 =1C98 ;?C?>7 C525<E= [email protected]>71>$9C1<;1> 1D?=  45>71> >?=?B 1D?=  41> ;?>697EB1C9 5<5;DB?>>I1+ + ( 4917B1= ;?>697EB1C9 5<5;DB?>>I1 141<182E;1>c.Asas Larangan Pauli$5>EBED&63-.(5.!(;3041<1=CE1DE1D?=D941;2?<581415<5;DB?>I1>7=5=9<9;9;[email protected]29<1>71>?B29D1<41>=17>5D9;I1>7C1=19<1>71>;E1>DE= [email protected]>>I1 81BEC 25B<1G1>1> &% 41>%C2E;1>C1C 9>9 C1>71D @5>D9>7 E>DE; =5=181=9 CDBE;DEB 1D?= [email protected]<179 E>DE;=5>7;1:9 C961DC961D 1D?= 25B5<5;DB?> 21>I1;)5;1B1>7 D9>:1E 85<9E= 45>71> >?=?B 1D?=  <5;DB?> @5BD1=11D?= 85<9E= @141 ;51411> 41C1B =5=9<9;9 [email protected]>1> 29<1>71> ;E1>DE=&  %  41>%C <5;DB?> ;54E1 29C1 =5=9<9;9;5D971 29<1>71> ;E1>DE=& 41>% C1=1 [email protected] 29<1>71> ;E1>DE=;[email protected]%C 81BEC 25B2541 &<58 ;1B5>1 5<5;DB?> @5BD1=1%C5<5;DB?> ;54E1 81BEC<18%CM
Mudah dan Aktif Belajar Fisika untuk Kelas XII220Gambar 8.24Proses untuk menghasilkanspektrum emisiC1C <1B1>71> '1E<9 :E71 =5=21D1C9 [email protected] ?B29D1< 81>I1 [email protected]=5>[email protected]>7=1;C9=E= 5<5;DB?>41>41<1=C1DE?B29D1<81BEC=5=9<9;9[email protected]>45>71>1B1825B<1G1>1>@129<141<1=?B29D1<1415<5;DB?>;5D971=9C1<>I1 [email protected]> C51B18 45>71> [email protected]> 5<5;DB?> @5BD1=1 (4)(8 ;[email protected]<1> ;[email protected] 29<1>71> ;E1>DE= 5<5;DB?> ;5D971 @5BC9C C1=145>71> 5<5;DB?> @5BD1=1 >9 :5<1C =5<1>7771B 1C1C <1B1>71> '1E<95.Spektrum Emisi dan Spektrum Absorpsi01D @141D [email protected]> J1D 319B @141 CE8E D5BD5>DE [email protected] =5=1>31B;1>B1491C945>71>@1>:1>775<?=21>7I1>725B25412541@141D9>7;1D5>5B79I1>7 25B2541 1B9 25B21719 C579 I1>7 [email protected] 491=1D9 B1491C9 9>9 [email protected]49D5B1>7;1>?<5841C1BD5?B9;E1>DE=3181I141>D941;25B71>DE>7@141@5B9>391> @B?C5C B1491C9 9DE C5>49B9 1D1E 41B9 C961D =1D5B91<>I1 *9>7;1D5>5B79>I1 25B71>DE>7 @141 29<1>71> ;E1>DE=>I1 5B41C1B;1> 81C9<@5>5=E1> 9>9 [email protected] [email protected]<;1> 218G1 I1>7 D5B:149 141<18 ;5<1;E1>;?<5;D96 C5:E=<18 1D?= I1>7 C1<9>7 25B9>D5B1;C9 41B9 ;1B1;D5B9CD9; 1D?=1D?= 41B9 E>CEBE>CEB D5BD5>DEa.Spektrum Emisi'141 ;?>49C9 D5BD5>DE 1D?= 1D1E =?<5;E< @141 71C 25BD5;1>1> B5>41825B:1B1; B1D1B1D1 3E;[email protected] :1E8 C589>771 9>D5B1;C9 I1>7 D5B:149 81>I1 C11D25BDE=2E;1> 1<1= ;51411> [email protected] 9>9 [email protected];1> 218G1 B1491C9 I1>7[email protected]>31B;1>[email protected];1>;1B1;D5B9C9D9;41B91D?=1D1E=?<5;E<C531B19>49F94EI1>7 [email protected] 49 C1>1 1< 9>9 D5B2E;D9 C531B1 5;[email protected]=5>D1< !9;1 71C 1D?=9;1D1E [email protected] 1D?=9; I1>7 25BD5;1>1> 49 21G18 D5;1>1> 1D=?C65B 495;C9D1C9;1>291C1>I145>71>=5>71<9B;1>1BEC<9CDB9;B1491C9I1>7[email protected]>31B;1>=5=9<9;9[email protected];DBE= I1>7 25B9C9 @1>:1>7 75<?=21>7 D5BD5>DE C1:1)@5;DBE= 5=9C9 141<18 [email protected];DBE= I1>7 4981C9<;1> ?<58 @1>31B1>75<?=21>7 5<5;DB?=17>5D9; =9C1<>I1 3181I1 $1D181B9 I1>7 4981C9<;1> ?<581D?=1D?= 71C CE1DE E>CEB !9;1 3181I1 D12E>7 71C E>CEB 49<5G1D;1> @141C52E18 @B9C=1 3181I1 1;1> D5BEB19 =5>:149 [email protected] 71B9C G1B>1 [email protected];DBE=I1>7 [email protected] [email protected];DBE= =5=9<9;9 @1>:1>7 75<?=21>7 I1>7 25B2541+>DE; =5>7EB19;1> 3181I1 71C CE1DE E>CEB [email protected] 497E>1;1> ;9C9[email protected] 71B9C71B9C @5=9C18 I1>7 C1>71D [email protected] '5B1<1D1> E>DE; =5>781C9<;1> [email protected];DBE= 5=9C9 [email protected] 49<981D @141(4)(8 $9C1<>I1 3181I1 I1>7 [email protected]>31B;1> 9DE 4981C9<;1> ?<58 1D?=1D?=71C 894B?75> <5;DB?> @141 1D?= 71C 1;1> D5B5;C9D1C9 ;5 D9>7;1D 5>5B79I1>7 <5298 D9>779 :9;1 =5>[email protected] D1=2181> 5>5B79 41B9 <E1B $9C1<>I141B9 +;5 + 1D1E ( "5D9;1 5<5;DB?> ;5=21<9 ;5 D9>7;1D 5>5B79 41C1B1D?= 1;1> =5=1>31B;1> 5>5B79 [email protected] 75<?=21>7 5<5;DB?=17>5D9;5<?=21>7 5<5;DB?=17>5D9; 9>9 =5<5G1D9 35<18 [email protected] ;5=E491> ?<58;9C9 1;1> 49EB19;1> =5>:149 [email protected] G1B>1 )5D5<18 ;5<E1B 41B9;9C9@141 <1I1B 1;1> [email protected]; 71B9C71B9C 25BG1B>1 I1>7 [email protected] G1B>1 C5CE1945>71> 5>5B79 D5BD5>DE*941; C5=E1 G1B>1 [email protected];DBE= 1;1> =E>3E< @141 [email protected] [email protected];DBE=CE1DE E>CEB [email protected] 81>I1 G1B>1G1B>1 D5BD5>DE C1:1 I1>7 1;1> =E>3E<+>DE; [email protected] E>CEB 1;1> =5=1>31B;1> [email protected];DBE= I1>7 25B<19>1> 1<9>9<18 I1>7 =5=2541;1> E>CEB I1>7 C1DE 41> E>CEB I1>7 <19>benarsalahGambar 8.23Berdasarkan asas larangan Pauli,satu orbital maksimum ditempatidua elektron dengan spin yangberlawanan.sumbercelahkisispektrum
Fisika Atom2215B41C1B;1> @5BC1=11> @1>:1>7 75<?=21>7 I1>7 CE418 >41 ;5>1<6B5;E5>C9C521>49>745>71>,,(&/*(E=EC1>@1>:1>775<?=21>7[email protected] 49DE<9C;1>&&M "5D5B1>71>[email protected]>(I425B7  P  = @1>:1>7 75<?=21>7 5<5;DB?=17>5D9; =& 29<1>71> ;E1>DE= ED1=1)@5;DBE= 5=9C9 141 D971 =131= I19DE+(#,*-%*!++(#,*-%(!,41>+(#,*-%#'&,!&-  #7,2:8;4(809)@5;DBE= 71B9C 4981C9<;1> ?<58 71C71C 25BD5;1>1> B5>418 I1>7[email protected]>1C;1> )@5;DBE= 9>9 D5B49B9 1D1C 71B9C71B9C 3181I1 =?>?;B?=1D9;45>71> @1>:1>7 75<?=21>7 D5BD5>DE '1>:1>7 75<?=21>7 3181I1 I1>7[email protected] 41<1= [email protected];DBE= [email protected];1> ;1B1;D5B9CD9; 41B9 E>CEB I1>7=5>781C9<;1> [email protected];DBE= D5BC52ED ;921D @5=1>1C1> 1D?= 71C 1;1>=5>[email protected] 5>5B79 C589>771 25B141 41<1= ;51411> D5B5;C9D1C9 1<1=;51411> 9>9 1D?= 71C D941; CD129< 41> 1;1> 25BEC181 ;5 ;51411> 41C1B45>71> =5=1>31B;1> 6?D?> [email protected] 75<?=21>7 5<5;DB?=17>5D9;  #7,2:8;4!0:()@5;DBE=@9D14981C9<;1>?<5871C41<1=;51411>=?<5;E<5B=9C1<>I171C  & % 41> & )@5;DBE= I1>7 4981C9<;1> [email protected] ;5<[email protected]?;71B9C71B9C I1>7 C1>71D [email protected] C589>771 =5=25>DE; @9D1@9D1  #7,2:8;465:05;)@5;DBE= ;?>D9>E 141<18 [email protected];DBE= I1>7 D5B49B9 1D1C 3181I1 45>71>C5=E1 @1>:1>7 75<?=21>7 G1<[email protected]> 45>71> 9>D5>C9D1C I1>7 25B2541)@5;DBE= ;?>D9>E 4981C9<;1> ?<58 J1D @141D J1D 319B 41> 71C I1>725BD5;1>1>D9>77941>[email protected]:1B[email protected]:1B>I125>DE;J1DJ1DD5BC52ED;1B5>1=5=9<9;9 1D?= I1>7 25B:1B1; B5<1D96 <5298 ;539< C1DE 41> I1>7 <19>>I1C589>771 C1<9>7 25B9>D5B1;C9 ;921D>I1 D9>7;1DD9>7;1D 5>5B791D?=25B75C5B E>DE; =5=5>E89 1DEB1> '1E<9b.Spektrum Absorpsi)@5;DBE= [email protected] 141<18 [email protected];DBE= I1>7 D5B:149 ;1B5>1 @5>[email protected]>@1>:1>7 75<?=21>7 D5BD5>DE 41B9 CE1DE 3181I1 )@5;DBE= [email protected] D5B49B91D1C C545B5D1> 71B9C 89D1= @141 [email protected];DBE= ;?>D9>E '5>[email protected]> [email protected]@1>:1>775<?=21>7D5BD5>DED5B:149@1416?D?>I1>7=5=9<9;95>5B79I1>7[email protected] C1=1 41> C5<9C98 5>5B79 1>D1B1 D9>7;1D 5;C9D1C9 41> D9>7;1D 41C1B)@5;DBE= [email protected] 4981C9<;1> :9;1 3181I1 @ED98 49<5G1D;1> @141D12E>7I1>725B9C91D?=1D?=71CCE1DEE>CEBI1>7;5=E491>1D?=1D?=D5BC52ED 1;1> =5>[email protected] =5>[email protected] C521791> 3181I1 @ED98 1B9C71B9C I1>7 4981C9<;1> C5CE19 45>71> 71B9C71B9C @141 [email protected];DBE= 5=9C9 !9;1;54E1[email protected];DBE=9>94945;1D;1>1;1>[email protected];71B9C71B9C75<[email protected]41>D5B1>7?>D?8 [email protected];DBE= [email protected] 141<18 [email protected];DBE= $1D181B9 )531B1[email protected]>D1C [email protected];DBE= $1D181B9 [email protected]; [email protected] [email protected];DBE= ;?>D9>E ;1>[email protected]:9;14935B=1D91;1>[email protected];71B9C71B9C75<[email protected]D5B1>7I1>749C52ED*!+*!+*-& '*41>I1*!+*!+*-& '*49C5212;1>3181I1@ED98 41B9 21791> 9>D9 $1D181B9 [email protected] ?<58 1D?=1D?= 41> =?<5;E<=?<5;E< 71C 41<1= 1D=?C65B $1D181B9 [email protected]> 1D=?C65B E=9 1791>$1D181B9I1>725BCE8EC5;9D1B ?[email protected]=5>9=2E<;1>[email protected];DBE=
Mudah dan Aktif Belajar Fisika untuk Kelas XII222energi ionisasi semakin besarenergi ionisasi semakin besar(4)(8  [email protected]<981D;1> 2171> 41> @5B1<1D1> [email protected];DBE=[email protected] 5B41C1B;1> 81C9< @5B3?211> 41> 81C9< 5;[email protected]=5> [email protected]?<58;[email protected]<1>218G1:9;1J1D[email protected]>41B25B1491C9 =5=1>31B;1>[email protected];DBE=5=9C9 [email protected];1> J1D I1>7 219; E>DE; =5>[email protected] [email protected];DBE=>I11B9C[email protected];DBE=1D?=894B?75>D5B49B91D1C[email protected]45B5DI19DE45B5D#I=1>> 45B5D 1<=5B 45B5D '1C385> 45B5D B13;5DD 41> 45B5D'6E>45B5D45B5D D5BC52ED =5=5>E89 @5BC1=11>0&&M "5D5B1>71>0>?=?B1D?=6.Energi Ionisasi, Afinitas Elektron, dan Elektron Valensi)E1DE 1D?= 1;1> 25B9;1D1> 45>71> 1D?= <19> ;1B5>1 141>I1 61;D?B61;D?B D5BD5>DE "[email protected]> CE1DE 1D?= E>DE; 25B9;1D1> 45>71> 1D?=<19> 49D5>DE;1> ?<58 ;51411> :E=<18 5<5;DB?> D5B<E1B>I1 <5;DB?>=5=9<9;9;535>45BE>71>E>DE;=5=25>DE;CECE>1>I1>7CD129<CECE>1>71C =E<91 [email protected] 61;D?B I1>7 =5=5>71BE89 1D?= E>DE; =5<[email protected];1>1D1E =5>79;1D 5<5;DB?> 141<18 C521719 25B9;EDa.Energi Ionisasi!9;1CE1DE1D?=[email protected]C1DE5<5;DB?>49<E1BCE2;E<9DI1>7=1>[email protected]5<5;DB?> 35>45BE>7 =E418 =5<[email protected];1> 9;1D1>>I1 171B =5=9<9;9;?>697EB1C9 [email protected] 71C =E<91 +>DE; =5<[email protected];1> 5<5;DB?> D5B<E1B>I1 9>9[email protected]<E;1> 5>5B79 I1>7 49C52ED&*!!'&!++! >5B79 9?>9C1C9 E>DE; 1D?=894B?75> C525C1B  5,'5>7E;EB1> 5>5B79 9?>9C1C9 @141 E>CEB 41<1= 71C [email protected]<981D;1>218G1 41<1= CE1DE @5B9?45 C5=1;9> 21>I1; 5<5;DB?> 41> @B?D?> =1;171I1 D1B9;=5>1B9; 5<5;DB?> D5B<E1B 45>71> 9>D9 C5=1;9> 25C1B :1B9:1B9;539< ;921D>I1 5<5;DB?> CE;1B 49<[email protected] C589>771 5>5B79 E>DE; =5<[email protected]5<5;DB?> C5=1;9> 25C1B I1>7 25B1BD9 5>5B79 9?>9C1C9 25C1B!9;1 :E=<18 5<5;DB?> C549;9D [email protected] E>CEB @141 7?<?>71>  :1B9:1B9>I1 25C1B 71I1 D1B9; =5>1B9; 5<5;DB?> 45>71> 9>D9 <5298 ;539<;921D>I1 5>5B79 E>DE; =5<[email protected] 5<5;DB?>D5B<E1B B5<1D96 <5298 ;539< I1>7 25B1BD9 5>5B799?>9C1C9>I1 ;539< 1B9 1D1C ;5 21G18 41<1=C1DE 7?<?>71> :1B9:1B9 1D?= C5=1;9> 25C1B1<9>9=5>I5212;1>5<5;DB?>D5B<E1BB5<1D96=E418 <[email protected] 4921>49>7;1> 45>71> 1D?=I1>7 25B141 49 1D1C>I1 1< 9>9 25B1BD9 41B91D1C ;5 21G18 41<1= C1DE 7?<?>71> 5>5B799?>9C1C925B;EB1>7'5BE2181>5>5B799?>9C1C941<1= D125< @5B9?49; [email protected] 49<981D @141(4)(8 ?<?>71>  41<1= CECE>1> 25B;1<1E>CEBE>CEB [email protected] 71=21B 49C52ED :E717?<?>71>1<;1<9I1>7=5<[email protected]#9%1"(2C41>B+>CEBI1>7@1<9>7C549;9D141<186B1>C9E= B C5212 25BC961D B149?1;D96 C589>771 =E418 25BE218 =5>:149E>CEB <19>Gambar 8.25Proses untuk menghasilkanspektrum absorpsicahayaputihcelahkisispektrumatom-atomgasGambar 8.26Perulangan sifat pada sistemperiodik
Fisika Atom223)961DC961D ;9=91 E>CEB 1<;1<9 141<18 81>I1 =5=9<9;9 C1DE 5<5;DB?> 49;E<9D D5B<E1B mail protected]<18 49D5B;1 218G1 E>CEBE>CEB 9>9 =5=9<9;9 5>5B799?>9C1C9I1>7B5>418C1>71D=E418=5<[email protected];1>5<5;DB?>)5=1;9>25C1B:1B9:1B91D?=5>5B799?>9C1C9>I1C5=1;9>B5>4185>71>;1D1<19>E>CEBE>CEB 1<;1<9 9>9 C1>71D B51;D96 1D1E =E418 C5;1<9 =5=25>DE; C5>I1G1+>CEBE>CEB 9>9 =E418 C5;1<9 25B51;C9 45>71> ?;C975> 49 E41B1 DE<18C5212>I1 <?71=<?71= 1<;1<9 81BEC [email protected]> 41<1= =9>I1; D1>18 41>D941; 2?<58 49291B;1> <1=1 49 E41B1 D5B2E;1b.Afinitas Elektron!&!,+$#,*'&$ &*!/&!$(+#&"!#+-,-,'%%&&#(+- $#,*'&D?=1D?=I1>7=5=9<9;971I1D1B9;=5>1B9;1>D1B9>D9>I1;539< =5>E>:E;;1> 218G1 169>9D1C 5<5;DB?>>I1 :E71 ;539< 1<81< I1>7=5=5>71BE89 25C1B ;539<>I1 169>9D1C 5<5;DB?> 141<18 :E=<18 =E1D1>41<1= 9>D9 :1B1; 1>D1B 9>D9 41> :E=<18 5<5;DB?> 41<1= 1D?=1<1= C1DE 7?<?>71> 41B9 1D1C ;5 21G18 81B71 169>9D1C 5<5;DB?>C5=1;9>;539<1<1=C1DE@5B9?4541B9;9B9;5;1>1>81B71169>9D1C5<5;DB?>C5=1;9>25C1BD?=1D?=I1>7C5=1;9>=E418=5>1>7;[email protected]5<5;DB?>1;1>=5=9<9;981B71169>9D1C5<5;DB?>I1>7C5=1;9>25C1B+>DE;=5>771=21B;1>D9>7;1D ;5=E4181> CE1DE 1D?= =5>1>7;[email protected] 5<5;DB?> 497E>1;1> 25C1B1>5<5;DB?>571D9F9D1C 1D1E ;55<5;DB?>571D961> )E1DE E>CEB I1>7 =5=9<9;95>5B79 9?>9C1C9 D9>779 =5=9<9;9 5<5;DB?>571D9F9D1C D9>779 BD9>I1 =5=9<9;9;535>45BE>71> 25C1B E>DE; =5>1>7;[email protected] 5<5;DB?>+>CEB I1>7 =E418 =5<[email protected];1> 5<5;DB?> 41> =5=25>DE; 9?> @?C9D9649>1=1;1> E>CEB I1>7 5<5;[email protected]?C9D96 )521<9;>I1 E>CEB I1>7 =E418=5>1>7;[email protected] 5<5;DB?> 41> =5=25>DE; 9?> >571D96 49>1=1;1> E>CEB5<5;DB?>571D96'141E=E=>I1E>CEBE>CEBI1>7=5=9<9;95<5;DB?>F1<5>C9;EB1>7 41B9 [email protected] 25BC961D 5<5;[email protected]?C9D96 [email protected]> E>CEBE>CEB I1>7=5=9<9;95<5;DB?>F1<5>C9<529841B9[email protected]25BC961D5<5;DB?>571D9669>9D1C[email protected] E>CEB D5B<981D @141$(),3  c.Elektron Valensi<5;DB?> I1>7 @1<9>7 [email protected]> 41<1= =5>5>DE;1> C961D 9C9;1 41>"9=91 141<18 5<5;B?> I1>7 25B141 @141 ;E<9D @1<9>7 <E1B <5;DB?> 9>9291C1 49C52ED$#,*'&.$&+! ;1> [email protected] E>DE; ;E<9D I1>7 @5>E85<5;DB?>>I1 D941; DEBED C5BD1 41<1= =5>5>DE;1> C961DC961D D5BC52ED1B9CECE>1>25B;1<1E>CEBE>CEB45>71>C9CD5=@5B9?49;41<1=C1DE7?<?>71> 1D?=1D?= D5BC52ED =5=9<9;9 5<5;DB?> F1<5>C9 I1>7 C1=1$9C1<>I11D?=#9I1>7=5=9<9;9 5<5;DB?>C1<18C1DE>I1141<185<5;DB?>F1<5>C9 5=9;91> 81<>I1 1D?= " =5=9<9;9  5<5;DB?> C1<18 C1DE>I1141<185<5;DB?>F1<5>C9"[email protected]<1>>I11D?=#941>1D?="I1>725B14141<1= C1DE 7?<?>71> =5=9<9;9 C1DE 5<5;DB?> F1<5>C9M#9M%1MM M )9M %M'M&M M <M  BM M $(),3 69>9D1C[email protected]+>CEB%59;8-050:(93,2:86524631B9@5>5<9D91>D5>D1>7@1BD9;5<CE21D?=9;@1B169C9;1G1>=5>5=E;1>218G1@1BD9;5<@5>IECE>1D?=9DE2E;1>81>I15<5;DB?>41>>5EDB?>E1D<18DE<9C1>D5>D1>7@1BD9;5<@1BD9;5<CE21D?=9;I1>721BE49D5=E;1>9DE>41[email protected]=5>31B99>6?B=1C9>I141B99>D5B>5DC5217193?>D?8>4129C1=5>75D9;;1>AE1B;@141*  &!&I1>7>417E>1;1>>41;[email protected]<;1>DE71C9>9@1417EBE41>49C;EC9;1>DE71C9>925BC1=17EBE9C9;141>+092;902(525BC1=1D5=1>D5=1>41>7EBEMari Mencari Tahu• teori atom Bohr• bilangan kuantum utama• bilangan kuantum orbital• bilangan kuantum magnetik• bilangan kuantum spin• prinsip Pauli• aturan Aufbau• kaidah Hund• spektrum emisi• spektrum absorsi• garis-garis Praunhoffer• energi ionisasi• afinitas elektron• elektron valensiSumber:General Chemistry, 1990Kata Kunci
Mudah dan Aktif Belajar Fisika untuk Kelas XII224 *E>:E;;1><18218G1;E<9D1$=1;C9=E=[email protected]?<58 2E185<5;DB?>2%=1;C9=E=[email protected]?<58 2E185<5;DB?> *5>DE;1><185>5B79D?D1<41B9C52E185<5;DB?>@1419?>! E>DE;29<1>71>;E1>DE=ED1=1&  !5<1C;1>[email protected]I1>7>41;5D18E9D5>D1>7129<1>71>;E1>DE=ED1=1229<1>71>;E1>DE=?B29D1<329<1>71>;E1>DE=[email protected]>$5>[email protected] @141 1D?= 25B5<5;DB?> 21>I1; D5B:149@5=9C181>D9>7;1D5>5B7941B9CE2;E<9D45>71>;E<9DI1>7C1=1$5>[email protected]C1DE?B29D1<81>I1[email protected][email protected]?<584E15<5;DB?>1719=1>1;5C5CE191>1C1C<1B1>71>'1E<941>C9CD5=@5B9?49;@1;18@5>I5212D5B:149>I1[email protected];DBE=[email protected]41>[email protected];DBE=71B9C!5<1C;1>45>71>[email protected];DB?C;[email protected]21719=1>1E>CEB85<9E=49D5=E;1>@141$1D181B9*5B1>7;1>5>5B799?>9C1C941<1=C1DE7?<?>71>41>C1DE@5B9?45  1719=1>1 169>9D1C 5<5;DB?> %1 4921>49>7;1>45>71><41>"Tes Kompetensi Subbab B,81(2(53(/7(+();2;3(:0/(5Rangkuman '5B;5=21>71>=?45<1D?==5<1<E9[email protected][email protected]C52171925B9;EDM=?45<1D?=5=?;B9DECM=?45<1D?=1<D?>M=?45<1D?=*8?=C?>M=?45<1D?=(ED85B6?B4M=?45<1D?=?8B 1<1==5=2E1DD5?B91D?=1<D?>=5>71=29<13E1>41C1B41B9M5;[email protected]=5> 'B?ECD D5>D1>7 E;E= '5B21>49>71>*[email protected]I1>7=5>I1D1;1>218G1NC5>I1G149CECE>?<58E>CEBE>CEB45>71>@5B21>49>71>[email protected]M5;[email protected]=5> >D?>95 #1F?9C95B 41> 'B59CD5<ID5>D1>7 E;E= #1F?9C95B I1>7 =5>I1D1;1>218G1N=1CC1J1DC525<E=41>C5CE418B51;C9141<18C1=1O [email protected]!?8>*8?=C?>=5<1;E;1>5;[email protected]=5>45>71>=5>77E>1;1> D12E>7 C9>1B ;1D?45 I1>7 C549;9D49=?4969;1C9 1C9< 5;[email protected]=5> I1>7 [email protected]?<58>I1141<18218G1@5B21>49>71>=E1D1>41>=1CC1%C52171925B9;ED%  P  ;7(?25BD  $9<<9;1> =5<1;E;1> 5;[email protected]=5> D5D5C=9>I1;1C9<5;[email protected]=5>=5>5=E;1>81B71=E1D1>5<5;DB?>   P M 5>71>=5>7712E>7;1> @5>5=E1> *8?=C?> 41> $9<<9;1> [email protected]?<5881B71=1CC15<5;DB?>141<18% P M ;7>5B795<5;DB?>25B41C1B;1>D5?B9?8B&%&1D1E 5,&&B5;E5>C975<?=21>75<5;DB?=17>5D9;I1>7[email protected]1D1E[email protected]>31B;1>41B94E1;51411>CD1C9?>5B141<18!  <5;DB?>41<1=CE1DE1D?=4971=21B;1>41<1=[email protected]29<1>71>;E1>DE=I19DEM29<1>71>;E1>DE=ED1=1&M29<1>71>;E1>DE=?B29D1<M29<1>71>;E1>DE==17>5D9;%M29<1>71>;E1>DE=[email protected]>%C DEB1> @5>E<9C1> ;?>697EB1C9 5<5;DB?> 4941C1B;1>@141M1DEB1> E621E =5>I1D1;1> 218G1 5<5;DB?>41<1= CE1DE 1D?= 1;1> =E<19 =5>79C9 CE1DE?B29D1<41B9D9>7;1DI1>75>5B79>I1@1<9>7B5>418[email protected]I1>7@1<9>7D9>779M1DEB1> E>4 =5>I1D1;1> 218G1 5<5;DB?>5<5;DB?> D941; 2?<58 [email protected]>71> C525<E=C5<EBE8 ?B29D1< C5D9>7;1D D5B9C9 ?<58 C52E185<5;DB?>M1C1C<1B1>71>'1E<9=5>I1D1;1>218G141<1=CE1DE 1D?= D941; 2?<58 141 5<5;DB?> I1>7=5=9<9;9;[email protected]29<1>71>;E1>DE=C1=1 )@5;DBE=5=9C9141<18[email protected];DBE=I1>74981C9<;1>?<58@1>31B1>75<?=21>75<5;DB?=17>5D9;  )@5;DBE= [email protected] 141<18 [email protected];DBE= I1>7 D5B:149;1B5>1@5>[email protected]>@1>:1>775<?=21>7D5BD5>DE41B9CE1DECE=25B3181I1  >5B79 9?>9C1C9 141<18 21>I1;>I1 5>5B79 I1>7[email protected]<E;1>5<5;DB?>D5B<E1BE>DE;<[email protected]41B99;1D1>@5>71BE89>D91D?=  69>9D1C5<5;DB?>141<185>5B79I1>749<[email protected];1>:9;1CE1DE1D?==5>1>7;[email protected]C52E185<5;DB?>  <5;DB?>F1<5>C9141<185<5;DB?>I1>7@1<9>7[email protected]>41<1==5>5>DE;1>C961D9C9;141>"9=91CE1DE1D?=41>D5B<5D1;@141;E<9D@1<9>7<E1B
Fisika Atom2255=?;B9DEC=5=2181C49;5=E;1;1> ?<58!!*8?=C?>(?25BD$9<<9;1>(ED85B6?B4!?8>1<D?>%95<C?8B4941C1B;1> @141=5>[email protected];1> >9<1949<1>:ED;1> ?<584941C1B;1> @141I19DE=5=2181CPeta KonsepSetelah mempelajari bab ini, tentu Anda telahmemahami bagaimana perkembangan model atomsampai terakhir digunakan model atom Bohr. Anda jugatentu telah paham bagaimana kedudukan dan sifatelektron dalam bab inti. Dari semua materi yang adadalam bab ini, bagian manakah yang menurut Anda sulitdipahami? Coba Anda diskusikan bersama teman atauguru Fisika Anda.RefleksiSekarang Anda menjadi tahu bahwa rekayasa atomuntuk dimanfaatkan dalam kehidupan bergantung sekalipada elektron valensi atom. Coba Anda cari manfaat lainyang diperoleh setelah mempelajari bab ini, kemudiandiskusikan konsep Fisika apa yang terkandung di dalamnyabersama teman Anda.0902(:64F?<EC9$?45<D?=E;E='5B21>49>71>*5 D 1 @%D?=5B5<5;DB?>1>I1;>5B79 ?>9C1C969>9D1C41><5;DB?>,1<5>C9)9CD5='5B9?49;)961DD?=C1C#1B1>71>'1E<9DEB1>E>4DEB1>E621E9<1>71>"E1>DE=  +D1=1  &B29D1<  $17>5D9; )@9>
Mudah dan Aktif Belajar Fisika untuk Kelas XII226 '5B>I1D11>I1>7[email protected];1>D5?B91D?==5>EBED1<D?>141<18121791>D5B;539<41B9CE1DE1D?=141<185<5;DB?>25<5;DB?>41B9CE1DEE>CEBC1=145>71>5<5;DB?>E>CEB<19>3C521791>25C1B=1CC11D?=D5B;[email protected]<@1419>D9>I14 1D?= 41B9 CE1DE E>CEB D941; [email protected] 25B712E>745>71>1D?=E>CEB<19>51D?=41B9E>CEBE>CEBI1>7C1=1=5=9<9;9C961DI1>7C1=1@E<1 '5B>I1D11> I1>7 D941; 25B8E2E>71> 45>71> =?45<1D?=*8?=C?>141<1811D?=2E;1>@1BD9;5<41B9CE1DEE>CEB2=E1D1>@?C9D96D5BC521B=5B1D141<1=9>D91D?=35<5;DB?> @141 1D?= D5BC521B =5B1D1 49 1>D1B1=E1D1>@?C9D964 5<5;DB?>141<1821791>41B91D?=I1>725=E1D1>>571D9655<5;DB?> =5=9<9;9 =1CC1 I1>7 C1=1 45>71>=E1D1>@B?D?> )1<18 C1DE @5B>I1D11> 41<1= D5?B9 1D?= =5>EBED@5>[email protected](ED85B6?B4141<1811D?=D5B49B91D1C9>D9I1>725B=E1D1>@?C9D9641>5<5;DB?>I1>725B=E1D1>>571D96I1>725B75B1;=5>75<9<9>799>D92[email protected]C5<EBE8=1CC11D?=D5BC521B49C5<EBE821791>1D?=3@141B51;C9"9=919>D91D?==5>71<1=9@5BE2181>4 '141B51;C9"9=915<5;DB?>@141<9>D1C1>D5B<E1BC1<9>7=5=5>71BE8959>D91D?=[email protected];1>5<5;DB?>25B=E1D1>@?C9D96"[email protected]<1> 41B9 @5B3?211> 81=2EB1> (ED85B6?B4141<1811D?=[email protected];1>21791>D5B;539<41B9CE1DE25>412=1CC11D?=D5BC521B=5B1D141<1=1D?=35<5;DB?>[email protected];1>21791>1D?=I1>725B=E1D1><9CDB9;>571D964 1D?=25B25>DE;2?<1@5:1<5=1CC11D?=[email protected]@141C1DE[email protected];539<I1>749C52ED9>D91<1==?45<1D?=?8B5>5B79I1>7492EDE8;1>?<585<5;DB?> 1D?= 894B?75> E>DE; [email protected]>418 41B9 ?B29D45>71>29<1>71>;E1>DE=ED1=1 ;5 141<181  ,4  ,2  ,5  ,3  ,!9;15<5;DB?>[email protected]>41841B9;E<9D$;5;E<9D"@1411D?=894B?75>41>141<18;?>CD1>D1(I425B7@1>:1>775<?=21>7I1>7D5B:14925C1B>I114 253 !9;1;?>CD1>D1(I425B7  P =M @1>:1>775<?=21>7D5B25C1B@14145B5D#I=1>141<181 L4  L2  L5 L3  L"?>[email protected]=?45<1D?=?8B41>=?45<1D?=(ED85B6?B425B254141<1==5>:5<1C;1>19>D941>5<5;DB?>C52171921791>1D?=2:5>9C=E1D1><9CDB9;41<1=1D?=3=1CC11D?=I1>7[email protected]499>D94 5>5B795<5;DB?>I1>725B541B=5>75<9<9>799>D95@5=1>31B1>75<?=21>75<5;DB?=17>5D9;)1<18C1DE;5D5>DE1>?8B41<1==?45<1D?=>I1141<1815<5;DB?>@141<9>D1C1>CD1C9?>5B>I1=5=1>31B;1>5>5B7925<5;DB?> I1>7 [email protected]>418 41B9 <9>D1C1> 45>71>5>5B79D9>779;5<9>D1C1>45>71>5>5B79I1>7<5298B5>4181;1>=5=1>31B;1>6?D?>35<5;DB?> @141 <9>D1C1> CD1C9?>5B>I1 =5>[email protected]5>5B794 5<5;DB?>=5>75<9<9>799>D9@141<9>D1C1>D5BD5>DE=5=9<9;9=?=5>DE=<9>95B55<5;DB?> @141 <9>D1C1> 45>71> 5>5B79 @1<9>7B5>418D941;D5B5;C9D1C9  >5B79 6?D?> C9>1B [email protected]; I1>7 [email protected]>1C;1> 1D?=894B?75>;5D9;1D5B:149DB1>C9C95<5;DB?>41B9;E<9D;5;5;E<9D;5 141<181 ,4 ,2,5,3 ,  '141 =?45< 1D?= ?8B 5<5;DB?> 1D?= 894B?75>25B75B1;45>71>?B29D<9>7;1B1>45>71><1:EC525C1B  P = C5C1B>I11BEC@141?B29DD5BC52ED P M 3?E<?=2% P M ;7141<181  @L4  =L2  >L5  L3  L  !9;15>5B795<5;DB?>1D?=894B?75>@141<9>D1C1>41C1BM 5,5>5B799?>9C1C9@1411D?=I1>725B1C1<41B9<9>D1C1>& 141<181  5,4  5,2 5,5  5,3 5,Tes Kompetensi Bab 8 !030/3(/9(3(/9(:;1(=()(5?(5.7(305.),5(8
Fisika Atom227  <5;DB?>1D?=894B?75>=?45<?8B=5>75<9<9>799>D9>I1@141<9>D1C1>&!9;15>5B799?>9C1C91D?=9>D925B>9<19;1<95>5B799?>9C1C91D?=9>941<1=;51411>41C1B>I1>9<19&9DE141<1814 253  5C1B5>5B79I1>7[email protected]>31B;1>C11D5<5;DB?>D5B5;C9D1C91D1E=5>71<1=9DB1>C9C941B9&;5&@141[email protected];DBE=894B?75>1  5,4 5,2 5,5  5,3  5,  <5;DB?>1D?=894B?75>DB1>C9C9=5>781C9<;1>6B5;E5>C9D5B;539<@14145B5D#I=1>!9;15>5B79I1>7[email protected]>31B;1>@141C11D9DE141<181  5,4  5,2 5,55,3  5,  5B9;ED 9>9 4925B9;1> 29<1>71>;E1>DE= ED1=1& 41> 29<1>71>?B29D1<41B9[email protected]2E185<5;DB?>/1>7 [email protected];1> 5<5;DB?> :5>9C(141<181     4  2  53  )9>1BE<DB1F9<?5D1;1>[email protected]>31B;1>?<581D?=894B?75>:9;15<5;DB?>[email protected]>41841B91<9>D1C1> ;5<9>D1C1> 2<9>D1C1> ;5<9>D1C1>3<9>D1C1> ;5<9>D1C1> 4 <9>D1C1>;5<9>D1C1> 5<9>D1C1>;5<9>D1C1>  '1C1>71>@1C1>71>29<1>71>;E1>DE=25B9;ED9>9I1>7[email protected] =5>771=21B;1> ;51411> C1<18 C1DE 5<5;DB?>;E<9DD5B<E1B1D?=%1141<18&$%$%C12345  +>DE;29<1>71>;E1>DE=?B29D1<$ >9<1929<1>71>;E1>DE==17>5D9;%CI1>7=E>7;9>141<181>?<2M   3M   4 M M    5M M M      '5B21>49>71>1>D1B1@1>:1>775<?=21>771B9C@5BD1=145B5D#I=1>>41>@1>:1>775<?=21>771B9C;54E11<=5B@141[email protected];DBE=1D?=894B?75>141<181  4 2  5 3   69>9D1C5<5;DB?>141<1815>5B79I1>7492521C;1>@141C11D@5=25>DE;1>9?>>571D9625>5B79I1>7[email protected]@141C11D@5=25>DE;1>9?>>571D9635>5B79I1>7492521C;1>@141C11D@5=25>DE;1>9?>@?C9D964 5>5B79I1>7[email protected]@141C11D@5=25>DE;1>9?>@?C9D965C1=145>71>5>5B799?>9C1C9  +>CEBI1>7=5=9<9;9DE:E85<5;DB?>F1<5>C9141<1814%12 )9531  5B9;ED@5B>I1D11>I1>725>1BD5>D1>7E>CEB#-$!1E>CEB I1>7 1D?=>I1 =E418 =5=25>DE; 9?>>571D9649C52EDE>CEB5<5;DB?>571D962E>CEBE>CEB I1>7 =5=9<9;9 5<5;DB?> F1<5>C9;EB1>7 41B9 [email protected] [email protected];1> E>CEB I1>75<5;DB?>571D963E>CEBE>CEBI1>7=5=9<9;95<5;DB?>F1<5>C9<529841B9[email protected][email protected];1>E>CEBI1>75<5;DB?>571D964 E>CEB 5<5;[email protected]?C9D96 141<18 E>CEB I1>7 CE<9D=5>1>7;[email protected]5<5;DB?>5E>CEBI1>7=E41825BE218=5>:1499?>>571D9649C52EDE>CEBI1>75<5;DB?>571D96  )E1DE 71B9C [email protected];DB1< 49 [email protected];DBE= 894B?75> =5=9<9;9@1>:1>775<?=21>7 >='5B25411>5>5B791>D1B1;5E1 D9>7;1D 5>5B79 I1>7 =5=25>DE; 71B9C D5BC52ED141<181  ,4 ,2  ,5 ,3  ,  9<1>71>29<1>71>;E1>DE=25B9;ED9>9141<18CE1DE;[email protected]<1> I1>7 =E>7;9> 41B9 29<1>71>29<1>71>;E1>DE= E>DE; C52E18 5<5;DB?> 41<1= ?B29D1< 141<181& $ %$ %+2& $ %$M %+3& $M %$ %+4& $ %$ %+5& $M %$ %+&
Mudah dan Aktif Belajar Fisika untuk Kelas XII228 )52ED;1>4E181<I1>7D5B;1>4E>741<1==?45<1D?=(ED85B6?B441>?8B !5<1C;1>@5B25411>1>D1B1=?45<1D?=(ED85B6?B441>?8B 9DE>7<18@1>:1>775<?=21>7[email protected]>45;41B9145B5D#I=1>245B5D'1C385>345B5D'6E>4)52E181D?=894B?75>@141;51411>41C1B=5>[email protected]C52E186?D?>C589>771=5>71<1=95;C9D1C9;5?B29D;5*5>DE;1><18@1>:1>775<?=21>741>6B5;E5>C96?D?>)E1DE25B;1C5<5;DB?>49D1=218;1>@14171C894B?75>!9;14981C9<;1>@5=1>31B1>[email protected];DBE=I1>725B1C1<41B9DB1>C9C9& ;5;51411>& C541>7;1>5>5B799;1D5<5;DB?> @141 D9>7;1D 41C1B C1=1 45>71>  5,D5>DE;1>5>5B79=9>9=E=5<5;DB?> (=()3(/7,8:(5?((5),802;:+,5.(5:,7(:!5<1C;1>45>71>2171>;?>697EB1C95<5;DB?>41B91D?=<9D89E=*5>DE;1>5>5B795<5;DB?>@141;51411>41C1B& E>DE;11D?=894B?75>29?>50 39?>#9 0 %I1D1;1>:1G121>>4141<1=C1DE1>5,>5B79 D?D1< 5<5;DB?> #9  @141 CE1DE ?B29D D5BD5>DE141<18 5,[email protected];1829<1>71>;E1>DE=ED1=1?B29DD5BC52EDD?=;1<9E==5=9<9;9>?=?B1D?= 1*5>DE;1>;?>697EB1C95<5;DB?>1D?=D5BC52ED2$5>[email protected];1<9E=C1>71DB51;D96C531B1;9=9141>35>45BE>7=5=25>DE;9?>"