Gambar Sampul Fisika · g_bab 7 Radiasi Benda Hitam
Fisika · g_bab 7 Radiasi Benda Hitam
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Radiasi Benda Hitam175menganalisis secara kualitatif gejala kuantum yang mencakup hakikat dan sifat-sifat radiasi benda hitam, serta penerapannya.Setelah mempelajari bab ini, Anda harus mampu:menganalisis berbagai besaran fisis dan gejala kuantum dan batas-batasberlakunya relativitas Einstein dalam paradigma Fisika Modern.Hasil yang harus Anda capai:Radiasi Benda HitamA. Pengertian RadiasiBenda HitamB. DualismeGelombangPartikel'2D292B:>6BEA2<2?CE>36B<69:5EA2?5:E>: ?6B8:I2?85:A2?42B<2?'2D292B:>6>32?DEC6>E2DE>3E92?36B<[email protected]@7:=E?DE<>6=2<E<2?[email protected][email protected]:?D6C:CI2:DE[email protected]A6>3E2D2?>2<2?2? -E>3E92?>6BEA2<2?CE>36B>2<2?2?ED2>2328:>2?EC:252?96G2? $25:C642B2D:52<=2?8CE?8>2?EC:252?96G2?36B82?DE?8A2526?6B8:I2?85:A2?42B<2?'2D292B: ,6=2:?:DE6?6B8:I2?85:A2?42B<2?'2D292B:>6>3E2DCE9E5:E>:D6D2A92?82DD:52<D6B=2=E5:?8:?C69:?882<69:5EA2?5:E>:D6D2AD6B;282 *6B?29<2??5236BA:<:B36B2A236C2B6?6B8:I2?85:A2?42B<2?'2D292B:2D2E36B2A2CE9E'2D292B:C69:?882>6>:=:<:6?6B8:I2?8C2?82D36C2B'6?EBED3636B2A2A6?6=:D:2?CE9E5:A6B>E<22?'2D292B:C6<:D2B L A2<29?523:C2>6?5E823282:>2?242B2:=>EG2?D6BC63ED>6?89:DE?8CE9E'2D292B:"2=>6?2B:<=2:??I2252=29B25:2C:I2?85:A2?42B<2?'2D292B: A2<29C:?2B'2D292B:A252C:2?892B:5:2?882A36B3292I2328:<E=:D5:<2B6?2<2?B25:2C:?I2=63:9D:?88:A2<299E3E?82?2?D2B2B25:2C:I2?85:A2?42B<2?52?CE9E'2D292B:*6BD2?I22?A6BD2?I22?D6BC63ED52A2D?52;2G23C6D6=29?52>6>292>:<@?C6AB25:2C:36?529:D2> 2=2>323:?:?522<2?>6?52A2D<2?3636B2A2[email protected]>6?22=2>I2?8C636?2B?I2>6BEA2<2?2A=:<2C:52B:<@?C6A7:C:<2 175Matahari merupakan sumber energi yang utama bagi Bumi. Mataharimemberikan energi melalui radiasi gelombang yang dipancarkannya.Bab7Sumber: CD Image
Mudah dan Aktif Belajar Fisika untuk Kelas XII176A. Pengertian Radiasi Benda Hitam1.Radiasi Benda Hitam?52D6=2936=2;2B5:<6=2C1D6?D2?8A2?42B2?2D2EB25:2C:@=69CE2DE36?52 ':C2=?I29E3E?82?2?D2B232?I2<?I26?6B8:I2?85:A2?42B<2?52?CE9EI2?85:>:=:<:CE2DE36?52 ,642B2C656B92?2?5252A2D>6=2<E<2?A6?82>2D2?>6=2=E:C63E29<68:2D2?I2?8C6B:?85:=2<E<2? ':C2=?I2<6D:<2?52[email protected]=29B282A252A28:92B:I2?846B29?522<2?>6B2C2<2?252?I2<[email protected]I2?85:A2?42B<2?@=694292I2'2D292B:<6DE3E9 %6D:<2?52>2CE<<652=2>BE2?82?2<2?D6B2C2329G2CE9EBE2?82?>6?:?8<2D "2=D6BC63ED>6?E?;E<<2?252?I2<[email protected]I2?85:A2?42B<2?52B:DE3E9>ED6B9252A=:?8<E?82?56?82?42B2B25:2C: @[email protected]D6BC63ED>6>3E<D:<2?329G236?522<2?>6>2?42B<2?B25:2C:6=6<[email protected]>28?6D:<;:<2>6>:=:<:CE9ED:?88: +25:2C:6=6<[email protected]>28?6D:<I2?85:A2?42B<2?@=6936?525:C63ED+"," -+&%-29E<29?522A2I2?85:>2<CE556?82?36?529:D2> '!"-&%! ,.-. ,",-& 1'  )- &'1+) ,&. +"," $%(+ 1'  &' '"' -. ,",-& -+,.- ,EA2I2?5252A2D=63:9>6>292>:D6?D2?836?529:D2>A6B92D:<2?82>32B36B:<ED *252&2'&65:A6B=:92D<2?C63E29<@D2<I2?8D6B3E2D52B:[email protected]>I2?852A2D5:2?882AC63282:36?529:D2>C6>AEB?252?C2=29C2DEC:C:?I25:3E2D=E32?8 292I2I2?8>2CE<>6=2=E:=E32?85:A2?DE=<2?D6BEC>6?6BEC@=695:?5:?8<@D2<52?92>A:B52A2D5:A2CD:<2?D:52<252=28:4292I2I2?8<6=E2B #?:2BD:?I2=E32?8D6=2936B7E?8C:>6?I6B2AC6>E2B25:2C:<[email protected]I2?8252 +25:2C:4292I2I2?8<6=E2B52B:52=2><@D2<9:D2>>6=2=E:C63E29=E32?836B2C2=52B:@C:[email protected]@C:[email protected]92B>@?:<I2?836B86D2B5:52=2><@D2<56?82?>@5EC86D2BD6BD6?DE mail protected]>[email protected]>A2525:?5:?8<@D2<2<2?>6?I6B2A6?6B8:A2?2C52?36B86D2B mail protected]>[email protected]>:?:2<2?36B=2<EC63282:@C:[email protected]92B>@?:<I2?8>6?:>3E=<2?[email protected]>32?86=6<[email protected]>28?6D:< [email protected]>32?86=6<[email protected]>28?6D:<I2?85:D:>3E=<2?@=69@C:[email protected]2<2?5:A2?DE=<2?36BE=2?8E=2?8@=695:?5:?8<@D2<52?>6>36?DE<[email protected]>32?836B5:B: "2C:=6<CA6B:>6?>6?E?;E<<2?329G2:?D6?C:D2CB25:2C:D6B>2=36B32?5:?8=EBEC56?82?A2?8<2D6>A2DCE9E36?52 ,6>2<:?D:?88:CE9EC63E2936?52C6>2<:?36C2BAE=26?6B8:<[email protected]I2?85:A2?42B<2? ,6=2:?:DE6?6B8:<[email protected]52?:?D6?C:D2CB25:2C:D6B>2=C2?82D36B82?DE?8A252<@?5:C:36?DE<52?A6B>E<22?I2?85:>:=:<:36?52 '6?EBED!8*+&3418>2&33:?D6?C:D2CB25:2C:D6B>2=CE2DE36?525:?I2D2<2?56?82?M Gambar 7.1Cahaya yang masuk ke dalamkotak yang dianggap sebagaibenda hitam sempurna, akandipantulkan terus-menerus olehdinding kotak.!*'*1922*25*1&/&6.0437*5 &).&7.*3)&.8&20*6/&0&31&-74&174&1'*6.098)&1&2'9091&8.-&3Tes Kompetensi Awal $:<2?52>6?;6>EB5E2<2:?32C29I2?836BG2B?29:D2>52?AED:95:32G29C:?2B'2D292B:<2:?>2?2<29I2?82<2?=63:946A2D<6B:?8$6=2C<2?>6?82A256>:<:2? A2I2?85:>2<CE556?82?36?529:D2>C6>AEB?2 A2<29C6D:2A36?52C6=2=E>6>2?42B<2?6?6B8: A2I2?85:>2<CE55E2=:C>6[email protected]>32?8A2BD:<6= A2I2?85:>2<CE5676<[email protected]@=:CDB:<52?676<@>[email protected]?,63ED<2?;E82[email protected]<@9[email protected]<@9A6?6>E2?86;2=2D6BC63ED
Radiasi Benda Hitam177,63E2936?52>6>:=:<:CE9EC636C2B L $:<2<@?CD2?D26>:C:F:D2C36?52D6BC63EDD6?DE<2?:?D6?C:D2CB25:2C:I2?85:A2?42B<2? &;&':<6D29E:  % % P M0 >%6B52C2B<2?*67&2&&3?2<2?5:[email protected]=69   P M0 >% % 0 >$25::?D6?C:D2CB25:2C:D6B>2=I2?85:A2?42B<2?36?52D6BC63ED252=29 0 >%2G2DCA:B2==2>AEA:;2B>6>:=:<:=E2CA6B>E<22? >>52?CE9E?I2 L :2?52:<2?329G2 52B:6?6B8:=:CDB:<I2?85:92?D2B<2?A252=2>AE5:B25:2C:<2?52=2>36?DE<<[email protected]52?<2G2DA:;2B36BC:72DC6A6BD:36?529:D2> 6B2A22>A6B62BECI2?8>6?82=:B52=2>=2>AEI2?85:9E3E?8<2?56?82?[email protected]<@?D2<36BD682?82? /282B=2>AED6BC63ED52A2D36B7E?8C:%6D6B2?82?6>:C:F:D2C36?52  E?DE<36?529:D2>C6>AEB?2 CE9E%<@?CD2?D2,D672?@=DJ>2??P M0 >%)=69<2B6?2:?D6?C:D2C252=296?6B8:I2?8I2?85:A2?42B<2?D:2AC2DE2?G2<DE52?D:2AC2DE2?=E2C>2<2:?D6?C:D2CB25:2C:D6B>2=52A2D;E825:?I2D2<2?C63282:52I2A6BC2DE2?=E2C 52?M %6D6B2?82?:?D6?C:D2CB25:2C:D6B>2=0 >52I20=E2CA6B>E<22?36?52>6?82?>6?CE3CD:DEC:<2?*67&2&&3? <6*67&2&&3?>2<252I2B25:2C:I2?85:A2?42B<2?36?522<2?>6>:=:<:A6BC2>22? M*252CE9EBE2?8C6<:D2B LB25:2C:D6B>2=I2?85:A2?42B<2?36?52D:52<52A2DD6B=:92D@=69>2D2 <2?D6D2A:36?5236?52D6BC63EDA252CE9E L52A2DD6B=:92D "2=D6BC63ED5:C6323<2?36?5236?52:DE>6>2?DE=<2?4292I2 $25:;:<2?52:?8:?>6?82>2D:B25:2C:D6B>2=C2;292BEC>6?88E?2<2?36?52I2?8D:52<>6>2?DE=<2?4292I2>:C2=?I236?5236?52I2?836BG2B?29:D2> 6?529:D2>>6?I6B2AC6=EBE9B25:2C:I2?852D2?8<6A252?I2 "2=:?:52A2D?522>2D:<6D:<2[email protected]?8>6>2?2C<2?C632D2?836C: *252CE9E5:32G29 L36=E>D2>A2<CA6<DBE>G2B?2I2?85:D:>3E=<2?52B:36C::DEC6D6=29CE9E5:?2:<<2?52?36C:>E=2:>6>32B22<2?>E=2:D2>A2<A6BE3292?CA6<DBE>G2B?236BC2>22?56?82?<6?2:<2?CE9E Contoh 7.1Contoh 7.2Dalam kehidupan sehari-hari tidakada benda yang dapat menyerapseluruh radiasi yang mengenainya.IngatlahDalam SI, suhu menggunakan satuanderajat Kelvin.Ingatlah
Mudah dan Aktif Belajar Fisika untuk Kelas XII1782.Spektrum Radiasi Benda Hitam$:<2CE2DE36?52A252D5:A2?2C<2?36?52D6BC63ED2<2?>6>2?42B<2?B25:2C:<[email protected]52=2>36?DE<CA6<DBE>[email protected]>32?86=6<[email protected]>28?6D:<56?82?A2?;2?8[email protected]>32?852?7B6<E6?C:I2?836B3652 *252CE9EI2?8=63:9D:?88:2<2?D6B52A2DB25:2C::?7B2>6B29I2?8D:52<52A2D5:=:92DD6D2A:52A2D5:B2C2<2?A2?2C?I2 "2=:?:52A2D5:2>2D:A252[email protected]@?8[email protected]>I2?85:A2?2C<2?9:?882>6?42A2:CE9E % &@82>36BA:;2B56?82?G2B?2<E?:?82D2E<6AED:9AED:92? +25:2C:[email protected]>32?8I2?85:A2?42B<2?<6>E5:2?5:=6G2D<2?>6=2=E:46=29282B5:[email protected]=6936B<2C[email protected]>32?8I2?8C6>A:DC6A6BD:D2>A2<A252&2'&6 6?82?56>:<:2?[email protected]>32?82<2?D6B5:CA6BC:>6?EBEDA2?;2?8[email protected]>32?8C6D:2ACA6<DBE> 6D6<[email protected]I2?8D6B=:92DA25282>32B52A2D5:86C6B86C6B>6?EBEDCE5ED56F:2C:[email protected]>32?8D6B5:CA6BC: *6B4@322?:?:5:=2<E<2?A252CE9E36?529:D2>I2?836B36523652 *6?82>2D2?A252:?D6?C:D2CCA6<DBE>B25:2C:>6?892C:=<2?52D2I2?85:DE?;E<<2?A252&2'&6 &2'&6 >6?E?;E<<2?329G22A23:=2CE9ECE2DE36?52D6BEC5:?2:<<2?:?D6?C:D2CB6=2D:752B:CA6<DBE>4292I2I2?85:A2?42B<2??I236BE329 #?:>6?I6323<2?A6B86C6B2?52=2>G2B?2G2B?:CA6<DBE>I2?8D6B2>2D:I2?852A2D5:8E?2<2?E?DE<>6?2<C:BCE9ECE2DE36?52 -6B=:92D;E82A6B86C6B2?A2?;2?8[email protected]>32?8>2<C:>E>>2<C ,6>2<:?D:?88:CE9ECE2DE36?52>2<CC6>2<:?36B86C6B<62B29A2?;2?8[email protected]>32?8I2?8=63:9A6?56< 82B?52=63:9>6>292>:"E<E>*6B86C6B2?0:6?A6B92D:<2?&2'&6 36B:<ED Gambar 7.3Spektrum warna pijar suatu bendapanas berubah terhadap suhunya.Gambar 7.2Percobaan untuk mengamatispektrum radiasi benda hitam.Warna1.5001.4001.3001.2001.1001.000900800700600500putihkuning mudakuningoranyemerah-oranyemerah cerimerah tuabaru tampakT ºCI ( Wb/m2)(m)T2 > T1T1benda hitamprismacelahspektrumgelombangdetektorGambar 7.4Grafik pergeseran panjanggelombang maksimum padasaat suhu berubah dari T1 ke T2.&;&':<6D29E:=E2CA6B>E<22? >> P M>CE9E>ED=2<  %  %6>:C:F:D2C 2?882A36?529:D2>P M0 >%2I2<[email protected]B25:2C:I2?85:A2?42B<2?@=69=2>AEA:;2B5:9:DE?8>6=2=E:*67&2&&3? I2:DE  P M03 >% P M>  % 02I2<[email protected]B25:2C::?:252=29 52B:52I2=:CDB:<I2?85:36B:<2?<6=2>AEA:;2B $25: 0 P=:CDB:<=:CDB:<  0    0-682?82?=:CDB:< [email protected]=D BEC=:CDB:<I2?8>6?82=:B>6=2=E:=2>AEA:;2B5:9:DE?852B:BE>EC52I2=:CDB:<  0    / Sumber: Physics, 1993Sumber: Physics, 1993
Radiasi Benda Hitam1792B:&2'&6 D6B=:92D329G2A2?;2?8[email protected]>32?8:?D6?C:D2C>2<C:>E>36?52I2?8CE9E?I2D:?88:=63:9A6?56<52B:A2?;2?8[email protected]>32?8:?D6?C:D2C36?52I2?8CE9E?I2B6?529 !6;2=2A6B86C6B2?>2<CA252B25:2C:36?529:D2>5:C63ED"E<E>*6B86C6B2?0:6? ,642B2>2D6>2D:C"E<E>*6B86C6B2?0:6?5:?I2D2<2?52=2>A6BE>EC2?36B:<ED >2<C<@?CD2?M0:6?>6?6>E<2?329G292C:=<2=:2?D2B2>2<C52?CE9E>ED=2<>6BEA2<2?3:=2?82?<@?CD2?C6A6BD:A252*67&2&&3? 52?3:=2?82?<@?CD2?A252A6BE>EC2?"E<E>*6B86C6B2?0:6?36B?:=2: P M>% "E<E>*6B86C6B2?0:6?;E825:8E?2<2?E?DE<>6>A6B<:B2<2?CE9EC63E293:?D2?856?82?>6=:92DG2B?24292I2C63E293:?D2?8CE9E3:?D2?8D6BC63ED52A2D5:AB65:<C:<2? Contoh 7.3,63E2936?525:A2?2C<2?9:?88236BCE9E L -6?DE<2?=29A2?;2?8[email protected]>32?8>2<C:>E>B25:2C:D6B>2=I2?85:A2?42B<2?36?52D6BC63ED &;&':<6D29E: L  % %36B52C2B<2?*6BC2>22? M2<2?5:[email protected]=69>2<C >2<C % P M>%>2<C  >% > %$25:A2?;2?8[email protected]>32?8>2<C:>E>B25:2C:D6B>2=252=29 P M> IT1T2T36B52C2B<2?8B27:<:?D6?C:D2CB25:2C:D6B9252AA2?;2?8[email protected]>32?8C6A6BD:5:DE?;E<<2?A25282>32B5:C2>A:?83282:>2?2<299E3E?82?2?D2B2CE9E>ED=2<52?&;&'2B:8B27:<A25282>32B5:C2>A:?85:[email protected]=69329G2EBED2?A2?;2?8[email protected]>32?8E?DE<:?D6?C:D2CB25:2C:>2<C:>E>252=29 &&& 6B52C2B<2?9E<E>A6B86C6B2?0:6?*67&2&&3? 5:[email protected]=69& 2D2E&$25: &&& 5:[email protected]=69  Contoh 7.43.Pendekatan Teori Rayleigh–Jeans*252D29E?  >E?4E=A6BD2?I22?3282:>2?2>6?;6=2C<2?CA6<DBE>B25:2C:36?529:D2> *6?82>2D2?52?6<CA6B:>6?I2?8D6=295:=2<E<2?A252>2C2:DE>[email protected]>6?42B:A6?;6=2C2? ,A6<DBE>B25:2C:To k o hMax Planck(1858 – 1947)Max Planck dilahirkan di Kiel,Jerman. Ia belajar di Munich danBerlin. Seperti banyak ahli fisikalainnya, ia seorang pemain musikyang pandai. Pada tahun 1900 M,setelah 6 tahun belajar di UniversitasBerlin, ia menyatakan bahwa kuncipemahaman radiasi benda hitamadalah anggapan bahwa pemancarandan penyerapan radiasi terjadi dalamkuantum energi hf. Penemuan yangmenghasilkan hadiah Nobel 1918 inisekarang dianggap sebagai tonggakdari fisika modern. Walaupun selamaHitler berkuasa, ia tetap tinggal diJerman. Ia memprotes perlakuanNazi kepada ilmuwan Yahudi dansebagai akibatnya ia harusmelepaskan kedudukannya sebagaipresiden Institut Kaiser Wilhelm.Setelah perang dunia kedua, instituttersebut diberi nama Institut Planckdan ia kembali menjabat sebagaipresiden sampai akhir hayatnya.Sumber: Fundamental Of Physics, 20011m2m3m
Mudah dan Aktif Belajar Fisika untuk Kelas XII18036?529:D2>5:D6B2?8<2?@=6946) &=1*.,-  M  52?!.6&2*745;&6)*&37 M  *6BE>EC2?>6B6<2>6?88E?2<2?[email protected]:7:C:<2<=2C:<C6A6BD:[email protected]:<:?6D:<82C :%6=2C1#?52D6=29>6>A6=2;2B:>2D6B:A2?2C36?5236B9E3E?82?56?82?6?6B8:<:?6D:<>@=6<E=82C [email protected]:6<:A2BD:C:>6?I2D2<2?329G26?6B8:[email protected]=82C52=2>CE2DEBE2?82?D6BDEDEA5:328:C642B2>6B2D2<6C6D:2A>@=6<E=I2?8D6B52A2D5:52=2>BE2?82? $:<26?6B8:[email protected]=C:CD6>252=2952?32?I2<?I2>@=6<E=I2?836B25252=2>BE2?82?252=296?6B8:B2D2B2D2I2?85:>:=:<:@=69C6D:2A>@=6<E=252=29 ?6B8::?:D6B<2?5E?852=2>36?DE<6?6B8:<:?6D:<C6D:2A>@=6<E= <2?D6D2A:D:52<36B2BD:C6>E2>@=6<E=>6>:=:<:6?6B8:I2?8C2>2I2:DE (:=2:D6BC63ED92?I2=29>6BEA2<2??:=2:B2D2B2D2 &2'&6 >6>A6B=:92D<2?C632B2?<646A2D2?I2?85:>:=:<:>@=6<E=82C ,632B2?6?6B8:<646A2D2?<2B6?26?6B8:<:?6D:<C6=2=E36B9E3E?82?56?82?<646A2D2?  &=1*.,-*&37>6=:92D329G2<EBF2C632B2?:DEC6BEA256?82?92C:=I2?85:[email protected]=69A252:?D6?C:D2CCA6<DBE>B25:2C:D6B>2= '6B6<236B2?882A2?252<6>:B:A2?2?D2B2C:72DA2?2C36?5252?B25:2C:D6B>2= 6?82?A6?56<2D2?I2?8>6B6<2=2<E<2? &=1*.,-*&37>6>[email protected]=69A6BE>EC2?329G2:?D6?C:D2CB25:2C:36B32?5:?8D6B32=:<56?82?A2?8<2D6>A2DA2?;2?8[email protected]>32?8 .?DE<I2?836C2B:?D6?C:D2C2<2?C6>2<:?<64:= A23:=2>6?56<2D:D2<9:?882:?D6?C:D2C2<2?>6?56<2D:[email protected]= "2=:?:C6CE2:56?82?92C:=6>A:B:C <2?D6D2A:2A23:=2>6?56<2D:[email protected]=92=:?:C2?82D>6?I:>A2?852B:92C:=6>A:B:CI2?8>6?E?;E<<2?329G2:?D6?C:D2C>6?56<2D:[email protected]=<6D:<2C6>2<:?>6?864:= *6?I:>A2?82?A6BC2>22?+2I=6:89$62?CI2?8C2?82D;2E9:?:5:?2>2<2?N6?42?2.=DB2/:@=6DO<2B6?2I2?8<64:=36B25252=2>G:=2I29[email protected]>32?8E=DB2F:@=6D &2'&6 >6?E?;E<<2?9E3E?82?:?D6?C:D2C52?A2?;2?8[email protected]>32?82?D2B2<EBF2+2I=6:89$62?C52?<EBF20:6? [email protected]:%.*352A2D>6?6B2?8<2?CA6<DBE>A252A2?;2?8[email protected]>32?8I2?8A6?56<D6D2A:>6?I:>A2?8<6D:<2>6?6B2?8<2?A2?;2?8[email protected]>32?8I2?8A2?;2?8 ,632=:<?I2[email protected]: &=1*.,-*&3752A2D>6?6B2?8<2?CA6<DBE>A252A2?;2?8[email protected]>32?8I2?8A2?;2?8D6D2A:>6?I:>A2?8<6D:<2>6?6B2?8<2?A2?;2?8[email protected]>32?8I2?8A6?56< 4.Teori Planck[email protected]:<=2C:<D6?D2?84292I2C63282:[email protected]>32?86=6<[email protected]>28?6D:<52A2D>6?;6=2C<2?52B:>2?22C2=B25:2C:<[email protected]D6D2A:D:52<3:C256?82?D6A2D>6>AB65:<C:<2?CA6<DBE>4292I2I2?85:A2?42B<2?C63282:>2?2I2?8D6B2>2D:@=69%.*3 [email protected]:%.*3>2>AE>6?;6=2C<2?B25:2C:36?529:D2>E?DE<A2?;2?8[email protected]>32?8I2?8A6?56<D6D2A:8282=E?DE<A2?;2?8[email protected]>32?8I2?8A2?;2?8 ,632=:<?I2[email protected]: &=1*.,-*&3736B92C:=>6?;6=2C<2?B25:2C:36?529:D2>E?DE<A2?;2?8[email protected]>32?8I2?8A2?;2?8D6D2A:8282=E?DE<A2?;2?8[email protected]>32?8I2?8A6?56< <9:B?I2A6?;6=2C2?I2?8>6>E2C<2?=29:B52B:[email protected]?87:C:<2G2?$6B>2?&<1&3(0 M  #2>[email protected]>6=2<E<2?A6?56<2D2?=2:?56?82?>6?82;E<2?CE2DEBE>EC6>A:B:C52?D6B?I2D2C2?82D[email protected]@<56?82?92C:=A6?82>2D2??I2 vn (v)Gambar 7.5Sebaran jumlah partikel yangmemiliki kecepatan (v).TeoriRayleigh-JeansTeoriWienInt ensit asPan j an g g e l o m b an gTeoriPlanckGambar 7.6Perbandingan teori Wien, danteori Rayleigh-Jeans denganteori Planck yang memenuhidata percobaan.Tugas Anda 7.1Carilah dari buku-buku tentangformula yang digunakan Rayleigh-Jeans untuk menjelaskan intensitasradiasi benda hitam.
Radiasi Benda Hitam1811&3(0>6?42B:52C2B[email protected]:E?DE<BE>EC6>A:B:C?I2 E23E=2?<6>E5:2?:236B92C:=>6>3E2D2CE>C:I2?8C2?82D>6?86;ED<2?A252C22D:DEI2:DED6?D2?886D2B2?>@=6<E=>@=6<E=5:A6B>E<22?36?529:D2> 1&3(0>6?86>E<2<2?[email protected]=2D?I2C63282:36B:<ED  ?6B8:B25:2C:I2?85:A2?42B<2?@=6986D2B2?>@=6<E=>@=6<E=@C:[email protected]36?52>6BEA2<2?A2<6DA2<6D<E2?D26?6B8: 6C2B?I26?6B8:52=2>C6D:2AA2<6D>6BEA2<2?<6=:A2D2?3:=2?82?3E=2DCE2DE36C2B2?NOI2:DE?'!M56?82?'252=293:=2?82?2C=:   I2?85:C63ED3:=2?82?<E2?DE>52?252=297B6<E6?C:86D2B2?>@=6<E=>@=6<E=C652?8<2?!>6BEA2<2?<@?CD2?D2*=2?4<I2?836C2B?I2 P M$C )=69<2B6?26?6B8:B25:2C:36BC:72D5:C<B:D5:<2D2<2?6?6B8:?I2D6B<E2?D:C2C:52?6?6B8:I2?85:[email protected]=69<2?56?82?'   5:C63EDD:?8<2D6?6B8:  '@=6<E=>@=6<E=>6?I6B2A2D2E>6>2?42B<2?6?6B8:B25:2C:4292I252=2>A2<6D5:C<B:DI2?85:C63ED<E2?DE>2D2E[email protected]@? ?6B8: [email protected]@?<2B6?2A6B36522?5E2D:?8<2D6?6B8:C6A6BD:D2>A2<A252&2'&6252=29 !M$:<2>@=6<E=>@=6<E=>6?I6B2A >6>2?42B<2? [email protected]@?D:?8<2D6?6B8:?I236BD2>3292D2E36B<EB2?8C636C2B! !282C2?1&3(0:?:36B=2<EE?DE<36?529:D2> &2?8<291&3(056?82?[email protected]=2D?I2329G26?6B8:@C:[email protected]D6B<E2?D:C2C:>6BEA2<2?C63E29[email protected]@C2?36C2B1&3(0C6?5:B:36BC2>2:=>EG2?C62?8<2D2??I2D:52<>6?I252B:92=:DE !282C2?*=2?4<5:2?882AC63282:[email protected]?882<2G2=7:C:<2<E2?DE> En01234ke n =01hf2hf3hf4hfGambar 7.7Tingkat-tingkat energi yangdiperkenankan untuk satumolekul yang frekuensinya f.$E>=29>:?:>E>[email protected]@?4292I2I2?8A2?;2?8[email protected]>32?8?I2?>E?DE<>6?:>3E=<2?B2?8C2?82?F:CE2=A252>2D2[email protected]>2=252=29' [email protected]@?A6BC6<@? $:<246A2DB2>32D4292I2P > C52?!P M$CD6?DE<2?=2952I24292I2D6BC63ED &;&'?6B8:4292I236B52C2B<2?*67&2&&3? 252=29'!'!2I24292I2D6BC63ED52A2D5:D6?DE<2?C63282:36B:<ED '!--   $C  > C 0 C  >Contoh 7.5Tantanganuntuk AndaPerumusan Rayleigh-Jeans tidakcocok diterapkan untuk radiasibenda hitam pada daerah panjanggelombang pendek. Dapatkah Andamenduga, apa implikasi daripersamaan Rayleigh-Jeans padadaerah panjang gelombang pendekuntuk kehidupan di Bumi?
Mudah dan Aktif Belajar Fisika untuk Kelas XII1825. Aplikasi Radiasi Benda Hitam untuk Mengukur SuhuMatahari'2D292B:>6BEA2<2?3:?D2?8I2?8A2=:?856<2D56?82?E>:;2B2<?I2C6<:D2B  <> '2D292B:>6>2?42B<2?6?6B8:<[email protected]I2?8C2?82D36B8E?2328:<69:5EA2?5:E>: ?6B8:D6BC63ED36B2C2=52B:B62<C:7EC:9:[email protected]?5:52=2>:?D:'2D292B: 2A2D<29?52>6>32I2?8<2?36B2A236C2B6?6B8:I2?85:92C:=<2?'2D292B:C69:?882C2>A2:;2B2<  <>6?6B8::DE>2C:925236BEA24292I252?<[email protected]+25:2C:6?6B8:'2D292B:C2?82D36C2BC6A6BD:I2?8D6=29?52A6=2;2B: #?D6?C:D2CB25:2C::?:36B32?5:?8=EBEC56?82?A2?8<2D6>A2DCE9E?I2 '6?EBED[email protected]:B25:2C:I2?85:A2?42B<2?:?:>6>:=:<::?D6?C:D2CI2?836B36523652 .?DE<=63:9>6>292>:<@?C6A:?:A6B92D:<2?&2'&636B:<ED:?: &2'&6>6?E?;E<<2?CA6<DBE>B25:2C:'2D292B:I2?85:E<EB5:=E2B2?8<2C2 !B27:<D6BC63EDC2?82D>:B:A56?82?8B27:<:?D6?C:D2CB25:2C:36?529:D2> )=69<2B6?2:DEA2B2[email protected][email protected]>>6?82CE>C:<2?'2D292B:C63282:36?529:D2>C69:?8823:C25:9:DE?836B2A2CE9E5:A6B>E<22?'2D292B:56?82?>6?88E?2<2?"E<E>*6B86C6B2?0:6? 2B:8B27:<D6B=:92D329G2?:=2::?D6?C:D2C>2<C:>E>D6B52A2DA252A2?;2?8[email protected]>32?8C636C2B K526B29A2?;2?8[email protected]>32?8C:?2BD2>A2< '6?EBED"E<E>*6B86C6B2?0:6?2<2?5:52A2D<2??:=2:CE9E5:A6B>E<22?'2D292B:C63282:36B:<ED >2<C  P M>% P >%P > %,6=2:?E?DE<>6?8E<EBCE9E'2D292B:A6?6B2A2?B25:2C:36?529:D2>:?:52A2D5:8E?2<2?E?DE<>6?8E<EBCE9E3:?D2?8=2:??I2I2:DE56?82?>6?82?2=:C:CCA6<DBE>3:?D2?8D6BC63ED Gambar 7.8Grafik intensitas radiasiMatahari yang diukur di luarangkasa.      I(W/m2)710m,2=29C2DE:CE[email protected]=I2?8C6B:?85:2?8<2D@=692<D:F:D2C=:?8<E?82?9:5EA252=29:CED6?D2?8A6>2?2C2?E>: 52C6328:2??682B2>2;EI2?8D:52<>2E>6?2?52D2?82?:+(-($(%1(-(D6?D2?8A6>32D2C2?<252B6>:C:82C52B::?5ECDB: !2C6>:C::?:C6328:2?36C2B252=29) '6?EBEDA2B229=:82C):?:=29I2?8>6?82<:32D<2?A6>2?2C2?E>:2D2E5:<6?2=56?82?:CD:=29$.&!+'(.,- 2B:=29:[email protected]>2C:52B:36B3282:CE>36B3E<E>2;2=29:?D6B?6D52?=2:?=2:?D6?D2?89E3E?82?2?D2B2676<BE>29<24252?B25:2C:36?529:D2> :C<EC:<2?=2956?82?D6>2?C6<6=2C?52D6?D2?892=:?: Mari Mencari Tahu1 Å = 10–10 mIngatlahTantanganuntuk AndaGrafik pada Gambar 7.8menunjukkan intensitas radiasiMatahari yang diukur di luar angkasa.Apakah Anda bisa mendugabagaimana grafik intensitas radiasiMatahari jika diukur di permukaanBumi? Apakah di seluruh tempat dipermukaan Bumi intensitas radiasiMatahari selalu sama? Jelaskanjawaban Anda dengan bahasa yangmudah dipahami dan diskusikanlahbersama teman sekelas.Kata Kunci• benda hitam• radiasi benda hitam• emisivitas benda• intensitas• daya radiasi• spektrum• energi radiasi• radiasi termal
Radiasi Benda Hitam183Gambar 7.9(a) Cahaya sebagai gelombang;(b) Cahaya sebagai paket-paketenergi.3 ,E9E<6B;27:=2>6?DE?8CD6?52=2>CE2DE=2>AEA:;2B252=29  %52?6>:C:F:D2C?I2  -6?DE<2?=E2CA6B>E<22?7:=2>6?=2>AEA:;2B 0 ,63E29=E32?8<64:=A2525:?5:?8-'.+>6?I6BEA2:36?529:D2> $:<2=E2C?I2 4>52?CE9E?I2  LC2>2C6A6BD:CE9E5:52=2>D2?EB36B2A2<296?6B8:I2?85:B25:2C:<2?<6=E2B=E32?8C6D:2A56D:< @=2+4>36BC:72DC6A6BD:36?529:D2>36B25252=2><62522?C6:>32?856?82?=:?8<E?82??I2 -6B?I2D2 [email protected]=2 >6?I6B2A 52I2   <0 52B:=:?8<E?82??I2 6B2A2<29CE9E[email protected]=2:DE &2>AEA:;2B52A2D5:2?882A36B36?DE<[email protected]=2 $2B:;2B:=2>AEA:;2BA6BD2>2252=295E2<2=:;2B:;2B:=2>AE<65E2 ,E9EA:;2BA6BD2>252?<65E2>2C:?8>2C:?8L52? L -6?DE<2??:=2:A6B32?5:?82?2?D2B252I2<[email protected]B25:2C:=2>AEA6BD2>252?=2>AE<65E2  %@?CD2?D26>:C:F:D2CC63E2936?529:D2>252=29  ":DE?8=29:?D6?C:D2CB25:2C:I2?85:A2?42B<2?2A23:=2CE9E36?52:DE  %  ,63E29[email protected]=2[email protected]>56?82?;2B:;2B:4>5:A2?2C<2? *252CE9E L[email protected]=2[email protected]>:DE>6>2?42B<2?B25:2C:56?82?52I2 P G2DD ":DE?8=296>:C:F:D2C[email protected]=2[email protected]>D6BC63ED  ":DE?8=2952I2I2?85:A2?42B<2?@=69C63E29<E3ECI2?85:A2?2C<2?9:?882 L %E3ECD6BC63ED>6>:=:<:A2?;2?8C:C: 4>52?D6B3E2D52B:3292?56?82?6>:C:F:D2C  6?52>6>2?42B<2?B25:2C:56?82?>2H ?> 6?52:DED6BEC>6?82=2>:A6>2?2C2?C69:?882CE9E?I2<2=:=:A2DCE9EC6>E=2 -6?DE<2?=29>2HC6D6=29A6>2?2C2? Tes Kompetensi Subbab A*6/&0&31&-5&)&'9091&8.-&3B. Dualisme Gelombang Partikel1.Sifat Partikel yang Dimiliki Gelombang*252>E=2?I232?I2<7:C:<2G2?I2?8>6?82?882A4292I2C63282:[email protected]>32?8 "2=:?:5:A6B<E2D56?82?252?I25:7B2<C:[email protected]=2B:C2C:B67B2<C:B67=6<C:52?:?D6B76B6?C:I2?8C6CE2:56?82?C:72DE>E>[email protected]>32?8 <2?D6D2A:<6D:<2A2B27:C:<2G2?>6?6>E<2?[email protected]>6?2B25:2C:36?529:D2>676<[email protected]@=:CDB:<52?676<@>[email protected]?2CE>C:4292I2C63282:[email protected]>32?8D:52<52A2D>6?;6=2C<2?[email protected]>6?2[email protected]>6?2D6BC63ED %6>E5:2?>E?4E==29A2?52?82?329G24292I2252=29A2BD:<6= ,63282:[email protected]:A6B92D:<29&2'&6 *25282>32BD6BC63ED?523:C2>6>6B92D:<2?A6B36522?4292I2;:<25:2CE>C:<2?C63282:[email protected]>32?852?C63282:A2BD:<6= 6?82?2CE>C:C63282:[email protected]>32?84292I25:A2?42B<2?C63282:B2>32D2?[email protected]>32?8I2?8<@?D:?E 52AE?56?82?2CE>C:C63282:A2BD:<6=4292I25:A2?42B<2?52=2>36?DE<A2<6DA2<6D6?6B8:I2?85:C63ED[email protected]@? ,EA2I2?52=63:9>6>292>:2CE>C:4292I2C63282:A2BD:<6=?523:C2>6>A6=2;2B:676<[email protected]@=:CDB:<52?676<@>[email protected]?36B:<ED a.Efek Fotolistrik#% -+%),'1 %$-+('%$-+(' +" )+&.$' )%- %( &$-"$","'+"' '+$.',"-+-'-.",.-$(-(%",-+"$ =6<[email protected]?I2?8D6B=6A2C52B:A6B>E<22?A=2D[email protected]>D6BC63ED5:C63ED6=6<[email protected]?[email protected]@ *6B:CD:G2:?:A6BD2>2<2=:5:D6>E<2?@=69*68>C6A6BD:5:82>32B<2?A252&2'&6*6B2?8<2D[email protected]?E?DE<>6?82>2D:676<[email protected]@=:CDB:<D6B5:B:2D2CD23E?8<24292>A2E52B252?A=2D[email protected]>I2?85:C63EDC63282:<[email protected] %6D:<2<[email protected]5:C:?2B:56?82?C:?2BE=DB2F:@=6D6=6<[email protected]?2<2?D6B=6A2C52B:<[email protected]52?36B86B2<>6?E;E[email protected]C69:?8822BEC>6?82=:BA252B2?8<2:2? 2?I2<?I26=6<[email protected]?I2?8D6B=6A2C52A2DD6B=:92D52B::?5:<[email protected]<E2D2BECI2?85:DE?;E<<2?@=692>A6B6>6D6B ?6B8:<:?6D:<I2?85:>:=:<:6=6<[email protected]?52A2D5:D6?DE<2?56?82?42B2>6>A6B36C2B3652[email protected]?C:2=2?D2B2<[email protected]52?[email protected]C69:?8823652[email protected]?C:2=36BC:72D>6?292?=2;E2Gambar 7.10Skema eksperimen efek fotolistrik.ruang vakumcahayasaklar gesertutuptabungCTii+–+VA
Mudah dan Aktif Belajar Fisika untuk Kelas XII184Gambar 7.11(a) Apabila energi kinetik elektronmelebihi energi potensialpenghalang, elektron akan dapatmendaki bukit potensial; (b) Energikinetik elektron tidak bergantungpada intensitas cahaya; (c) Setiappermukaan memiliki frekuensi (f0)berbeda.Ekv6=6<[email protected]? 6BC2>22?56?82?<6?2:<2?3652[email protected]?C:2=A6?E?;E<2?;2BE>2>A6B6>6D6B2<2?>6?864:= $:<2A252CE2DE<6D:<2;2BE>2>A6B>6D6B>6?E?;E<2?8<2[email protected]=36C2B?I26?6B8:[email protected]?C:2=C2>256?82?36C2B6?6B8:<:?6D:<I2?85:>:=:<:6=6<[email protected]? (:=2:3652[email protected]?C:2=A252C22D:DE5:C63ED[email protected]?C:2=96?D: ?6B8:[email protected]?C:2=I2?85:36B:<2?52A2D5:AB65:<C:<2?C63282:C63E293E<:DI2?892BEC5:=6G2D:6=6<[email protected]?C6A6BD:A252&2'&6& A23:=23E<:D[email protected]?C:2=D6BEC5:A6BD:?88:CE2DEC22D2>A6B6>6D6BI2?85:A2C2?85:32=:<3E<:D>6?E?;E<<2?2?8<2[email protected]= #?:36B2BD:6?6B8:<:?6D:<6=6<[email protected]?D:52<4E<EA=28:E?DE<>6=6G2D:3E<:D[email protected]?C:2=C69:?88236C2B?I2[email protected]?C:2=96?D:36BC6CE2:2?56?82?6?6B8:<:?6D:<6=6<[email protected]? $ M2D2E>2<C&/M<CA6B:>6?I2?85:=2<E<2?@=69.378*.356?82?>6?8E329E3297B6<E6?C:4292I2I2?8;2DE9A252A=2D[email protected]><[email protected]:?D6?C:D2C4292I252?[email protected]?C:2=A6?892=2?8A252676<[email protected]@=:CDB:<>6>36B:<2?3636B2A2<6C:>AE=2?C63282:36B:<ED 2 6C2B6?6B8:<:?6D:<>2<C:>E>6=6<[email protected]?D:52<36B82?DE?8A252:?D6?C:D2C4292I2A6B92D:<2?&2'&6' 3 ,6D:2AA6B>E<22?[email protected]>>6>3EDE9<2?7B6<E6?C:>:?:>E>D6BD6?DEI2?85:C63ED7B6<E6?C:2>32?8282B676<[email protected]@=:CDB:<52A2D36B=2?8CE?8A6B92D:<2?&2'&6( 4 =6<[email protected]?6=6<[email protected]?5:3632C<2?52B:A6B>E<22?[email protected]>92>A:BD2?A2C6=2?8G2<DEI2:DE<EB2?852B: MC6<@?C6D6=29A6?I:?2B2? 5 [email protected]:[email protected]>32?8D:52<52A2D>6?;6=2C<2?>6?82A26?6B8:<:?6D:<>2<C:>E>6=6<[email protected]?36BD2>329;:<27B6<E6?C:4292I25:A6B36C2B "2C:=6<CA6B:>6?D6BC63EDD:52<52A2D5:;6=2C<2?@=69[email protected]:<=2C:<D6?D2?8[email protected]>32?86=6<[email protected]>28?6D:< '6?EBED[email protected]:<=2C:<6?6B8:I2?85:<2?5E?8[email protected]>32?86=6<[email protected]>28?6D:<36BC6CE2:2?56?82?:?D6?C:D2C?I2 A23:=2:?D6?C:D2CC6>2<:?D:?88:6?6B8:[email protected]>32?86=6<[email protected]>28?6D:<2<2?>6?:?88:AE=2 '652?=:CDB:<I2?85:32G2[email protected]>32?86=6<[email protected]>28?6D:<2<2?>6>36B:<2?82I2A2526=6<[email protected]?5:A6B>E<22?[email protected]>C69:?8826=6<[email protected]?>6>[email protected]=696?6B8:52B:[email protected]>32?8 $:<26?6B8:I2?85:>:=:<:6=6<[email protected]?4E<EA36C2B6=6<[email protected]?2<2?D6B=6A2C52B:A6B>E<22?[email protected]> 6B52C2B<2?92=:DEC692BEC?I26?6B8:<:?6D:<6=6<[email protected]?36B82?DE?8A252:?D6?C:D2C4292I2 %6925:B2?7B6<E6?C:2>32?8AE?D:52<52A2D5:;6=2C<2?56?82?D6@B:<=2C:< <CA6B:>6?>6?E?;E<<2?329G2C6<64:=2A2AE?:?D6?C:D2C4292I22A23:=27B6<E6?C:?I2=63:936C2B52B:A2527B6<E6?C:676<[email protected]@=:CDB:<2<2?D6B;25: '6?EBED[email protected]:<=2C:<C692BEC?I2I2?8252252=29:?D6?C:D2C2>32?8 6?82?<636B82?DE?82?6?6B8:4292I2A252:?D6?C:D2C?I29E3E?82?=:?62B2?D2B26?6B8:<:?6D:<6=6<[email protected]?52?7B6<E6?C:[email protected]>32?86=6<[email protected]>28?6D:<C2>2C6<2=:D:52<52A2D5:;6=2C<2? '6?EBED1'*68.378*.3C6>E26?6B8:[email protected]@?5:36B:<2?<6A2526=6<[email protected]?52?:?:>6?I6323<2?[email protected]@?=6?I2A #236BA2?52?82?329G2<E2?DE>>6BEA2<2?C:72D[email protected]>32?8:DEC6?5:B: '6?EBED?I24292I2Sumber: Fisika untuk Sains dan Teknik Tipler2320468f0f0f0CeNaK1014 Hzenergi potensialgelombang (eV)V0VIintensitastinggiintensitasrendah2341
Radiasi Benda Hitam185D6B5:B:2D2CA2<6DA2<6DI2?85:C63EDC63282:[email protected]@?  @[email protected]?[email protected]@?>6BEA2<2?A2BD:<6=I2?8D:52<36B>2CC2I2?85:C6B2A52?5:A2?42B<2? ?6B8:I2?85:>:=:<:@=69[email protected]@?C2>256?82?<E2?D2I2?85:<6>E<2<2?@=69*=2?4<I2:DE !56?82?!252=29<@?CD2?D2*=2?4<52?252=297B6<E6?C:[email protected]>32?86=6<[email protected]>28?6D:< :?CD6:?52A2D>6?;6=2C<2?C642B2C6>AEB?292C:=676<[email protected]@=:CDB:< 292I2I2?8;2DE95:2D2C[email protected]>5:=E<:C<2?C63282:B6?D6D2?[email protected]@?I2?8>6?E>3E<A252[email protected]>C6D:2A[email protected]@?>6?E>3E<6=6<[email protected]?52=2>[email protected]> *252A6B:CD:G2DE>3E<2?D6BC63ED[email protected]@?>6>36B:<2?C6=EBE96?6B8:?I2<6A2526=6<[email protected]?52?[email protected]@?:DEC6?5:B:>6?;25:=6?I2A ?6B8:I2?85:A6B=E<2?E?DE<>6=6A2C<2?5:B:52B:A6B>E<22?[email protected]>5:C63ED7E?8C:<6B;2 .?DE<;6?:C[email protected]>I2?836B3652D6?DE?I27E?8C:<6B;22<2?36B3652AE=2<2B6?2A6B36522?6?6B8::<2D2?D2B26=6<[email protected]?52?:@?52=2>[email protected]> $25:E?DE<[email protected]>D6BD6?DE36B=2<E !M$:<27B6<E6?C:[email protected]@?=63:936C2B52B:A2527B6<E6?C:2>32?8<6=63:92?6?6B8:I2?85:D6B:>26=6<[email protected]?:DE2<2?>6?;25:6?6B8:<:?6D:<6=6<[email protected]? !2! $M ! !$! $M Keterangan:!<@?CD2?D2*=2?4<P M$C7B6<E6?C:[email protected]>32?84292I2"J7B6<E6?C:2>32?8"J$:<25:3E2D52=2>C63E29D236=7E?8C:<6B;2[email protected]@=:CDB:<3636B2A2;6?:C[email protected]>3:C25:=:92D52=2>"&'*11 eV = 1,6 × 10–19 JIngatlah"&'*1 E?8C:%6B;2=6<[email protected]?A252636B2A2&@82>6C:E>C  %2=:E>%  (2DB:E>(2 >2CE -6>3282E*6B2<8*=2D:?2*D4,&2&2'&3,93,7.*6/&%*$Efek fotolistrik selain memilikiperanan penting dalam teori fotonpada cahaya, juga memiliki banyaksekali aplikasi dalam kehidupansehari-hari. Sebagai contoh adalahalarm pencuri dan pembukaotomatis yang juga menggunakansirkuit fotolistrik. Ketika seseorangmenghalangi sinar yang dipancarkan,penurunan arus listrik dapatmengaktifkan saklar sehingga belberbunyi atau pintu terbuka.Biasanya sinar yang digunakan adalahsinar ultraviolet dan inframerahkarena kedua sinar ini tidak terlihat.The photoelectric effect, besidesplaying an important historical rolein confirming the photon theory oflight, also has many practicalapplications. Burglar alarms andautomatic door openers often makeuse of the photocell circuit. When aperson interrupts the beam of light, thesudden drop in current in the circuitactivates a switch which operates abell or opens the door. UV or IR light issometimes used in burglar alarmsbecause of its invisibility.Sumber: Physics for Scientist & EngineersInformasiuntuk AndaInformation for You B6<E6?C:2>32?8CE2DE3292? P "J $:<23292?D6BC63ED5:C:?2B:56?82?C:?2BI2?8>6>:=:<:7B6<E6?C: P "JD6?DE<2?36C2B6?6B8:<:?6D:<6=6<[email protected]?I2?8D6B=6A2C52B:A6B>E<22?[email protected]>D6BC63ED &;&'$!2! !2$P M$C P "JM P "J$P M$C P "J P M ;@E=6 Contoh 7.6Sumber: Physics, 1993
Mudah dan Aktif Belajar Fisika untuk Kelas XII186%2=:E>5:C:?2B:56?82?4292I2E=DB2F:@=6DI2?8A2?;2?8[email protected]>32?8?I2  K $:<27E?8C:<6B;2<2=:E>  6/D6?DE<2?=29?:=2:[email protected]?C:2=96?D:A252A6B:CD:G2676<[email protected]@=:CDB:<D6BC63ED!P M$C &;&':<6D29E:  K P M>  6/   6/ P M $CP M $?6B8:<:?6D:<>2<C:>E>6=6<[email protected]?$> !2 !2$>  > C $C $  >$>P M $%6>E5:2?8E?2<2?*67&2&&3?C69:?882$>2D2E>$   $    /$25:[email protected]?C:2=96?D:A252676<[email protected]@=:CDB:<D6BC63ED252=29 / b.Efek Compton2=2>A6B:CD:G2676<[email protected]@=:CDB:<4292I2I2?85:;2DE9<2?A252<6A:?8[email protected]>5:A6B=2<E<2?C63282:A2<6D6?6B8:I2?85:C63ED[email protected]@?  @[email protected]?:DE>6?82=2>:A6B:CD:G2DE>3E<2?56?82?6=6<[email protected]? :2C2?I2DE>3E<2?C6=2=E5:9E3E?8<2?56?82?>@>6?DE> *252A6B:CD:G2D6BC63ED2<2?36B=2<E"E<E>%6<6<2=2?'@>6?DE>52?"E<E>%6<6<2=2??6B8: *6?6=:D:2?92>3EB2?C:?2B1I2?85:=2<E<2?68-96425843  M  >6?892C:=<2?[email protected]>6?232BEI2:DEA6B86C6B2?A2?;2?8[email protected]>32?82D2EA6BE3292?7B6<E6?C:C636=E>52?C6CE529DE>3E<2? !6;2=2:?:5:;6=2C<2?@=6942584356?82?>6?82?882A329G2I2?8D6B;25:252=29DE>3E<2?2?D2B2<E2?DE>4292I2[email protected]@?52?6=6<D[email protected]?3632C %6D:<2[email protected]@?>6?E>3E<6=6<[email protected]?C6328:2?6?6B8:[email protected]@?2<2?5:36B:<2?<6A2526=6<[email protected]?C69:?8826=6<[email protected]?>6>:=:<:6?6B8:<:?6D:< 52AE?6?6B8:[email protected]@?C6D6=29DE>3E<2?2<2?36B<EB2?8 '6?EBED[email protected]:<=2C:<A6?8EB2?82?6?6B8:D:52<2<2?5::<ED:@=69A6BE3292?7B6<E6?C:2D2EA2?;2?8[email protected]>32?8 (2>E?>6?EBED[email protected]:<E2?DE>A6BE3292?6?6B8:36B2BD:2<2?D6B;25:A6BE3292?7B6<E6?C:52?A6BE3292?A2?;2?8[email protected]>32?8 #?:5:3E<D:<2?52B:92C:=A6?82>2D2?I2?8>6?E?;E<<2?329G2C6D6=29DE>3E<2?A2?;2?8[email protected]>32?8[email protected]@?36BD2>32936C2B )=69<2B6?26?6B8:[email protected]@?5:BE>EC<2?C63282:!;6=2C=29329G26?6B8:[email protected]@?C6D6=29DE>3E<2?2<2?36B<EB2?8  42*3892+4843%6C6D2B22?>2CC252?6?6B8:>6?EBED.378*.3252=29 &"2=D6BC63ED2<2??52A6=2;2B:52=2>[email protected]<@<3292C2?36B:<ED?I2C652?8<2?Contoh 7.7Foton merupakan paket-paketenergi pada cahaya. Konsep inimerupakan kelanjutan dari asumsicahaya merupakan partikel.IngatlahTugas Anda 7.2Proses terjadinya sinar-Xmerupakan kebalikan dari prosesfotolistrik. Carilah informasi dariberbagai sumber tentang sinar-Xdan diskusikanlah bersama temansekelas Anda.)=69<2B6?2 ;@E=6 P M 6/36C2B6?6B8:<:?6D:<6=6<[email protected]?I2?8D6B=6A2C252=29      $6/ 6/
Radiasi Benda Hitam187>6?EBED*=2?4<4292I236B36?DE<A2<6DA2<6D6?6B8:56?82?6?6B8:[email protected]@?C636C2B ! 6?82?56>:<:2?A6?56<2D2?C642B2B6=2D:F:CD:<52A2D5:DE=:C!& ! & M 2B:*67&2&&3? ?5252A2D>6>[email protected]=69A6BC2>22?>@>6?DE>B6=2D:F:CD:<52B:C63E29[email protected]@?I2:DE!)&M :<6D29E:52?>2<2*67&2&&3? 52A2D5:DE=:C2D2E!!))M %6D6B2?82?)>@>6?DE>C63E29[email protected]@?<8> C46A2DB2>32D4292I2> CA2?;2?8[email protected]>32?84292I2>!D6D2A2?*=2?4<P M$C7B6<E6?C:4292I2"J  *69'&-&3&3/&3,*142'&3,5&)&&2'96&3425843*6B92D:<2?DE>3E<2?2?D2B2C63E29[email protected]@?52?C63E296=6<[email protected]?C6A6BD:5:DE?;E<<2?A252&2'&6 ,636=E>DE>3E<2?[email protected]@?>6>:=:<:A2?;2?8[email protected]>32?852?6=6<[email protected]?36B25252=2><62522?5:2> ,6D6=29DE>3E<2?[email protected]@?D6B92>3EB56?82?CE5ED52?>6?82=2>:A6?EBE?2?6?6B8:>6?;25: :=2:?A:92<C6328:2?6=6<[email protected]?>6>36?DE<CE5ED56?82?2B2986B2<[email protected]@?C636=E>DE>3E<2? "2>3EB2?I2?85:2=2>:@=69[email protected]@?5:C63ED92>3EB2?@>[email protected]?56?82?4:B:4:B:<92C?I2D6B;25:A6BE3292?52?A6BE3292? .?DE<>6?86D29E:A6BE3292?6?6B8:2D2EA2?;2?8[email protected]>32?8[email protected]@?C6D6=29D6B92>3EB5:8E?2<2?2?2=:C:C56?82?"E<E>%6<6<2=2?'@>6?DE>52?"E<E>%6<6<2=2??6B8: )=69<2B6?26?6B8:I2?8D6B=:32DC2?82DD:?88:C6BD2<6>E?8<:?2?36C2B<646A2D2?6=6<[email protected]?C6D6=29DE>3E<2?C2?82D36C2BA6BC2>22?5:?2>:<2I2?85:8E?2<2?252=295:?2>:<2B6=2D:F:CD:< 6?82?>6?88E?2<2?"E<E>%6<6<2=2??6B8:52?"E<E>%6<6<2=2? '@>6?DE> 52=2> 5:?2>:<2 +6=2D:F:CD:< 5:52A2D<2?A6BC2>22?92>3EB2?@>[email protected]?C63282:36B:<ED  [email protected]!&M Keterangan:A2?;2?8[email protected]>32?8[email protected]@?C636=E>DE>3E<2?>A2?;2?8[email protected]>32?8[email protected]@?C6CE529DE>3E<2?>!D6D2A2?*=2?4<P M$C46A2DB2>32D4292I2P > CCE5EDA6?I:>A2?82?[email protected]@?&>2CC25:2>6=6<[email protected]?<8Gambar 7.12Tumbukan foton dan elektron(a) sebelum tumbukan(b) sesudah tumbukanfoton dengan, p23', p'foton terhamburelektronterdorongpevTo k o hArthur Compton (Holly)(1892–1962)Arthur Compton adalah seorang ahliFisika yang dilahirkan di Wooster,Ohio, USA. Dia belajar di UniversitasPrincetion dan lulus menjadiprofesor Fisika di Chicago (1923). Diameneliti dan menjelaskan EfekCompton, penambahan panjanggelombang sinar-X yangdihamburkan ketika bertumbukandengan elektron. Untuk sumbanganpemikirannya tersebut, diamendapat penghargaan Nobel Fisikapada 1927.Sumber:www.allbiographies.comelektron diam
Mudah dan Aktif Belajar Fisika untuk Kelas XII188Ek (eV )f (Hz)0,23,7f0,:?2B156?82?A2?;2?8[email protected]>32?8  ?>5:92>3EB<2?@=69C63E29[email protected]<<[email protected]? ,:?2B1I2?85:92>3EB<2?5:2>2D:>6?I:>A2?8LD6B9252A2B29?I2C6>E=2 ":DE?8A2?;2?8[email protected]>32?8C:?2B1I2?85:92>3EB<2?:?: &;&'652A2?;2?8[email protected]>32?8[email protected]@?C636=E>52?C6CE5295:92>3EB<2?52A2D5:9:DE?856?82?*67&2&&3?  [email protected]!&:<6D29E:  ?>!P M$C52?& P M <8>2<2  $C [email protected] <8  > C P M >   ?>*2?;2?8[email protected]>32?8[email protected]@?C:?2B1I2?85:92>3EB<2?252=29  ?>   ?>   ?>2.Sifat Gelombang pada Partikel*252A6>3292C2?C636=E>?I2D6=295:;6=2C<2?329G2[email protected]>32?8>6>:=:<:C:72DA2BD:<6= ,6<2B2?8>E?4E=A6BD2?I22?2A2<29A2BD:<6=>6>:=:<:C:72D[email protected]>32?82=2>A6B:CD:G2:?D6B76B6?C:52?5:7B2<C:4292I2C:72D[email protected]>32?84292I2=63:9>[email protected]?;@=52B:A252C:72DA2BD:<6=4292I2 52AE?52=2>A6B:CD:G2676<[email protected]@=:CDB:<52?676<@>[email protected]?C:72DA2BD:<6=4292I2=63:9>[email protected]?;@=52B:A252C:72D[email protected]>32?84292I2 *252   :C:<2G2?36B<632?8C22?*B2?4:C49.7)*64,1.*252=29@B2?8A6BD2>2I2?8>6?82;E<2?9:[email protected]:C329G2A2BD:<6=C6A6BD:6=6<[email protected]?;E8252A2D36BC:72DC63282:[email protected]>32?8 a.Panjang Gelombang de Broglie49.7)*64,1.*>6?I2D2<2?329G26=6<[email protected]?I2?836B86B2<252<6>E?8<:?2?>6>:=:<:C:72D[email protected]>32?856?82?A2?;2?8[email protected]>32?8I2?8C6CE2: *2BD:<6=I2?836B86B2<56?82?<646A2D2?/>6>:=:<:>@>6?DE>)  & /2D2EC642B2B6=2D:F:CD:<5:DE=:C<2?C63282:36B:<ED !))=69<2B6?2 >2<2!!)C69:?882A2?;2?8[email protected]>32?856[email protected]=:6252=29!!)&/M *252*67&2&&3? CE<E!&5:C63ED;E82A2?;2?8[email protected]>32?8@>[email protected]??:=2:?I2252=29  $C  >  <8  > C!&Contoh 7.8Pembahasan SoalGrafik di atas menunjukkanhubungan antara energi kinetikmaksimum elektron terhadapfrekuensi foton pada efekfotolistrik. Jika h = 6,6 × 10–34 Js dan1 eV = 1,6 × 10–19 J, besar f adalah ....a.48 × 1014 Hzb.21 × 1014 Hzc.14 × 1014 Hzd.9,5 × 1014 Hze.8,9 × 1014 HzUMPTN 1996PembahasanMenurut persamaan efek fotolistrikEk = hf – Wmakaf = kEWhDari grafik, nilai Ek = 0,2 eV = 0,2 (1,6 ×10–19) JPada saat f = 0, berlakuEk = – W atau W = –EkDari grafik, saat f = 0, nilai Ek = –37 eV,maka W = 3,7 eV = 3,7 (1,6 × 10–19) JJadi,f= EkWh = 19340,23,7 1,6 10J6,6 10Js= 9,5 × 1014 HzJawaban: d
Radiasi Benda Hitam189%6D6B2?82?A2?;2?8[email protected]>32?8A2BD:<6=>6?EBED56[email protected]=:6>!D6D2A2?*=2?4<P M$C&>2CC25:2>A2BD:<6=<8/=2;EA2BD:<6=> C2=2>A6?82>2D2??I2)*64,1.*>6=:92D329G236B<2C6=6<[email protected]?5:92>3EB<2?@=69[email protected]>[email protected]>A6B>E<22??:<6=D6A2DC6A6BD:I2?85:A6B<:B2<2?E?DE<5:7B2<C:[email protected]>32?8>6?EBEDBE>ECB28852?>6>:=:<:A2?;2?8[email protected]>32?8I2?8C6CE2:56?82?I2?85:36B:<2?@=69A6BC2>22?56[email protected]=:6 "2C:=[email protected]?:?:>6I2<:?<2?)*64,1.*329G2A2BD:<6=6=6<[email protected]?I2?836B86B2<52A2D>6>:=:<:C:72D[email protected]>32?8I2?85:4:B:<2?@=69A2?;2?8[email protected]>32?8?I2 ,63E296=6<[email protected]?I2?8>E=2>E=25:2>5:A6B46A2D@=693652[email protected]?C:2==:CDB:<$:<2>2CC26=6<[email protected]?&>E2D2?6=6<[email protected]?52?D6D2A2?*=2?4<!D6?DE<2?=29A2?;2?8[email protected]>32?86=6<[email protected]?D6BC63ED $:<25::?8:?<2?A2?;2?8[email protected]>32?8 K36B2A236C2BI2?892BEC5:36B:<2?& P M <8 P M 52?!P M$C &;&',63E296=6<[email protected]?I2?85:A6B46A2D56?82?3652[email protected]?C:2=52B:<62522?5:2>2<2?>6?6B:>2)=:CDB:<52?>6?8E329?I2>6?;25:$6=6<[email protected]?&/C69:?88236B=2<E&/ 2D2E/&*2?;2?8[email protected]>32?856[email protected]=:66=6<[email protected]?252=29!! !!&/&&&&& 82B K P M >>2<252A2D5:9:DE?8C63282:36B:<ED   $C  >  <8  / P M >  P M <8 P M  P M$C [email protected]=DContoh 7.10To k o hLouis Victor de Broglie(1892–1987)Louis Victor De Broglie (1892–1987) lahir di Dieppe, Prancis, danbersekolah di Sorbonne. Iamelanjutkan kuliahnya di UniversitasParis tahun 1926. Pada 1929, iamenerima hadiah Nobel dalambidang Fisika atas teorinya mengenaisifat gelombang pada partikel. Teoriini menjadi dasar dari mekanikakuantum, cabang dari ilmu Fisika.Pada awal 1800, para fisikawanpercaya bahwa cahaya terdiri atasgelombang energi. Pada 1900, MaxPlanck menunjukkan bahwa cahayadapat bersifat partikel. Pada 1924, deBroglie menyatakan bahwa elektrondapat bersifat sebagai partikel dangelombang.Sumber:Conceptual of Physics,2000Tantanganuntuk AndaEfek Compton diaplikasikan dalamdunia kedokteran untuk mendeteksikepadatan tulang. Dengan bahasaAnda sendiri, dapatkah Andamenjelaskan cara kerjanya?Contoh 7.9-6?DE<2?A2?;2?8[email protected]>32?856[email protected]=:6E?DE<36?5236B:<ED:?: 2 @=256?82?>2CC2 <8I2?836B86B2<56?82?<646A2D2? > C 3 =6<[email protected]?I2?836B86B2<56?82?6?6B8:<:?6D:< 6/ &;&':<6D29E:& <8/ > C 2  $C > <8 > C!&/3 $=6/ P M $   <8  $$)&      <8> C  $C   >  <8> C!) 
Mudah dan Aktif Belajar Fisika untuk Kelas XII190b.Eksperimen Davisson-Germer*252  &:.774352?*62*6>6=2<E<2?A6?6=:D:2?>6?86?2:92>3EB2?6=6<[email protected]? '6B6<2>6?;2DE9<2?36B<2C6=6<[email protected]?I2?8>6>:=:<:6?6B8:<:?6D:<D6BD6?DE<62D2C<B:CD2=DE?882=?:<6= '6B6<2>6?82>2D:329G2A252CE5EDD6BD6?DED6B;25:D:D:<>2<C:>E>I2?836B9E3E?82?56?82?[email protected]=2:?D6B76B6?C: 6B52C2B<2?52D2I2?85:[email protected]=69A2?;2?8[email protected]>32?8I2?85:52A2D<2?D6B?I2D2252<6C6CE2:2?2?D2B292C:=I2?8>6B6<2[email protected]=6952?A2?;2?8[email protected]>32?8I2?85:52A2D<2?>6?EBED9:[email protected]:C56[email protected]=:6 ,<6>22=2D[email protected]?I2?85:=2<E<2?>6B6<2D2>A2<A252&2'&6 =6<[email protected]?I2?85:8E?2<2?52B:<2G2D7:=2>6?A252D23E?892>A2E52B25:=6G2D<2?>6=2=E:>652?=:CDB:<56?82?[email protected]?C:2=I2?852A2D5:2DEB ,6D6=295:9:DE?8A2?;2?8[email protected]>32?8I2?85:>:=:<:@=696=6<[email protected]?@B56?I2C2>236C2B56?82?;2B2<[email protected]>[email protected]>52=2><B:CD2=3292?A252D 6?82?>6?82>2D:CE5EDCE5EDA2?DE=6=6<[email protected]?C6D6=29>6?86?2:<B:CD2=&:.774352?*62*6>6>[email protected]=69[email protected]=2[email protected]=25:7B2<C:C6A6BD:A252&2'&6 I2?8C2>256?82?[email protected]=25:7B2<C:@=69C:?2B1 "2C:=6<CA6B:>6?&:.774352?*62*6>6?E?;E<<2?329G2A2BD:<6=C6A6BD:6=6<[email protected]?52A2D36BC:72DC63282:[email protected]>32?8 *2526<CA6B:>6?&:.7743*62*636B<2C6=6<[email protected]?I2?8;2DE9A2523:52?8A6>2?DE=<B:CD2=56?82?CE5ED52?3:52?8A6>2?DE=I2?8>6>:=:<:C6=2?8;2B2<C636C2B2<2?>6?892>3EB<2?6=6<[email protected]?56?82?CE5ED92>3EB "E3E?82?;2B2<2?D2B2[email protected]>52?;2B2<2?D2B23:52?8A6>2?DE=>6>6?E9:A6BC2>22?36B:<ED [email protected]M 2B:&2'&6 D6B=:92D329G252?>6>6?E9:9E3E?82? C69:?882*6BC2>22?M 36BE329>6?;25:C:?M %6D:<26=6<[email protected]?5:A6B46A2D56?82?3652[email protected]?C:2=[email protected]=D :?D6B76B6?C:>2<C:>E>2<2?D6B;25:A252 L 6?82?>6?88E?2<2?*67&2&&3??:=2:2<2?5:[email protected]=69E?DE<;2B2<2?D2B2[email protected]>?:<6=  ?> $:<25:32?5:?8<2?56?82??:=2:I2?85:[email protected]=6936B52C2B<2?[email protected]:)*64,1.*2<2?>6?892C:=<2??:=2:A2?;2?8[email protected]>32?8I2?8C2>2 6?82?56>:<:2?A6B9:DE?82?A2?;2?8[email protected]>32?8I2?85:=2<E<2?@=69&:.7743*62*6>6?EBED[email protected]?C2>256?82?A2?;2?8[email protected]>32?836B52C2B<2?[email protected]:)*64,1.* &:.7743*62*636B92C:=>6?E?;E<<2?329G2>2D6B:>6>:=:<:C:72D[email protected]>32?8 *[email protected]?[email protected]?E?DE<>6>3E<D:<2?<636B2522?A2BD:<6=D6BEC36B<6>32?8 ,2=29C2DE[email protected][email protected]?I2252=29[email protected]=2[email protected]=25:7B2<C:I2?8D6B;25:C63282:2<:32D36B<2C6=6<[email protected]?I2?85:;2DE9<2?A252<B:CD2=2=E>:?:E> *6?6>E2?C:72D[email protected]>32?8A2BD:<6=C6=2?;ED?I2>6=29:B<2?CE2DE<2;:2?32BE52=2>7:C:<2I2?85:C63ED>6<2?:<2[email protected]>32?8 *252>2C2C6<2B2?8C:72D[email protected]>32?8I2?85:>:=:<:A2BD:<6=D6=2932?I2<5:>2?722D<2? ,:72DC:72D3292?5:C6=:5:<:56?82?>6=:92D[email protected]=25:7B2<C:6=6<[email protected]?I2?85:;2DE9<2?A2523292?D6BC63ED ':<[email protected]<@A6=6<[email protected]?berkaselektronkristalnikeldetektorfilamenGambar 7.13Skema alat percobaan Davisson-Germer. Berkas elektrondijatuhkan pada kristal tunggalnikel. Interferensi yang terjadipada sudut diamati pada detektor.Gambar 7.14Gambaran mengenaihamburan elektron olehbidang kristal.addada222sinar datang
Radiasi Benda Hitam191I2?85:8E?2<2?@=69A2B229=:3:@[email protected]:E?DE<>6?6=:D:;2C25>:<[email protected]<@A:C>6BEA2<2?[email protected][email protected]A6>2?722D2?C:72D[email protected]>32?8A2BD:<6= ':<[email protected]<@A6=6<[email protected]?52A2D>6?892C:=<2?A6B36C2B2?I2?8C2?82DD:?88: c.Prinsip Ketidakpastian HeisenbergA2<29 ?52 A6B?29 >6>32I2?8<2? 3282:>2?2 42B2 I2?85:8E?2<2?A2B27:C:<2G2?E?DE<>6?82>2D:6=6<[email protected]??52D6=2936=2;2BD6?D2?8676<[email protected]@=:CDB:<52?676<@>[email protected]?A252>2D6B:C636=E>?I2 *252A6>3292C2?D6BC63EDD6B;25:DE>3E<2?2?D2B2[email protected]@?52?6=6<[email protected]? *6B:CD:G2:?:=29I2?85:8E?2<2?@=69A2B27:C:<2G2?E?DE<>6?82>2D:6=6<[email protected]? @[email protected]?5:D6>32<<2?<62B296=6<[email protected]?C69:?882D6B;25:DE>3E<2?2?D2B2<65E2?I2<6>E5:2?[email protected]@?I2?8D6BA2?DE=<2?@=696=6<[email protected]?:?:5:2>2D:@=69A6?82>2D  @[email protected]?:?:>6>32G2:[email protected]>2C:D6?D2?8<636B2522?6=6<[email protected]? <2?D6D2A:<636B2522?6=6<[email protected]?I2?85::[email protected]>2C:<2?@=69[email protected]@?D6BC63ED3E<2?<636B2522?[email protected]@?I2?8C636?2B?I2>6=2:?<2?<636B2522?6=6<[email protected]?C6D6=29DE>3E<2?56?82?[email protected]@? 6?82?<2D2=2:?252<6D:52<A2CD:2?[email protected]:C:6=6<[email protected]?2<:32DDE>3E<2?56?82?[email protected]@? *B:?C:A:?:A6BD2>2<2=:5:<6>E<2<2?@=69*.7*3'*6,52?AB:?C:A:?:5:<6?2=56?82??2>2AB:?C:A<6D:52<A2CD:2?"6:C6?36B8 .?DE<=63:9;6=2C?I2A6B92D:<2?82>32B36B:<ED *252A6B:CD:G2D6BC63ED[email protected]@?>6>:=:<:>@>6?DE>C636C2B!52?;:<2[email protected]@?36BDE>3E<2?56?82?6=6<[email protected]?>@>6?DE>2G2=6=6<[email protected]?2<2?36BE329 *6BE3292?I2?8D6A2DD:52<3:C25:B2>2=<2?D6D2A:A6BE3292?:?:C632?5:?856?82?A6BE3292?>@>6?DE>[email protected]@?! $25:A6?8E<EB2?D6BC63EDD6=29>6?I6323<2?<6D:52<A2CD:2?C636C2B!))=69<2B6?2<6D:52<A2CD:2?A6?8E<EB2?[email protected]:C:6=6<[email protected]?C6<EB2?8<EB2?8?I2C2>256?82?A2?;2?8[email protected]>32?8I2?85:8E?2<2?I2:DE0 %6D:52<A2CD:2?>@>6?DE>52?[email protected]:C:?I2252=29)0 !M $25:5:52=2>[email protected]:+6=2D:F:CD:<[email protected]:C:52?>@>6?DE>CE2DEA2BD:<6=D:52<52A2D5:D6?DE<2?D6A2DC642B236BC2>22? ,6>2<:?36C2B<6D6A2D2?[email protected]:C:A2BD:<6=C6>2<:?36C2B<6D:52<A2CD:2?>@>6?DE>?I2 ,632=:<?I2C6>2<:?36C2B<6D6A2D2?92B82>@>6?DE>?I2C6>2<:?<64:=<6D6A2D2?[email protected]:C:?I2 6B365256?82?[email protected]:<=2C:<[email protected]:C:52?>@>6?DE>CE2DEA2BD:<6=52A2D5:D6?DE<2?C642B2D6A2D52?36BC2>22? Gambar 7.15Tumbukan foton dan elektronketika mengamati elektron.Kata Kunci• gelombang partikel• efek fotolistrik• foton• fungsi kerja• efek Compton• panjang gelombang de Broglie• jarak antara bidang• prinsip ketidakpastianHeisenbergpengamatmomentumelektron semulafoton datangmomentumelektron akhirpengamatpengamat234elektronbertumbukanSumber:Konsep Fisika Modern,1983
Mudah dan Aktif Belajar Fisika untuk Kelas XII192 &@82>46C:E>>6>:=:<:7E?8C:<6B;2  6/ 2 6B2A2A2?;2?84292I2[email protected]>32?8D6BA2?;2?8I2?852A2D5:;2DE9<2?A252A6B>E<22?[email protected]>46C:E>D2?A2>6?86=E2B<2?6=6<[email protected]?52B:A6B>E<22?[email protected]>3 $:<2A6B>E<22?[email protected]>5:C:?2B:@=694292I2>@[email protected]<[email protected]>2D:<56?82?A2?;2?8[email protected]>32?8 ?>9:DE?8=296?6B8:<:?6D:<>2<C:>E>6=6<[email protected]?[email protected]@I2?8<6=E2B52B:A6B>E<22?[email protected]> 4 6B2A2<29[email protected]?C:2=96?D:I2?8>6?292?<6=E2B?I22BEC6=6<[email protected]? 292I256?82?A2?;2?8[email protected]>32?8 ?>>6B25:2C:A6B>E<22?[email protected]>I2?8>6>:=:<:7E?8C:<6B;2 P M ;@E=6 $:<2P > C52?!P M$CD6?DE<2?2 6?6B8:<:?6D:<>2<C:>E>6=6<[email protected]?[email protected]@?I23 [email protected]?C:2=96?D:  ,E2DE36B<2CC:?2B156?82?6?6B8:  <6/>6?82=2>:92>3EB2?@>[email protected]?56?82?CE5ED L -6?DE<2?6?6B8:[email protected]@?C:?2B1C6CE52992>3EB2? *6?E?DE?6?6B8:[email protected]@?5:BE>EC<2?@=69! ,63E29[email protected]@?>6>:=:<:A2?;2?8[email protected]>32?8   ?>>6?82=2>:92>3EB2?@>[email protected]?56?82?CE5ED L -6?DE<2?=292 A2?;2?8[email protected]>32?83 6?6B8:[email protected]@?I2?85:92>3EB<2?4 6?6B8:I2?85:36B:<2?<6A2526=6<[email protected]?I2?8>[email protected]>A2D  ,63E29A2BD:<6=36B86B2<56?82?<646A2D2? P > C 6B2A2<29A2?;2?8[email protected]>32?8A2BD:<6=;:<2A2BD:<6=D6BC63ED2 6=6<[email protected]?3 [email protected]@?4 [email protected]=236B>2CC2 <8 6B2A2<29A2?;2?8[email protected]>32?8[email protected]@?282B>@>6?DE>?I2C2>256?82?>@>6?DE>6=6<[email protected]?I2?836B86B2<56?82?<646A2D2? P > C ,63ED<2?=298282C2?I2?85:<6>E<2<2?@=6956[email protected]=:6  ":DE?8=29A2?;2?8[email protected]>32?856[email protected]=:6I2?85:>:=:<:@=696=6<[email protected]?I2?836B86B2<56?82?=2;EP > C  ,63E29A2BD:<6=36B>2CC2 M<8>6>:=:<:A2?;2?8[email protected]>32?856[email protected]=:6C636C2B ?> -6?DE<2?=29<646A2D2?86B2<A2BD:<6=D6BC63ED ,63E29A2BD:<6=36B86B2<56?82?=2;E P > C ":DE?8=29>2CC2A2BD:<6=D6BC63ED;:<2A2?;2?8[email protected]>32?856[email protected]=:6I2?85:>:=:<:A2BD:<6=:DE ?> Tes Kompetensi Subbab B*6/&0&31&-5&)&'9091&8.-&3Rangkuman +25:2C:6=6<[email protected]>28?6D:<I2?85:A2?42B<2?@=6936?525:C63EDB25:2C:D6B>2= 6?529:D2>252=29CE2DEC:CD6>I2?852A2D>6?I6B2AC6>E2B25:2C:<[email protected]I2?8>6?86?2:36?522D2EC:CD6>D6BC63ED  '6?EBED,D672?@=DJ>2??:?D6?C:D2CB25:2C:D6B>2=CE2DE36?525:?I2D2<2?56?82? "E<E>*6B86C6B2?0:6?>6?I2D2<2?329G2A2?;2?8[email protected]>32?8I2?8CE9E?I2D:?88:=63:9A6?56<52B:A252A2?;2?8[email protected]>32?8:?D6?C:D2C36?52I2?8CE9E?I2B6?529 ,642B2>2D6>2D:C"E<E>*6B86C6B2?0:6?5:?I2D2<2?C63282:36B:<ED >2<C<@?CD2?[email protected]:0:6?:?:52A2D>6?6B2?8<2?CA6<DBE>A252A2?;2?8[email protected]>32?8I2?8A6?56<D6D2A:>6?I:>A2?8<6D:<2>6?6B2?8<2?A2?;2?8[email protected]>32?8I2?8A2?;2?8  +2I=6:89$62?C>6>[email protected]=69A6BE>EC2?329G2:?D6?C:D2CB25:2C:36B32?5:?8D6B32=:<56?82?A2?8<2D6>A2DA2?;2?8[email protected]>32?8  [email protected]:+2I=6:89$62?C:?:52A2D>6?6B2?8<2?CA6<DBE>A252A2?;2?8[email protected]>32?8I2?8A2?;2?8D6D2A:>6?I:>A2?8 <6D:<2 >6?6B2?8<2? A2?;2?8[email protected]>32?8I2?8A6?56<  '6?EBED[email protected]:*=2?4<6?6B8:B25:2C:I2?85:A2?42B<2?@=6986D2B2?>@=6<E=36?52>6BEA2<2?A2<6D<E2?D26?6B8:I2?836C2B?I2?'!?6B8:E?DE<C2DE[email protected]@?252=29C636C2B ! 76<[email protected]@=:CDB:<252=2986;2=2D6B=6A2C?I26=6<[email protected]?6=6<[email protected]?52B:A6B>E<22?A=2D[email protected]><6D:<25:C:?2B:56?82?7B6<E6?C:D6BD6?DE *6BC2>22?I2?836B=2<EA25286;2=2:?:252=29! $56?82? !252=297E?8C:<6B;26=6<[email protected]?A252[email protected]> E?8C:<6B;2252=296?6B8:>:?:>E>I2?85:3EDE9<2?6=6<[email protected]?282BD6B=6A2C52B::<2D2?:?D:[email protected]>A252[email protected]>  76<@>[email protected]?>6?;6=2C<2?329G2<6D:<2[email protected]@?>6?E>3E<6=6<[email protected]?[email protected]@?>6>36B:<2?6?6B8:A2526=6<[email protected]? %69:=2?82?6?6B8:A252[email protected]@?5:D2?52:56?82?>6?864:=?I27B6<E6?C:[email protected]@?2D2E36BD2>329A2?;2?8?I2A2?;2?8[email protected]>32?8[email protected]@? '@>6?DE>I2?85:>:=:<:[email protected]@?252=29!)&2D2E!)
Radiasi Benda Hitam193 6?82?>6?88E?2<2?"E<E>%6<6<2=2??6B8:52?"E<E>%6<6<2=2?'@>6?DE>52=2>5:?2>:<2B6=2D:F:CD:<5:52A2D<2?A6BC2>22?92>3EB2?@>[email protected]?C63282:36B:<ED !!)&/ ,:72D[email protected]>32?8A252A2BD:<6=A6BD2>2<2=:5:<6?2=<2?@=69&@E:C56[email protected]=:6 '6?EBED5:2A2?;2?8[email protected]>32?8A2BD:<6=A2?;2?8[email protected]>32?856[email protected]=:6252=29C:? *B:?C:A<6D:52<A2CD:2?6=6<[email protected]?>6?882>32B<2?329G2:[email protected]>2C:D6?D2?86=6<[email protected]?<636B2522??I2D:52<A2CD: 6C2B?I2<6D:52<A2CD:2?C636C2B!))=69<2B6?2<6D:52<A2CD:2?A6?8E<EB2?6=6<[email protected]?C6<EB2?8<EB2?8?I2C2>256?82?A2?;2?8[email protected]>32?8I2?85:8E?2<2?I2:DE0! %6D:52<A2CD:2?>@>6?DE>52?[email protected]:C:?I2252=29 2D2E!0)0!Peta Konsep &).&7.*3)&.8&2D6B;25:A6?I:>A2?82?E?DE<A6?6B2A2??I2>E?4E=[email protected][email protected]A6?6B2A2?I2>6>3292C*6BE>EC2?+2I=6:89$62?CD6B;25:A6?I:>A2?82?E?DE<2D2E2D2E":[email protected]:C*=2?4<'6?8E<EB,E9E'2D292B:2D2E:?D2?8>6>3292C>6>3292C>6>3292C*2?;2?8[email protected]>32?856[email protected]=:676< @[email protected]=:CDB:<76<@>[email protected]?*B:?C:A%6D:52<A2CD:2?"6:C6?36B8E2=:C>6[email protected]>32?8*2BD:<6=#?D6?C:D2C+25:2C:"E<E>*6B86C6B2?0:6?,:72D[email protected]>32?8A252*2BD:<6=,:72D*2BD:<6=A252[email protected]>32?8Setelah mempelajari materi pada bab ini, Anda tentudapat memahami mengenai benda hitam. Anda jugapaham bahwa cahaya juga dapat bersifat seperti partikeldan partikel bisa bersifat seperti gelombang. Darikeseluruhan materi yang ada pada bab ini, bagianRefleksimanakah yang Anda anggap sulit untuk dipahami? CobaAnda diskusikan dengan teman atau guru Fisika Anda.Coba Anda tuliskan juga manfaat mempelajari bab ini.Diskusikan konsep yang ada di dalamnya bersama temanAnda.
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