Gambar Sampul Fisika · d_Bab 4 Medan Listrik
Fisika · d_Bab 4 Medan Listrik
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Medan Listrik, Potensial Listrik, dan Kapasitor75Medan Listrik, PotensialListrik, dan KapasitorA. Muatan ListrikB. Medan ListrikC. Energi PotensialListrik danPotensial ListrikD. Kapasitor:-(+?52D6?DED6=29>6>A6=2;2B:>6?86?2:=:CDB:< ':CDB:<CE529252C6;2<;282DB2I2:?:=29:B '652<2?A6D:B>6BEA2<2?[email protected][email protected]<636B2522?=:CDB:<<2B6?2A6D:B252=2992C:=A6=6A2C2?>E2D2?=:CDB:<5:2G2? 2?I2<C6<2=:2A=:<2C:=:CDB:<52=2><69:5EA2?C692B: 92B: .6=6F:C:B25:@<@>AED6B52?2=2D 2=2D6=6<[email protected]?:<=2:?>6?88E?2<2?=:CDB:<C63282:CE>36B6?6B8:?I2 -6D6=295:D6>E<2??I2=:CDB:<32?I2<5:D6>E<2?D6<[email protected][email protected]: D6<[email protected][email protected]:32BE -63282:[email protected][email protected]=:92D=29328:2?52=2>C63E29B25:@ :52=2>?I2?5252A2D>6=:92D36B>242> >242><@>[email protected]?6?=:CDB:< 2A2D<29?52>6?I63ED<2??2>2 ?2>2<@>[email protected]?6?=:CDB:<I2?8D6B52A2D5:52=2>B25:@:2?D2B2C6<:2?32?I2<<@>[email protected]?6?I2?8D6B52A2D5:52=2>B25:@?52A2CD:>6?6>E<2?<2A2C:[email protected] A2<29<2A2C:[email protected]:DEA2<68E?22?<2A2C:[email protected]282:>2?242B2<6B;2C63E29<2A2C:[email protected]?52A2CD::?8:?>6?86D29E:;2G232?52B:A6BD2?I22? A6BD2?I22?D6BC63ED /?DE<:DED6>E<2?;2G232??I256?82?>6>A6=2;2B:323:?: memformulasikan gaya listrik, kuat medan listrik, fluks, potensial listrik, energipotensial listrik, serta penerapannya pada keping sejajar.Setelah mempelajari bab ini, Anda harus mampu:menerapkan konsep kelistrikan dan kemagnetan dalam berbagai penyelesaianmasalah dan produk teknologi.Hasil yang harus Anda capai:75Berbagai jenis kapasitor yang berfungsi untuk menyimpan muatan listrik.Bab4Sumber: Physics for Scientists & Engineers with Modern Physics,2000
Mudah dan Aktif Belajar Fisika untuk Kelas XII76A. Muatan Listrik[email protected]5EA=:<2C:?2C<29@=69>6C:?[email protected]@<@A:>6BEA2<2?C2=29C2DE[email protected][email protected]2A=:<2C:<@?C6A=:CDB:<CD2D:C52=2><69:5EA2?C692B: 92B: +6>36?DE<2?C2=:?2?92C:=[email protected]@<@A:<2B6?2A6?6>A6=2?C6B3E<2D2E[email protected]?6BI2?836B>E2D2??682D:7A252A6B>E<22?<6BD2C @[email protected]=2:?86;2=2=:CDB:<CD2D:CI2?8=63:9C656B92?2252=29>6?6>A6=?I2B2>3ED2D2E[email protected]@?82?<6BD2CA252A6?882B:CA=2CD:<I2?8D6=295:[email protected]@<<2:?[email protected]= &65E286;2=2!:C:<2D6BC63ED>6?E?;E<<2?329G25E23E2936?5252A2DC2=:?8>6?2B:< 282:>2?2A2B229=:7:C:<2>6?;6=2C<2?86;2=2D6BC63ED+6B92D:<2?<65E2A6B:CD:G2A252&2'&6  52?&2'&6  &6D:<2C63E2932D2?8<2B6D5:[email protected]@<56?82?<2:?[email protected]=<6>E5:2?5:56<2D<2?A25232D2?8<242I2?85:[email protected]@<<2:?CEDB2D6B?I2D2<65E232D2?8D6BC63EDD2B:< >6?2B:< -632=:<?I2C63E2932D2?8<2B6DI2?85:[email protected]@<56?82?<2:?[email protected]=52?5:56<2D<2?56?82?32D2?8<2B6DI2?8=2:?D6B?I2D2<65E232D2?8<2B6D[email protected]=2< >[email protected]=2< /?DE<>6?;6=2C<2?86;2=2D6BC63ED52A2D5:2?882A329G2[email protected]@<2?<2:?[email protected]=52?<2:?CEDB2A25232D2?8>6>36B:<2?>E2D2?=:CDB:<A25232D2?8D6BC63ED 6B52C2B<2?86;2=27:C:<2D6C63ED;6=2C329G2>E2D2?A252<24252?>E2D2?A25232D2?8<2B6D36B3652;6?:C?I2 *3/&2.36&301.3  O  >6?I63ED<2?329G2>E2D2?=:CDB:<A25232D2?8<242C63282:>E2D2?[email protected]:D:7 52AE?>E2D2?A25232D2?8<2B6D5:C63ED>E2D2??682D:7 6?52D6BCECE?2D2CB:3E2?329<2?;ED22?[email protected]> [email protected]>D6BCECE?2D2C[email protected]@?[email protected]?52?6=6<[email protected]? [email protected]@?52?[email protected]?D6B52A2D5:52=2>:?D:[email protected]>C652?8<2?6=6<[email protected]?D6B52A2D5:<E=:D[email protected]> %E>=29[email protected]@?52?6=6<[email protected]?52=2>C63E29[email protected]>252=29C2>2 $DE=29C6323?I2[email protected]>36BC:72D?6DB2= -63282:[email protected][email protected][email protected]>9:[email protected]?>6?82?5E?8C2DE[email protected]@?52?C2DE6=6<[email protected]? [email protected]>36B>E2D2?[email protected]:D:7252=29[email protected]>I2?8>6>:=:<:;E>=29[email protected]@?=63:932?I2<52B:;E>=296=6<[email protected]?C652?8<2?[email protected]>36B>E2D2??682D:7252=29[email protected]>I2?8>6>:=:<:;E>=29[email protected]@?=63:9C65:<:D52B:A252;E>=296=6<[email protected]? 6?5236B>E2D2??6DB2=D6BCECE?2D2C[email protected]> [email protected]>I2?8D:52<36B >E2D2??6DB2= [email protected]>?6DB2=252=29[email protected]>I2?8>6>:=:<:;E>=29[email protected]@?C2>256?82?;E>=296=6<[email protected]?>:C2=?I2[email protected]>9:[email protected]?C6A6BD:D6B=:92DA252&2'&6  1.Interaksi Elektrostatis antara Dua Muatan Listrik%6?:C:?D6B2<C:6=6<[email protected]:C252>242>I2:DE2 D2B:< >6?2B:<2?D2B2>E2D2? >E2D2?D:52<C6;6?:C3 [email protected]=2< >[email protected]=2<2?D2B2>E2D2? >E2D2?C6;6?:C -&61*79,978.349142' O  >6?8E<EB36C2B?I2D2B:< 2?52?[email protected]=2<2?=:CDB:<C642B2<E2?D:D2D:7 $2;E82>6?I:>AE=<2?9E<E>I2?8>6?82DEBD2B:<2?52?[email protected]=2<2?=:CDB:<D6BC63ED #E<E>D6BC63ED5:<6?2=56?82?1'1)+1(+)#E<E>@[email protected]>3>6?I2D2<2?329G2Gambar 4.1Mesin fotokopiGambar 4.2Setelah batang karet digosok kainwol dan batang kaca digosok kainsutra kedua batang tersebut tarik-menarik.batang karetbatang karetSumber: Conceptual Physics, 1998"*'*1922*25*1&/&6.0437*5*)&3.786.0!48*37.&1.786.0)&3&5&7.8460*6/&0&31&-74&174&1'*6.098)&1&2'9091&8.-&3Tes Kompetensi Awal A2<29C6D:2A36?52>6>:=:<:>E2D2?=:CDB:< A2C2;2<29A6?IECE?52B:C63E29[email protected]>%6=2C<2?A6?IECE? A6?IECE??I2D6BC63ED  A2I2?8?52<6D29E:D6?D2?8<2A2C:[email protected]A2C2;2<297E?8C:?I2282:>2?2AB:?C:A52C2B<6B;2?I2 A2I2?85:>2<CE556?82?>652?=:CDB:<batang karetbatang kacaGambar 4.3Setelah kedua batang karet digosokkain wol dan didekatkan, keduabatang karet tolak-menolak.Gambar 4.4Pada atom hidrogen terdapatsatu proton dan satu elektron.
Medan Listrik, Potensial Listrik, dan Kapasitor7750.%')!*.%'010+(')!*+('*0. 11$)10*(%/0.%'!/.*5!.* %*#(1.1/ !*#*$/%('(%!/.'! 1)10*0!./!10 *!.* %*#0!.(%' !*#*'1 .0&.'*0.'! 1)10*0!./!10 +6B92D:<2?&2'&6 52?&2'&6  -642B2>2D6>2D:C82I2D2B:< >6?2B:<2D2E[email protected]=2< >[email protected]=2<82I2@[email protected]>352=2>F2<E>52A2D5:DE=:CC63282:36B:<ED ,- -2D2E F2<E>--'.O "2I2@[email protected]>3I2?8D6B;25:52=2>CE2DE>65:E>2D2E3292?>6>:=:<:A6BC2>22?82I2@[email protected]>3C63282:36B:<ED 3292?--.O%:<2+6BC2>22?O 252?+6BC2>22?O 35:823E?8<2?5:52A2DF2<E>3292?.O2-69:?8825:52A2D9E3E?82?82I2@[email protected]>3A2523292?52?82I2@E=@>3A252F2<E>C63282:36B:<ED 3292?F2<E>.O3&6D6B2?82? 82I2@[email protected]>3)- >E2D2?=:CDB:<'<@?CD2?D25:6=6<DB:<'P )>  A6B>:D:F:D2CBE2?892>A2P O  )>r A6B>:D:F:D2CB6=2D:73292?. ;2B2<2?D2B>E2D2?>E2<6A:?8[email protected]>I2?8D6B3E2D52B:3292?C2>25:36B:>E2D2?C2>236C2B 2 6B2A2<29>E2D2?5:C6D:2A<6A:?8;:<25:<6D29E:82I2@[email protected]>3C636C2B)52?;2B2<2?D2B<6A:?8[email protected]> >3 %:<2<65E2<6A:?836B2525:52=2>3292? >65:E>56?82?.36B2A2<2936C2B82I2@[email protected]>3?I2&:&':<6D29E:). >2 ' --.56?82?----..-''-.')  > )>P OGambar 4.5Interaksi muatan listrik berlainanjenis akan tarik-menarikGambar 4.6Interaksi muatan listrik sejenisakan tolak-menolakContoh 4.1FFq2q1rFFq2q1rFFq2q1Tugas Anda 4.1Anda masih ingat alat yangdinamakan dengan elektroskop?Apakah fungsi alat tersebut?Bagaimanakah cara kerjanya? CobaAnda cari informasi dari internetatau buku-buku referensi.
Mudah dan Aktif Belajar Fisika untuk Kelas XII782.Resultan Gaya Coulomb+6B92D:<2?&2'&6  "2>32BD6BC63ED52A2D5:56C<B:AC:<2?C63282:36B:<ED  252=2982I2@[email protected]>3I2?85:2=2>:>E2D2?-2<:32DA6?82BE9>E2D2?-  252=2982I2@[email protected]>3I2?85:2=2>:>E2D2?-2<:32DA6?82BE9>E2D2?- 252=2982I2@[email protected]>3I2?85:2=2>:>E2D2?-2<:32DA6?82BE9>E2D2?- 252=2982I2@[email protected]>3I2?85:2=2>:>E2D2?-2<:32DA6?82BE9>E2D2?-,6CE=D2?82I2@[email protected]>35:CE2DED:D:<5:BE>EC<2?C63282:36B:<ED *O6B2BD:B6CE=D2?82I2@[email protected]>3I2?85:2=2>:>E2D2?-A252&2'&6 252=29- 2=2>92=:?:   52?----''..Gambar 4.7Resultan gaya Coulomb.:823E29A2BD:<6=36B252A252C2DE82B:C=EBECC6D:2AA2BD:<6=36B>E2D2?52? ?D2BA2BD:<6=36B;2B2<C2>2I2:DE 4> 2 .6?DE<2?36C2B2B2982I2A252A2BD:<6=36B>E2D2?3 :>2?2A2BD:<6=5:=6D2<<2?282B82I2@[email protected]>3A252A2BD:<6=D6BC63ED[email protected]=&:&':<6D29E:---2 '6D2<>E2D2?--52?-C6A6BD:82>32B36B:<ED %2B2<2?D2B2<65E2A2BD:<6=C2>236C2BI2:DE. . 4> 52AE? >6BEA2<2?82I2@[email protected]>392C:=:?D6B2<C:D2B:< >6?2B:<-52?-C652?8<2?>6BEA2<2?82I2@[email protected]>392C:=:?D6B2<C:D2B:<>6?2B:<-52?- 6?82?>6>AB65:<C:<2? >2<2B6CE=D2?82I2@[email protected]>3?I2>6>6?E9:A6BC2>22?36B:<ED Contoh 4.2r12 = 10 cmq1F12q2F23q3r23 = 10 cm  O  -- --''.. '---. )>    )  >F12q2q1F23F21F32q3r1r2To k o hCharles Coulomb(1736– 1806)Coulomb adalah ahli Fisikakelahiran Angouleme, Prancis. Diamerupakan orang pertama yangmenunjukkan perilaku bahwamuatan listrik saling tolak satu samalain. Namanya kemudian digunakansebagai satuan muatan listrik.Sumber: Jendela IPTEK, 1995---%25:36C2B>E2D2?=:CDB:<5:C6D:2A<6A:?8252=293 3292?F2<E>B) )%25:36C2B82I2@[email protected]>3?I2252=29)
Medan Listrik, Potensial Listrik, dan Kapasitor79E23E29A2BD:<6=>2C:?8 >2C:?836B>E2D2?5:82?DE?8A252D2=:C6A6BD:A25282>32B %:<2D2=:5:2?882AD:52<36B>2CC2D6?DE<2?36C2B?I22 D682?82?D2=:3 >2CC2C6D:2AA2BD:<6=;:<2# > C&:&':<6D29E:---P O# > C'P )> ?5252A2D>6?6?DE<2?36C2BD682?82?D2=:52?>2CC2)92?I256?82?>6?:?;2EC6D6?829328:2?52B:C:CD6> 2 -:CD6>5:<2D2<2?52=2><62522?C6D:>32?8;:<24 2D2EC:? L2B:!*67&2&&3 < 5:<6D29E:329G2'-.>2<22<2?5:[email protected]=69C:? L'-.  Nm/CCm22O )3 5 52?[email protected] L)#)) > C) <8%25:>2CC2C6D:2AA2BD:<6=252=29 <8 3 82B?:=2:B6CE=D2?82I2@[email protected]>35:-C2>256?82?[email protected]=>2<236C2B 92BECC2>256?82?C69:?882A6BC2>22??I2>6?;25:     '- - '- -. --...      ....(:C2=<2?>E2D2?-5:=6D2<<2?4>52B:>E2D2?->2<2. 4> 52?. O4>.  .  O4  44 >%25:282B82I2@[email protected]>3A252-C2>256?82?[email protected]=>E2D2?-5:=6D2<<2? >52B:>E2D2?-Contoh 4.3T30°T sin 30°T cos 30°FwKata Kunci• proton• elektron• neutron• atom netral• gaya CoulombT60°30 cmqqT%:<282I2 82I2I2?836<6B;2A252A2BD:<6= A2BD:<6=D6BC63ED5:82>32B<2?2<2?D6B=:92DC6A6BD:82>32B36B:<ED Perhatikan gambar berikut.Hitunglah resultan gaya F yangbekerja pada muatan q.qrr–q+qTantanganuntuk Anda
Mudah dan Aktif Belajar Fisika untuk Kelas XII80B. Medan Listrik?52>E?8<:?A6B?29>6?56?82B329G2C6D:2A>E2D2?I2?85:=6D2<<2?5:CE2DE526B292<2?>6>:=:<:>652?=:CDB:<5:C6<:D2B?I2 %:<2C63E29>E2D2?E;:-5:=6D2<<2?A252526B29D6BC63ED>E2D2?D6BC63ED2<2?>6?82=2>:82I2@[email protected]>3 &E2D>652?=:CDB:<5:CE2DED:D:<5:567:?:C:<2?C63282:82I2@[email protected]>3A6BC2DE2?>E2D2?I2?85:2=2>:@=69C63E29>E2D2?5:D:D:<D6BC63ED -642B2>2D6>2D:C5:DE=:C<2?C63282:36B:<ED -O56?82?'--.>2<22D2E--'..O90 cm+q+q74°TTqq'15 cmTes Kompetensi Subbab A*6/&0&31&-)&1&2'9091&8.-&3 6B2A2<2936C2B82I2D2B:< >6?2B:<2?D2B2[email protected]@?52?6=6<[email protected]?52=2>C63E29[email protected]>9:[email protected]?I2?836B;2B: ;2B:[email protected]> K P O > +6B92D:<2?82>32B36B:<ED %:<25:<6D29E:---O52?  >D6?DE<2?B6CE=D2?82I2@[email protected]>3A252- .:823E29A2BD:<6=36B25252=2>C2DE82B:C=EBEC>2C:?8 >2C:?836B>E2D2?O 52?O?D2BA2BD:<6=>6>:=:<:;2B2<I2?8C2>2 > 2 .6?DE<2?36C2B52?2B2982I2A252A2BD:<6=36B>E2D2?3 :>2?2A2BD:<6=I2?836B>E2D2?5:=6D2<<2?282B82I2@[email protected]>3A252A2BD:<6=D6BC63ED36B?:=2:[email protected]= E23E29A2BD:<6=>2C:?8 >2C:?836B>E2D2? 5:82?DE?8A252D2=::[email protected][email protected]C6A6BD:82>32B36B:<ED q1q2q3aa.2=:5:2?882AD:52<36B>2CC2 .6?DE<2?36C2B?I22 D682?82?D2=:3 >2CC2C6D:2AA2BD:<6=;:<2# > C 282:>2?2<29;2B2<2?D2B25E2A2BD:<6=36B>E2D2?92BEC5:E329282B82I2[email protected]=2<<65E2?I2>6?;25:2 <2=:C6>E=23 <2=:C6>E=2  (E2D2?I2?836C2B?I25:=6D2<<2?A25282B:C9E3E?82?D2B2>E2D2?I2?836C2B?I2O52?>E2D2?I2?836C2B?I2 (E2D2?D6B=6D2<4>52B:52?4>52B: %:<2;2B2<4>D6?DE<2?36C2B?I2B6CE=D2?82I2I2?836<6B;2A2522 >E2D2?3 >E2D2?  -63E2936?5236B>2CC2 852?36B>E2D2?- 5:82?DE?8<2?A252C6ED2CD2=:B:?82?I2?8>2CC2?I252A2D5:232:<2? .6A2D5:C636=29<2?2?36?52A252;2B2< 4>5:=6D2<<2?-O I2?8>6?I6323<2?[email protected]:C:36?52>6?;25:C6A6BD:A25282>32B36B:<ED BAC%:<2P )> 52?# > CD6?DE<2?=292 36C2BCE5ED52?3 36C2BD682?82?A252D2=:
Medan Listrik, Potensial Listrik, dan Kapasitor81&6D6B2?82?<E2D>652?=:CDB:<) ->E2D2?=:CDB:<.;2B2<2?D2B>E2D2?>'P )> 1.Garis-Garis Gaya/?DE<>6?882>32B<2?>652?=:CDB:<52A2D;E825:=E<:C<2?52=2>36?DE<82B:C 82B:C82I2(%*!/+""+.! #E3E?82?2?D2B282B:C 82B:C82I252?F6<[email protected]>652?=:CDB:<252=29C63282:36B:<ED 2 06<[email protected]<E2D>652?5:CE2DED:D:<A25282B:C82I2>6?I:?88E?882B:C82I25:D:D:<D6BC63ED 3 2?I2<?I282B:CA6BC2DE2?=E2CA6?2>A2?8I2?8D682<=EBEC56?82?82B:C 82B:CD6BC63ED252=29C632?5:?856?82?36C2B?I2>652?=:CDB:<Gambar 4.8(a) Garis-garis gaya listrik untukpartikel bermuatan positif;(b) Garis-garis gaya listrik untukpartikel bermuatan negatif;(c) Garis-garis gaya untuk duamuatan yang sejenis;(d) Garis-garis gaya untuk duamuatan yang berbeda jenis.45+6B92D:<2?82>32B36B:<ED -63E296=6<[email protected]?!O P O )P O <836B86B2<D2?A2<646A2D2?2G2=52B:A6=2D36B>E2D2??682D:7>6?E;EA6=2D[email protected]:D:7I2?836B;2B2<4>52=2>>652?=:CDB:<[email protected]>@86? )  #:DE?8=292 A6B46A2D2?I2?85:>:=:<:6=6<[email protected]?3 G2<DEI2?85:A6B=E<2?>6?42A2:A6=2D[email protected]:D:74 =2;E6=6<[email protected]?C22DD:325:A6=2D[email protected]:D:7 elektron+2BD:<6=36B>E2D2?52?36B>2CC2 >8D6B2AE?83632C52=2>>652?=:CDB:<C6A6BD:A25282>32B36B:<ED %:<2# > CD6?DE<2?=2936C2B?I2<E2D>652?=:CDB:<I2?8>6>6?82BE9:A2BD:<6=D6BC63ED &:&':<6D29E:) >8 O<8# > C-P O+6B92D:<2?82>32B36B:<ED 32Contoh 4.4q2=2><62522?C6D:>32?83-)# <8 > C)  )#-EFwContoh 4.5Ev
Mudah dan Aktif Belajar Fisika untuk Kelas XII822.Resultan Kuat Medan Listrik(652? =:CDB:< >6BEA2<2? 36C2B2? F6<[email protected]  *=69 <2B6?2 :DEA6?;E>=292??I2>6?8:<ED:2DEB2?A6?;E>=292?F6<[email protected] ?5252A2D>6?882>32BF6<[email protected] F6<[email protected]>652?=:CDB:<5:C6<:D2B>E2D2?CD2D:CI2?8>6?E?;E<<2?36C2B52?2B29>652?=:CDB:<A252D:D:< D:D:<5:C6<:D2B>E2D2?D6BC63ED ,6CE=D2?36C2B<E2D>652?5:D:D:<,252=29C63282:36B:<ED * O&6D6B2?82?<E2D>652?=:CDB:<5:D:D:<,2<:32D>E2D2?-<E2D>652?=:CDB:<5:D:D:<,2<:32D>E2D2?-(652?=:CDB:<>6BEA2<2?36C2B2?F6<[email protected] *=69<2B6?2:DEE?DE<>6?89:DE?8B6CE=D2?52B:>652?=:CDB:<52A2D5:=2<E<2?56?82?42B2>[email protected]2?2=:C:C>6?88E?2<2?F6<[email protected]C2DE2?2D2E56?82?>6?88E?2<2?>[email protected]8B27:< ([email protected]8B27:<52A2D5:=2<E<2?56?82?CI2B2DC6D:2A>652?=:CDB:<5:<6D29E:2B29F6<[email protected]?I2 Gambar 4.9Titik p dipengaruhi oleh muatanq1 dan q2.&:&'*=69<2B6?2>2CC26=6<[email protected]?C2?82D<64:=82I236B2D)#52A2D5:232:<2?D6B9252A82I2@[email protected]>3 -:<6D29E:-!O P O )P O <84> > ) 2 2B:#E<E>$$)[email protected]?5:[email protected]=69) -)    )  > C <8-)D2?52?682D:7>6?E?;E<<2?A6B46A2D2?I2?85:2=2>:6=6<[email protected]?3 12<DED6>AE96=6<[email protected]?5:[email protected]=6952B:A6BC2>22?"'I2:DE/20056?82?2 /0 >P > C00P OC6<@? 4 '2;E6=6<[email protected]?C22D>6?I6?DE9A6=2D[email protected]:D:75:[email protected]=6956?82?A6BC2>22?20 2/ P > C >20P > C+6B92D:<2?82>32B36B:<ED .6?DE<2?2 <E2D>652?=:CDB:<5:D:D:<3 82I2A252>E2D2?OP O5:D:D:<q1q2pE1E2r1r2Contoh 4.65 cm5 cm0,2C0,05CP
Medan Listrik, Potensial Listrik, dan Kapasitor83&:&'2 +6B92D:<2?82>32B36B:<ED (E2D2?E;:3:2C2?I25:2?882A36B>E2D2?[email protected]:D:7 <E2D>652?=:CDB:<2<:32D-<E2D>652?=:CDB:<2<:32D-   52?--''..  ,--' '..*=69<2B6?2...>2<2,  )>     >'--.  )>    )  > %25:<E2D>652?=:CDB:<5:D:D:<252=29P )  3 (E2D2?OP O>6?82=2>:82I2C63282:36B:<ED ,,P-P ) OP OO  ).2?52?682D:7>6?E?;E<<2?,2B29?I2<6<:B: +252D:D:< D:D:<CE5ED52?C63E29A6BC68: >2C:?8 >2C:?85:=6D2<<2?C63E29A2BD:<6=36B>E2D2?- 82B<E2D>652?=:CDB:<5:D:D:<[email protected]=D6?DE<2?36C2B>E2D2?I2?892BEC5:=6D2<<2?5:D:D:<&:&'*=69<2B6?2---52?    .>2<2 -'.&E2D>652?5:D:D:<@=69>E2D2?5: 52?252=29   '- '-..82B  92BECC2>236C2BD6D2A:36B=2G2?2?2B2956?82? /?DE<:DE-92BEC36B>E2D2??682D:7  O  --''. -'.-'.-.-.--?682D:7%25:36C2B>E2D2?I2?892BEC5:=6D2<<2?5:D:D:<252=29-DCBAEADEBDEABq1r1 = 5 cm0,2C0,05CPq2E2E1r1 = 5 cmContoh 4.7Pembahasan SoalPada titik-titik sudut B dan Dsebuah bujur sangkar ABCDmasing-masing diletakkan sebuahpartikel bermuatan +q. Agar kuatmedan listrik di titik A = nol, makadi titik C harus diletakkan sebuahpartikel bermuatan sebesar ....a.qb.+qc.2qd.2qe.22qUMPTN 1991Pembahasan:B(+q)EADEBDEABACD(+q)EAB = EAD = 2kqq = EEBD = 22ABADEE = 22EEBD = 222kqEqEAC = EBD222CkqkqqAC2222Cqqqq2222Cqqqq qC = 22qJawaban: e
Mudah dan Aktif Belajar Fisika untuk Kelas XII843.Hukum Gauss#E<E>"2ECC5:52C2B<2?A252<@?C6A"(1'/ !=E<C252=29<E2?D:D2CI2?8>6?882>32B<2?36B2A232?I2<F6<[email protected]>652? 82B:C 82B:C82I2I2?8>6?6>3ECCE2DEA6B>E<22?52=2>2B29D682<=EBEC +6B92D:<2?&2'&6  %:<2D6B52A2D82B:C 82B:C82I252B:CE2DE>652?=:CDB:<[email protected]>@86?I2?8>6?6>3ECD682<=EBECCE2DE3:52?8C6=E2C ;E>=2982B:C>652?I2?8>6?6>3ECD682<=EBEC3:52?8D6BC63EDC2>256?82?A6B<2=:2?52?+6B<2=:2?2?D2B252? :?:5:?2>2<2?"(1'/(%/0.%' -642B2>2D6>2D:C5:DE=:C<2?C63282:36B:<ED  O&6D6B2?82?7=E<C=:CDB:<)> 2D2EG636B<E2D>652?=:CDB:<) =E2C3:52?8I2?85:D6>3EC>652?=:CDB:<>%:<282B:C 82B:C82I2D6BC63ED>6?6>3EC3:52?8D:52<C642B2D682<=EBEC7=E<C=:CDB:<?I2252=29[email protected] O56?82?252=29CE5ED2?D2B2F6<[email protected]>652?52?=E2CA6B>E<22?I2?85:D6>3EC>652?=:CDB:< 2B:<@?C6A7=E<C=:CDB:<:?:=29"2ECC>6?86>E<2<2?9E<E>?I2I2?85:?I2D2<2?C63282:36B:<ED 71)($#.%/#55*#'!(1. .%/101,!.)1'*0!.0101,/!* %*# !*#*&1)($)10*(%/0.%'5*# %(%*#'1,%+(!$,!.)1'*0!.0101,0!./!108-642B2>2D6>2D:C5:DE=:CA6B>E<22?D6BDEDEA-O Gambar 4.10Garis-garis gaya yangmenembus bidang permukaan.Gambar 4.11Garis gaya yang menembussuatu permukaanmembentuk sudut.#:DE?8=297=E<C=:CDB:<A252CE2DE3:52?8A6BC68:I2?836BE<EB2? P 4>;:<2<E2D>652?=:CDB:<[email protected]>@86?C636C2B  ) 52?2B29?I22 C6;2;2B3:52?83 >6>36?DE<CE5EDLD6B9252A3:52?84 D682<=EBECD6B9252A3:52?8 &:&':<6D29E:'E2C3:52?8A6BC68: 4>P 4> 4>P O>&E2D>652?=:CDB:<  )  !=E<C=:CDB:<52A2D?52A6B92D:<2?A25282>32B36B:<ED 2 3 4 nEEnnE37°Luas = AEnEContoh 4.82 /?DE<CE5ED L[email protected]  L  ) P O> 
Medan Listrik, Potensial Listrik, dan Kapasitor854.Perhitungan Medan Listrik dengan Menggunakan HukumGaussa.Medan Listrik pada Keping Sejajar(652?=:CDB:<5:2?D2B2A6=2DC6;2;2B52A2D5:9:DE?856?82?>E529>6?88E?2<2?#E<E>"2ECC E23E29A6=2D<6A:?8I2?8>6>:=:<:=E2C>2C:?8 >2C:?85:36B:>E2D2?C2>2D6BC632B>6B2D2D6D2A:36B=2G2?2?;6?:CI2:DE-52?O-C6A6BD:A252&2'&6  ,2A2D>E2D2?D:2A<6A:?85:567:?:C:<2?C63282:>E2D2?-A6BC2DE2?=E2C -642B2>2D6>2D:C5:DE=:C<2?C63282:36B:<ED Gambar 4.12Medan listrik antara dua kepingsejajar dengan rapatmuatandan.-O &E2D>652?=:CDB:<A252A6=2D<@?5E<[email protected]5:D6?DE<2?36B52C2B<2?<@?C6A#E<E>"2ECC 2B2?I256?82?>6>3E2DCE2DEA6B>E<22?D6BDEDEAC6A6BD:C:=:?56BE?DE<>6>E529<2?A6B9:DE?82? +6B92D:<2?&2'&6  6B52C2B<2?!*67&2&&3 <7=E<C=:CDB:<A252C:=:?56BD6BDEDEAD6BC63ED252=29C:=:?56BD6BDEDEA [email protected] L [email protected] L [email protected] L*=69<2B6?2 >2<2C:=:?56BD6BDEDEA    6B52C2B<2?!*67&2&&3 < 5:52A2D<2?A6BC2>22?C:=:?56BD6BDEDEA-C69:?882 --*=69<2B6?2-B2A2D>E2D2?>2<2<E2D>652?=:CDB:<I2?85:D:>3E=<2?@=69C2DEA6=2D<@?5E<[email protected]5:?I2D2<2?56?82?A6BC2>22?O 6?82?56>:<:2?36C2B?I2<E2D>652?=:CDB:<I2?85:D:>3E=<2?@=695E2A6=2D<@?5E<[email protected]5:?I2D2<2?56?82?A6BC2>22?O &6D6B2?82?B2A2D>E2D2? >A6B>:D:F:D2CBE2?892>A2P O  )>3 /?DE<CE5EDL[email protected] L  ) P O> 13 4 /?DE<CE5ED L[email protected]  L  ) P O> 13 Gambar 4.13Perhitungan kuat medan listrikE pada pelat konduktormenggunakan permukaantertutup (silinder) berdasarkanHukum Gauss.E1A1E2A2E3A3EKata Kunci• medan listrik• garis-garis gaya•fluks• fluks listrik• keping sejajar• bola konduktor• permukaan Gauss
Mudah dan Aktif Belajar Fisika untuk Kelas XII86b.Kuat Medan Listrik pada Bola Konduktor Berongga+6B92D:<2?&2'&6  %:<2<652=2><@?5E<[email protected][email protected]=2[email protected]?882I2?836B;2B: ;2B:5:36B:C6;E>=29>E2D2?[email protected]:D:72D2E>E2D2??682D:7>E2D2?D6BC63ED2<2?D6BC632B>6B2D292?I25:A6B>E<22?[email protected]=2 52AE?5:52=2>[email protected]=2D:52<D6B52A2D>E2D2?=:CDB:< 6B52C2B<2?#E<E>"2ECC52A2D5:D6?DE<2?36C2B>652?=:CDB:<5:52=2>>2EAE?5:=E2B[email protected]=2I2?836C2B?I2- 2D2E-O :328:2?52=2>[email protected]=256?82?.36C2B?I2>652?=:CDB:< #2=D6BC63ED5:C6323<2?36C2B?I2>E2D2?I2?85:=:?8<EA:A6B>E<22?"2ECC$- 52AE?E?DE<A6B>E<22?"2ECC$$56?82?.36C2B?I2>E2D2?=:CDB:<I2?85:=:?8<EA:A6B>E<22?"2ECC$$C2>256?82?;E>=29>E2D2?=:CDB:<A252[email protected]=2D6BC63ED 6?82?56>:<:2?>652?=:CDB:<5:A6B>E<22?"2ECC$$252=29---'... &E2D>652?=:CDB:<5:=E2B[email protected]=252A2D5:[email protected]=6956?82?>6?82?882A[email protected]=2C63282:>E2D2?=:CDB:<I2?8D6B=6D2<5:AEC2D[email protected]=2 %25:C642B2<6C6=EBE92?>652?=:CDB:<5:C6<:D2B[email protected]=2[email protected]?882252=29M 5:52=2>[email protected]=2 <2B6?2- M 5:A6B>E<22?[email protected]=2-'M 5:=E2BA6B>E<22?[email protected]=2-'.Gambar 4.14Bola konduktor beronggayang memiliki jari-jari R.r = jarak titik ke pusat bola.Gambar 4.15Grafik E terhadap r untukbola konduktor berongga.RaE0r = RrE = 0Tes Kompetensi Subbab B*6/&0&31&-)&1&2'9091&8.-&3 -63E296=6<[email protected]?5:D6>32<<2?56?82?<646A2D2?2G2= P > CC62B2956?82?<E2D>652?=:CDB:<I2?836C2B?I2P )  .6?DE<2?=292 <2A2?6=6<[email protected]?2<2?36B96?D:3 ;2B2<I2?85:D6>AE9?I2  +6B92D:<2?82>32B36B:<ED -63E296=6<[email protected]?!O P O )P O <85:=6A2C<2?D2?A2<646A2D2?2G2=52B:C:C:A6=2D<6A:?836B>E2D2??682D:752?5:A6B46A2D>6?E;EA6=2D[email protected]:D:7 %:<2;2B2<2?D2B2A6=2D4>52?>652?=:CDB:<) D6?DE<2?=292 36C2BA6B46A2D2?6=6<[email protected]?3 G2<DEI2?85:A6B=E<2?6=6<[email protected]?E?DE<>6?42A2:A6=2D[email protected]:D:74 =2;E6=6<[email protected]?C22DD:325:A6=2D[email protected]:D:7  E23E29A2BD:<6=36B>E2D2?D6B=6D2<A252C2DE82B:C=EBECC6A6BD:A25282>32B36B:<ED permukaan Gauss IIpermukaan Gauss I%:<2;2B2<2?D2B2A2BD:<6= 4>5:>2?2<29=6D2<D:D:<I2?8<E2D>652?>28?6D:<?I2[email protected]= +252<66>A2DCE5EDC63E29A6BC68:5:=6D2<<2?6>A2D3E29>E2D2?I2?8C2>2C6A6BD:82>32B36B:<ED .6?DE<2?<E2D>652?=:CDB:<5:AEC2DA6BC68:;:<22 <66>A2D>E2D2?:DE[email protected]:D:73 D2?52[email protected]:D:752??682D:7<66>A2D>E2D2?:DE36BC6=2?8 C6=:?8 2qkrE =2qkRE =Rr>Rr<R14 cm–24q–4q20 cm4C4C4C4CdFE
Medan Listrik, Potensial Listrik, dan Kapasitor87 #:DE?87=E<C=:CDB:<I2?8>6?6>3EC3:52?8A6BC68:C:C: 4>;:<2<E2D>652?=:CDB:<C636C2B ) I2?82B29?I22 C6;2;2B56?82?3:52?83 D682<=EBEC3:52?84 >6>36?DE<CE5ED LD6B9252A3:52?8  -63E296=6<[email protected]?5:=6D2<<2?5:AEC2DC63E29<6A:?8[email protected]>36B>E2D2??682D:7  =6<[email protected]?D6BC63ED5: A6B46A2D>6?E;E<6A:?8[email protected]>[email protected]:D:75:56<2D?I2C636C2B P > C %:<2<65E2<6A:?8>6>:=:<:B2A2D>E2D2?I2?8C2>2D6?DE<2??:=2:B2A2D>E2D2??I2)6 P O <8-6 P O 0P O  )> C. Energi Potensial Listrik dan Potensial Listrik1.Energi Potensial Listrik+6B92D:<2?&2'&6   -63E29>E2D2?E;:-5:56<2D<2?56?82?>E2D2?- <:32D?I2D6B;25::?D6B2<C:2?D2B2>E2D2?-52?-36BEA282I2[email protected][email protected]>3I2?82B29?I2[email protected]=2< >[email protected]=2< /?DE<36BA:?52952B:[email protected]:C:.<6[email protected]:C:.>E2D2?-92BEC>6=2<E<2?EC292 6C2B?I2EC292I2?892BEC5:=2<E<2?252=29C632?5:?856?82?36C2B?I282I2@[email protected]>352?A6BA:?5292??I2 O .2?52?682D:7>6?E?;E<<2?EC292>6=2G2?82I2@[email protected]>3 %:<2EC292I2?85:=2<E<2?->6=2=E:A6BA:?5292?I2?8C2?82D<64:=>2<2EC292-52A2D5:[email protected]=6956?82?42B2 O . .  ..'- - ..  .'- -..   '--..O -6CE2:56?82?567:?:C:?I2EC292252=29[email protected]DB2?C76B6?6B8:2D2E36C2B?I2A6BE3292?6?6B8:2D2E52=2>36?DE<>2D6>2D:C?I2C6A6BD:36B:<ED  ,, ,O 2A2D<:D2C:>AE=<2?329G2A6BC2>22?6?6B8:[email protected]?C:2=5:CE2DED:D:<252=29 ,'- -.O &6D6B2?82?EC292=:CDB:<;@E=682I2@[email protected]>3)< <@?CD2?D2@[email protected]>3P )> ->E2D2?E;:->E2D2?CE>36B.;2B2<2?D2B2-52?->+q2q1q1FcF(2)(1)r1r2Gambar 4.16Interaksi antara muatan q1 dan q2.r
Mudah dan Aktif Belajar Fisika untuk Kelas XII882.Potensial Listrik[email protected]?C:2==:CDB:<252=2936C2B?I26?6B8:[email protected]?C:2==:CDB:<A6BC2DE2?>E2D2? +252&2'&6  [email protected]?C:2==:CDB:<I2?85:>:=:<:@=69-252=29C63282:36B:<ED ,-- '-'--.. O -642B2E>E>A6BC2>22?[email protected]?C:2==:CDB:<5:CE2DED:D:<I2?836B;2B2<.52B:>E2D2?CE>36B252=29'.O %:<2>E2D2?=:CDB:<I2?8>6?82<:32D<2?>E?4E=?I2[email protected]?C:2==:CDB:<;E>=29?I2=63:952B:C2DE[email protected]?C:2==:CDB:<5:C63E29D:D:<>6BEA2<2?;E>=292=;232B[email protected]?C:2=D6B9252AC6D:2A>E2D2?=:CDB:< 6C2B?I2>E2D2?[email protected]?C:2=5:D:D:<,I2?85:C6323<2?@=69>E2D2?D:D:<-- -*252=29*,**-'.O +6B92D:<2?&2'&6   %:<292?I2252>E2D2?[email protected]?C:2==:CDB:<5:D:D:<+252=29  ,---'...O3.Hubungan Usaha dan Beda Potensial Listrik+6B92D:<2?&2'&6   /C292I2?85:=2<E<2?E?DE<>6>:?529<2?>E2D2?-52B:[email protected]:C:.<6[email protected]:C:.52B:2B29>E2D2?252=29 ,, ,   '- '-..  ' '-.. -O56?82?O252=293652[email protected]?C:2==:CDB:<2?D2B2D:D:< 52?D:D:< Gambar 4.17Potensial listrik oleh 3 muatan,q1, q2, q3 di titik P.Pr3+q3q2+q1r2r1Gambar 4.18Muatan q, bergerak dari titik 1 ketitik 2 dipengaruhi muatan Q.r2r121-63E29>E2D2?[email protected]:D:7- P O5:86B2<<2?>6?E;EC63E29:?D:[email protected]>I2?836B>E2D2? %2B2<A:C292G2=<65E2A2BD:<6=D6BC63ED252=29P O >52?;2B2<A:C292<9:B?I2252=29 P O > %:<2EC292I2?85:A6B=E<2?E?DE<>6>:?529<2? P O %D6?DE<2?>E2D2?:?D:[email protected]>D6BC63ED &:&':<6D29E:- P O .P O >. P O >  P O % Contoh 4.9Qq
Medan Listrik, Potensial Listrik, dan Kapasitor89-68:D:82 C:<E C:<E5:56?82?4>52? 4> -63E29>E2D2?=:CDB:<-O O 2<2?5:A:?529<2?52B:D:D:<<6D:D:<I2?8D6B=6D2<A252A6BD6?8292? %:<2>E2D2?- O 52?>E2D2?-O O 2?882A<6925:B2?-D:52<36BA6?82BE9D6B9252A[email protected]?C:2=5:D6?DE<2?=292 [email protected]?C:2=5:@=29-52?-3 [email protected]?C:2=5:@=29-52?-4 EC292I2?85:A6B=E<2?E?DE<>6>:?529<2?>E2D2?-52B:<6 &:&':<6D29E:- O -O O -O O   4>  > 2 [email protected]?C:2==:CDB:<5:2<:32D-52?-252=29   --''  P )>  > >[email protected]=D 3 [email protected]?C:2==:CDB:<5:2<:32D>E2D2?-52?-*=69<2B6?2-6-52?  >2<2 O C69:?882  O   4 /C292E?DE<>6>:?529<2?>E2D2?252=29-OO O  O0P O;@E=6 Tantanganuntuk AndaHitunglah usaha yang diperlukanuntuk memindahkan muatan positifyang besarnya 10 C dari suatu titikyang potensialnya 10 V ke suatu titikyang potensialnya 60 V.56?82?!*67&2&&3 < 5:[email protected]=69 '- .. P O %P  P O     >P O %25:>E2D2?:?D:[email protected]>252=29P O  Contoh 4.10ABCD10 cm6 cm4 cm4 cm4.Hukum Kekekalan Energi Mekanik dalam Medan Listrik#E<E><6<6<2=2?6?6B8:>6<2?:<AE?36B=2<EA25286B2<A2BD:<6=C6A6BD:86B2<[email protected]@?52?6=6<[email protected]?5:52=2>>652?=:CDB:< #2=D6BC63ED36B=2<E<2B6?2>652?=:CDB:<>6BEA2<2?>652?<@?C6BF2D:7 ?6B8:[email protected]=C63E29A2BD:<6=56?82?>2CC2)52?>E2D2?-I2?836B86B2<52=2>>652?=:CDB:<252=29,','2D2E -)2 -)2O(6?8:?82D6?6B8:[email protected]?C:2==:CDB:<, -52?6?6B8:<:?6D:<')2;:<2<646A2D2?2G2=A2BD:<6=2 !*67&2&&3 < >6?;25:- )2O!*67&2&&3 < >6?E?;E<<2?A6BE3292?6?6B8:[email protected]?C:2=>6?;25:6?6B8:<:?6D:< Hukum kekekalan energi mekanikpartikel dalam medan listrik berlakujika pada partikel tersebut tidak adagaya lain yang bekerja selain gayaCoulomb.Ingatlah
Mudah dan Aktif Belajar Fisika untuk Kelas XII90+6B92D:<2?82>32B36B:<ED VAB652[email protected]?C:2=5:2?D2B25E2A6=2DC6;2;2BA25282>32BD6BC63ED252=29  0 -63E29[email protected]@?2G2=?I25:<6A:?8 %:<25:2?D2B2<65E2A6=2D92>A2E52B29:DE?8<646A2D2?[email protected]@?C636=E>>6?I6?DE9<6A:?8 (2CC2[email protected]@?) P O<8>E2D2?[email protected]@?- P O  &:&'(6=2=E:#E<E>&6<6<2=2? ?6B8:(6<2?:<52=2>>652?=:CDB:<5:[email protected]=69 ?6B8:>6<2?:<5:6?6B8:>6<2?:<5:-)2 -)22 2-  -22 )6B52C2B<2?36C2B2?I2?85:<6D29E:A252[email protected]=52A2D5:[email protected]=69    0   <82 > C  > C2  &646A2D2?[email protected]@?C636=E>>6?I6?DE9A6=2D252=29  > C5.Potensial di antara Dua Keping Sejajar%:<25E23E29<6A:?8C6;2;2B5:9E3E?8<2?56?82?CE>36BD682?82?32D6B2:>2<2<65E2<6A:?82<2?>6>:=:<:>E2D2?I2?8C2>2D6D2A:36B=2G2?2?;6?:C /C292I2?85:=2<E<2?82I2=:CDB:<-E?DE<>6>:?529<2?>E2D2? >E2D2?C6;2E9252=29C636C2B 52AE?52=2>=:CDB:<CD2D:C36C2B?I2EC292252=29-6?82?>6?8823E?8<2?<65E2A6BC2>22?EC292D6BC63ED5:[email protected]=69 -- - O O&6D6B2?82?;2B2<2?D2B2<65E2<6A:?8><E2D>652?=:CDB:<0 >652[email protected]?C:2=O52A2D5:?I2D2<2?C63282:3652[email protected]?C:2=2?D2B2<65E2<6A:?8C6;2;2B Gambar 4.19Dua buah keping sejajar danterpisah sejauh d diberimuatan yang sama.Contoh 4.11Kata Kunci• energi potensial listrik• potensial listrik• voltABdEV
Medan Listrik, Potensial Listrik, dan Kapasitor91-63E296=6<[email protected]?!5:D6>32<<2?>2CE<5:2?D2B25E2<6A:?8C6;2;2B56?82?<646A2D2?2G2=2C6A6BD:A25282>32B36B:<ED %:<23652[email protected]?C:2=<65E2<6A:?8252=2952?;2B2<2?D2B2<6A:?8D6?DE<2?2 G2<DEI2?85:A6B=E<2?6=6<[email protected]?9:?882>6?I6?DE9<6A:?8C636=292D2C3 ;2B2<>6?52D2B4I2?85:D6>AE96=6<[email protected]?;:<2A6?82BE9A6B46A2D2?8B2F:D2C:5:232:<2? &:&'2B:#E<E>$$)[email protected]?52?!*67&2&&3 <5:[email protected]=69) -)--) ) 56?82?2B29<62D2C 2 -6CE2:A6BC2>22?"'329G20 /C652?8<2? -) >2<2E?DE</ 2<2?5:[email protected]=69 )0 --) 3 2B:A6BC2>22?4 2056?82?4 5:[email protected]=6942)-2)-Tes Kompetensi Subbab C*6/&0&31&-)&1&2'9091&8.-&3 +6B92D:<2?82>32B36B:<ED r = 50 × 10–10 mq%:<25:<6D29E:. P O >52?- P O 52?C63E29[email protected]@?D6B=6D2<5:D:D:<D6?DE<2?=296?6B8:[email protected]?C:2=[email protected]@?  E2>E2D2?D:D:<-O*52?-*D6BA:C29A252;2B2< 4> .6?DE<2?[email protected]?C:2=5:D:D:<D6?82982B:C9E3E?82?D2B2<65E2>E2D2?D6BC63ED  >A2D3E29>E2D2?=:CDB:<---52?-D6B=6D2<A252D:D:<CE5EDA6BC68:I2?8A2?;2?8C:C:?I2 4>C6A6BD:A25282>32B36B:<ED Contoh 4.12qdxV12d.6?DE<2?[email protected]?C:2=D:D:<5:AEC2DA6BC68::DE;:<22 - ---3 - -O--O  E23E29>E2D2?D:D:<A252<@@B5:?2D2BD6C:EC56?82?<@@B5:?2DC63282:36B:<ED - 5:D:D:<52?-O  5:D:D:<O  .6?DE<2?[email protected]?C:2==:CDB:<5:D:D:<    -63E296=6<[email protected]?5:D6>32<<2?56?82?<646A2D2?> C>2CE<<652=2>5E2<6A:?8C6A6BD:82>32B %:<2<E2D>652?2?D2B25E2<6A:?8P ) D6?DE<2? ;2B2< >6?52D2B4 C2>A2: 6=6<[email protected]?>6?E>3E<<6A:?8I2?82D2C )6P O <8-6 P O 52?# > C q4q3q1q2Ex = ?y = 1 cmVTantanganuntuk AndaSebuah elektron dengan massa9,11 × 10–31 kg dan muatan listrik–1,6 × 10–19 C, lepas dari katodemenuju anode yang jaraknya 2 cm.Jika kecepatan awal elektron = 0 danbeda potensial antara anode dankatode = 200 V, hitunglah kecepatanelektron ketika sampai di anode.
Mudah dan Aktif Belajar Fisika untuk Kelas XII92D. Kapasitor1.Muatan pada Kapasitor+6B?29<29?52>6>6B92D:<2?<@>[email protected]?6? <@>[email protected]?6?I2?82525:52=2>2=2D6=6<[email protected]?:<C6A6BD:D6=6F:C:52?B25:@&2A2C:[email protected]2D2E<@[email protected]252=29C2=29C2DE<@>[email protected]?6?6=6<[email protected]?:<I2?82525:52=2>?I2 +6B92D:<2?&2'&6  <2A2C:[email protected]2D2E<@[email protected]252=295E23E29A6?892?D2BA6=2D<@?5E<[email protected]I2?85:A:C29<2?@=69CE2DE%/+(0+.2D2EJ2D %!(!'0.%'E?DE<>6>[email protected]=69>E2D2?I2?8C2>2D6D2A:36B=2G2?2?;6?:C &2A2C:[email protected]36B7E?8C:E?DE<>6?I:>A2?6?6B8:[email protected]?C:2==:CDB:< ?5252A2D>6>32I2?8<2?C63E29EC292E?DE<>6>36B:<2?>E2D2?A252<2A2C:[email protected]56?82?42B2<EDE3[email protected]:D:732D6B2:>6?2B:<6=6<[email protected]?A252<6A:?8C636=29<:B:9:?882<6A:?8D6BC63ED>6?;25:36B>E2D2?[email protected]:D:752?>[email protected]@?86=6<[email protected]? 6=6<[email protected]?D6BC63ED<6<6A:?8C636=29<2?2?>6?;25:36B>E2D2??682D:79:?882<65E2<6A:?8>6>:=:<:>E2D2?C2>292?I2;6?:C?I2I2?836B3652 [email protected]A6BA:?5292?6=6<[email protected]?52B:<6A:?8<:B:<6<6A:?8<2?2?>6=2=E:6?6B8:&:>:252B:32D6B2:I2?836B=2?8CE?8D6BEC >6?6BECC2>A2:3652[email protected]?C:2=2?D2B2<6A:?8C2>256?82?3652[email protected]?C:2=I2?85:>:=:<:32D6B2: -2>A2:2<9:B?I2<2A2C:[email protected]D6=29A6?E9>E2D2?52?D:52<52A2D5::C:=28: &2A2C:[email protected]5:C:>[email protected]=<2?56?82? &2A2C:[email protected]5:8E?2<2?E?DE<2 >6?I:>A2?>E2D2?2D2E6?6B8:=:CDB:<3 C63282:C2=29C2DE<@>[email protected]?6?52=2>B2?8<2:2?A6?2=2I2?836B8E?2E?DE<>6>:=:97B6<E6?C:A252A6C2G2DB25:@52?4 >6?46829[email protected]?42D2?=:CDB:<A252B2?8<2:2? B2?8<2:2?I2?8>6?82?5E?8<E>A2B2?;:<2D:32 D:322BEC=:CDB:<5:AEDEC<2? e–+Gambar 4.20Proses pengisian muatanpada kapasitor.kepingkonduktorisolatorkepingkonduktor3EGambar 4.21(a) Jenis kapasitor;(b) Skema kapasitor.22.Kapasitas Kapasitor?52>E?8<:?A6B?29>6=:92D<2A2C:[email protected]D6BED2>252=2>A6B2=2D2?6=6<[email protected]?:< %:<2C63E29<2A2C:[email protected]5:9E3E?8<2?56?82?CE>36B3652[email protected]?C:2=I2?836BE329 E329>2<2>E2D2?I2?8D6BC:>A2?5:52=2>?I2AE?36BE329 E329  <@?CD2?**----+6B32?5:?82?-52?D6BC63ED5:?2>2<2?<2A2C:D2C<2A2C:[email protected]I2?892B82?I2<@?CD2?E?DE<D:2A<2A2C:[email protected]C69:?88252=2>36?DE<>2D6>2D:C5:DE=:CC63282:36B:<ED
Medan Listrik, Potensial Listrik, dan Kapasitor93-O&6D6B2?82?->E2D2?3652[email protected]?C:2=0<2A2C:D2?C: 02D2E!&2A2C:D2C<2A2C:[email protected]D:52<5:A6?82BE9:@=69A6BE3292?>E2D2?52?[email protected]?C:2==:CDB:< 52D:82;6?:C<2A2C:[email protected]I2?832?I2<5:8E?2<2?I2:DE2 ,/%0+.'!.0/ &6BD2CA252<2A2C:[email protected]:?:36B7E?8C:C63282:A6?I6<2D5:2?D2B2<65E2A6=2D[email protected]>3 ,/%0+.2.%!( &2A2C:[email protected]:?:5:8E?2<2?52=2>B2?8<2:2?A6?2=2A252A6C2G2DB25:@4 ,/%0+.!(!'0.+(%0 !(+ &2A2C:[email protected];6?:C:?:>6>:=:<:<2A2C:D2?C:A2=:?8D:?88:I2:DEC2>A2:56?82? A! Gambar 4.22(a) Kapasitor kertas;(b) Kapasitor variabel;(c) Kapasitor elektrolit.kertaslempeng logamkepingbergerakkeping tetapkapasitor elektrolit-63E29<2A2C:[email protected]5::C:@=6932D6B2:[email protected]=DC69:?88236B>E2D2?  .6?DE<2?=292 <2A2C:D2C<2A2C:[email protected]D6BC63ED3 >E2D2?I2?8D6BC:>A2?52=2><2A2C:[email protected];:<25:>E2D:32D6B2:[email protected]=D &:&':<6D29E:[email protected]=D- P O 2 &2A2C:D2C<2A2C:[email protected]5:9:DE?856?82?!*67&2&&3 <    !0-3 (E2D2?I2?8D6BC:>A2?5:[email protected]=6956?82?A6BC2>22?-P O!0 3.Kapasitor Keping Sejajar+252 .(-&*1&6&)&;>6=2<E<2?A6?6=:D:2?D6?D2?8A6?82BE9A6?8:C:2?BE2?85:2?D2B2A6=2D A6=2D<2A2C:[email protected]56?82?>6?88E?2<2?3292?5:6=6<DB:< &6&)&;>6?88E?2<2?5E2<2A2C:[email protected]I2?8:56?D:< :C2=29C2DE<2A2C:[email protected]5:D6>A2D<2?CE2DE3292?5:6=6<DB:<C652?8<2?<2A2C:[email protected]=2:??I236B:C:E52B2A252D6<2?2?[email protected]>2= &6>E5:2?<65E2<2A2C:[email protected]D6BC63ED5:36B:[email protected]?C:2==:CDB:<I2?8C2>236C2B?I2C6A6BD:5:DE?;E<<2?@=69&2'&6  (6=2=E:6<CA6B:>6?D6BC63ED&6&)&;>6>[email protected]=6992C:=CA6<D2<E=6B (E2D2?5:<2A2C:[email protected]I2?8>6?82?5E?85:6=6<DB:<;2E9=63:936C2B52B:A252>E2D2?5:<2A2C:[email protected]I2?8>6?82?5E?8E52B2 Contoh 4.13Tugas Anda 4.2Berdasarkan kepolarannya, dikenaldua jenis kapasitor, yaitu kapasitorpolar dan kapasitor non-polar. CobaAnda cari informasi mengenaiperbedaan di antara keduanya.234
Mudah dan Aktif Belajar Fisika untuk Kelas XII94#&'*1  -:72D C:72D52B:636B2A2:6=6<DB:<&-&34378&38&.*1*086.0*09&8&3.*1*086.00%2202<E>  /52B2   :BO&6BD2C (:<2>6B2956=:>2  ,E33I>:42[email protected]=6?&G2BC2I2?85:=63EB"6=2CA:B6H 2<6=:D [email protected]=:6D=6? >36B [email protected]?  )[email protected]? (:?I2<[email protected]>[email protected] .:D2?:E>5:@<C:52[email protected]=:CD:B6?*=69<2B6?2>E2D2?-=63:936C2BE?DE<I2?8C2>2A252<2A2C:[email protected]I2?8>6?82?5E?85:6=6<DB:< 6B52C2B<2?A6BC2>22?-5:[email protected]=6992C:=329G2<2A2C:D2CC63E29<2A2C:[email protected]2<2?36BD2>32936C2B2<:32DA6?6>A2D2?3292?5:6=6<DB:<5:2?D2B2A6=2D A6=2D<2A2C:[email protected]  -:72D C:72D:?:252=29<:B2 <:B2A252D6>A6B2DEB<2>2B52?E?DE<<@?5:C: <@?5:C:C656>:<:2?BEA2C69:?882>652?=:CDB:<5:52=2>5:6=6<DB:<D:52<36BE32956?82?G2<DE  $?:=298B25:6?[email protected]?C:2=>2<C:>E>I2?8>E?8<:?D6B52A2D5:52=2>5:6=6<DB:<D2?A2D6B;25:?I2<68282=2?=:CDB:<!(!0.%(.!' +3* :6=6<DB:<C6B:?8<2=:5:D6>A2D<2?5:2?D2B2A=2D A=2DA6?892?D2BE?DE<>6?8:B:><2?CE2DEA6B36522?[email protected]?C:2=I2?8=63:9D:?88:E?DE<5:A2<2:<2?5:2?D2B2A=2D A=2DD6BC63ED52B:A252A6B36522?[email protected]?C:2=I2?8>E?8<:?5:52A2D56?82?>6?88E?2<2?E52B2C63282:5:6=6<DB:< +6B92D:<2?&2'&6  <2A2C:[email protected]<6A:?8C6;2;2BD6B5:B:2D2C5E2<6A:?8[email protected]>I2?8D6BA2C2?8C6;2;2BA252;2B2<A:C29>6D6BI2?8;2E9=63:9<64:=52B:=E2C<6A:?8> &65E2<6A:?8D6BC63ED5:36B:>E2D2?-I2?8C2>236C2BD6D2A:D:52<C6;6?:C %:<25:2?D2B2<6A:?8C6;2;2B252=29E52B2 F2<E><2A2C:D2?C:<2A2C:[email protected]>6>6?E9:A6BC2>22?36B:<ED O&6D6B2?82?=E2C<6A:?8>;2B2<2?D2B<6A:?8>A6B>:D:F:D2CF2<E>E52B2P O  )>Gambar 4.24Kapasitor keping sejajardihubungkan dengansumber tegangan V.Gambar 4.23(a) Baterai B menyebabkanperbedaan potensial yang samapada setiap kapasitor; kapasitordengan bahan dielektrik memilikimuatan yang lebih banyak.(b) Kedua kapasitor mengangkutmuatan yang sama. Kapasitordengan bahan dielektrik memilikiperbedaan potensial lebih rendah,seperti ditunjukkan olehpembacaan alat ukur.bahan dielektrikudara23Eq+qVAdSumber: Fundamental of Physics, 2001
Medan Listrik, Potensial Listrik, dan Kapasitor954.Dielektrik pada Kapasitor:2?D2B25E2A6=2D<6A:?8A252<2A2C:[email protected]3:2C2?I25:C:C:A: 5:A2C2?8CE2DE3292?:[email protected][email protected]I2?85:C63ED %!(!'0.%' 292?:?:5:8E?2<2?<2B6?252A2D>6>A6B36C2B?:=2:<2A2C:D2C<2A2C:[email protected] @[email protected]3292?5:6=6<DB:<252=29<242>:<2<6BD2C52?<2B6D 292?5:6=6<DB:<>6>:=:<:92B82A6B>:D:F:D2CI2?836B365256?82?92B82A6B>:D:F:D2CF2<E> 6B52C2B<2?!*67&2&&3 < 52A2D5:<6D29E:329G2A6B>:D:F:D2C3292?.C69:?882<2A2C:D2C<2A2C:[email protected]I2?8>6?88E?2<2?3292?5:6=6<DB:<252=292D2E .O6?82?>6>6B92D:<2?!*67&2&&3 < 52?!*67&2&&3 < 5:52A2D9E3E?82?<2A2C:[email protected]D2?A25:6=6<DB:<52?<2A2C:[email protected]56?82?3292?5:6=6<DB:<252=29C63282:36B:<ED .O -63E29<2A2C:[email protected]<6A:?8C6;2;2B=E2CD:2A<6A:?8 4>52?D6BA:C29>>C2DEC2>2=2:? 652[email protected]?C:2=5:2?D2B2<6A:?8 [email protected]=D &6>E5:2?<2A2C:[email protected]5:=6A2C52B:CE>36BD682?82?52?BE2?85:2?D2B2<6A:?85::C:56?82?5:6=6<DB:<I2?8>6>:=:<:A6B>:D:F:D2CB6=2D:73292? #:DE?8=292 <2A2C:D2C>E=2 >E=23 >E2D2?-A252D:2A<6A:?84 <E2D>652?=:CDB:<C636=E>5:36B:3292?5:6=6<DB:<5 <2A2C:D2C<2A2C:[email protected]C6D6=295:C:C:A:3292?5:6=6<DB:<6 A6B>:D:F:D2C5:6=6<DB:<I2?85:8E?2<2?7 3652[email protected]?C:2=<6A:?8C6D6=295:36B:3292?5:6=6<DB:<8 <E2D>652?=:CDB:<C6D6=295:36B:>E2D2?5:6=6<DB:< &:&':<6D29E:P O  )>>>P O> 4>P O> 0 2   >  ! >3 -  P O ! 0P O4  0 0 > > 5 ..  P O !P O!6 . P O  )>P O  )>Contoh 4.14Jika permitivitas dielektrikdisisipkan di antara keping kapasitor,kapasitas dan beda potensialnyaberubah, tetapi muatannya (q) tetap.IngatlahTugas Anda 4.3Mengapa dielektrik tidakmenggunakan bahan konduktor?Coba tanya pada guru Anda atau cariinformasi dari internet.
Mudah dan Aktif Belajar Fisika untuk Kelas XII965.Kapasitor Bentuk Bola+6B92D:<2?&2'&6   E2<E=:D<@?5E<[email protected]36B36?DE<[email protected]=2I2?85:A:C29<2?BE2?8F2<E> &E=:D328:2?=E2B36B>E2D2??682D:756?82?;2B: ;2B:=E2BC652?8<2?<E=:DI2?8C636=2952=2>36B>E2D2?[email protected]:D:756?82?;2B: ;2B: [email protected]?C:2=A252[email protected]=2328:2?52=2>5:D:>3E=<2?@=69>E2D2?[email protected]:D:7-52?>E2D2?[email protected]=2328:2?=E2BO- 52AE?[email protected]?C:2=52B:[email protected]=2<@?5E<[email protected]328:2?=E2B36B?:=2:[email protected]=<2B6?25:D2?29<2? &:D2<6D29E:329G2<E2D>652?52?[email protected]?C:2==:CDB:<@=69[email protected]=2<@?5E<[email protected]5:D:D:<52?>6>:=:<:A6BC2>22? 52?0--''O 6?82?56>:<:2?3652[email protected]?C:2=2?D2B2<65E2[email protected]=2<@?5E<[email protected]36B>E2D2?D6BC63ED252=29O'- O'>6BEA2<2?D6D2A2?<6C632?5:?82?E?DE<BE2?892>A2'P )>O 6?82?56>:<:2?<2A2C:D2C52B:<2A2C:[email protected][email protected]=2252=29  --''-C69:?882  OE?DE<<E=:D[email protected]=2<@?5E<[email protected][email protected]?8825:>2?2 5:[email protected]=69'O6.Susunan Kapasitora.Susunan Seri2=2>AB2<D:<?52C6B:?8<2=:A6B=E>6?8823E?8<2?<2A2C:[email protected]E?DE<>6?52A2D<2??:=2:<2A2C:D2CI2?85::?8:?<2? 2B2A6?8823E?82?<2A2C:[email protected]I2?8C2?82D52C2B252=2942B2A6?8823E?82?56?82?CECE?2?C6B:52?A2B2=6= Gambar 4.25Kapasitor bola konsentrisdengan V2 dibumikanR1R2bola 2bola 17   0 !-5:[email protected]=69--<2B6?29E3E?82?56?82?32D6B2:5:AEDECC69:?882D:52<>6>:=:<:;2=2?=2:? 8  0 0 > > Generator Van de Graaff adalah alatuntuk mengumpulkan danmenyimpan muatan listrik statikdalam jumlah yang sangat besar.Rambut wanita ini akan saling tolak-menolak setelah memeganggenerator Van de Graaff dan ujung-ujungnya berdiri karena termuatioleh muatan yang sama.Van de Graff is a tool to collect andstore statics electric chargeenormously in quantity. The woman’shair could be repulsive each otherafter held the Van de Graff generatorand a hair would be repulsivescaused by loading the commoncharges.Informasiuntuk AndaSumber:Physics for You,2001Information for You
Medan Listrik, Potensial Listrik, dan Kapasitor97+6B92D:<2?&2'&6   2=2>CECE?2?C6B:<2A2C:[email protected]36B=2<E2DEB2?36B:<ED  (E2D2?A252C6D:2A<2A2C:[email protected]C2>2I2:DEC2>256?82?>E2D2?<2A2C:[email protected]A6?882?D: -[email protected]----O 652[email protected]?C:2=A252E;E?8 E;E?8<2A2C:[email protected]A6?882?D:C2>256?82?;E>=29[email protected]=3652[email protected]?C:2=E;E?8 E;E?8C6D:2A<2A2C:[email protected] mail protected]O2B:!*67&2&&3 < 5:<6D29E:329G2-2D2E-  ---C652?8<2?mail protected][email protected]-%:<292B82 92B8252?5:>2CE<<2?<652=2>!*67&2&&3 < 2<2?5:[email protected]=69A6BC2>22?[email protected] O6C2B<2A2C:D2CA6?882?D:E?DE<*3E29<2A2C:[email protected]I2?85:CECE?C6B:252=29[email protected] *  OGambar 4.26Susunan seri kapasitorC1C2C3V1V2V3V+– +– +–.:823E29<2A2C:[email protected]I2?8<2A2C:D2C?I2>2C:?8 >2C:?8!!52? !5:CECE?C6B:52?5:9E3E?8<2?<6CE>36BD682?82?0 #:DE?8=292 <2A2C:D2CA6?882?D:3 >E2D2?-52?3652[email protected]?C:2=C6D:2A<2A2C:[email protected] &:&':<6D29E:!! !mail protected]0 2 &2A2C:D2C<2A2C:[email protected]A6?882?D: [email protected][email protected] !! ! ! !3 (E2D2?<2A2C:[email protected]5:[email protected]=6956?82?>6?88E?2<2?!*67&2&&3 < -[email protected][email protected]mail protected]!0 -[email protected]- -- C69:?882D682?82?C6D:2A<2A2C:[email protected]252=29            0 00!! !---Contoh 4.15• Kapasitas total dua buah kapasitorseri adalah1212SCCCCC• Perbandingan potensial padakapasitas seri adalah12 312 31111::: ... :::: ... :nnVV VVCC CCIngatlahTugas Anda 4.4Ketika Anda sedang merangkaiperalatan elektronik, kadang-kadangsulit menemukan nilai kapasitaskapasitor yang tepat dengankebutuhan, maka teknik penyusunankapasitor bermanfaat sekali dalamhal ini. Jika Anda hanya memilikikapasitor bernilai besar, susunankapasitor apakah yang akan Andagunakan untuk mendapatkankapasitor bernilai kecil?b.Susunan Paralel2=2>CECE?2?A2B2=6=<2A2C:[email protected]36B=2<E92= 92=36B:<ED  652[email protected]?C:2=C6D:2A<2A2C:[email protected]252=29C2>2mail protected] O
Mudah dan Aktif Belajar Fisika untuk Kelas XII98 (E2D2?[email protected]=<2A2C:[email protected]A6?882?D:C2>256?82?;E>=29[email protected]=>E2D2?-[email protected]---O +6B92D:<2?&2'&6   (E2D2?A252>2C:?8 >2C:?8<2A2C:[email protected]252=29--52?-C652?8<2?-[email protected]= %:<292B82 92B82---52?-5:>2CE<<2?<652=2>!*67&2&&3 < 2<2?5:[email protected]=69[email protected] O 6C2B<2A2C:D2CA6?882?D:E?DE<*3E29<2A2C:[email protected]I2?85:CECE?A2B2=6=252=29[email protected]  *O.:823E29<2A2C:[email protected]I2?8<2A2C:D2C?I2>2C:?8 >2C:?8! !52? !5:CECE?A2B2=6=52?5:9E3E?8<2?<6CE>36BD682?82? [email protected]=D #:DE?8=292 <2A2C:D2C[email protected]=[email protected]3 3652[email protected]?C:2=C6D:2A<2A2C:[email protected]4 >E2D2?C6D:2A<2A2C:[email protected]5 >E2D2?[email protected]=<2A2C:[email protected] &:&':<6D29E:! ! !mail protected] 0 2 &2A2C:D2C[email protected]=?I2252=29[email protected] ! ! ! ! 3 +252CECE?2?A2B2=6=36?52[email protected]?C:2=5:C6D:2A<2A2C:[email protected]C2>2;E8256?82?[email protected]?C:2=[email protected]=?I2C69:?882mail protected]  04 >E2D2?5:C6D:2A<2A2C:[email protected]252=29-  !P 0  - !P 0  - !P 0 5 (E2D2?[email protected]=<2A2C:[email protected]252=29-[email protected]- --       7.Energi yang Tersimpan dalam Kapasitor&2A2C:[email protected];E8236B7E?8C:E?DE<>6?I:>A2?6?6B8:[email protected]?C:2=I2?85:36B:<2?52B:CE>36B[email protected]?C:2==:CDB:<  ?6B8:[email protected]?C:2=D6BC63ED5:8E?2<2?<6D:<2B2?8<2:2?=:CDB:<>E=2:36<6B;2 -6;E>=29>E2D2?<652=2><2A2C:[email protected]D6BEC36BD2>329C6=2>2[email protected]A6?8:C:2?D6BEC36B=2?8CE?836BC2>22?56?82?A6BD2>3292?[email protected]?C:2=A252<65E2<6A:?8C6;2;2B9:?882A6?E9C636C2B-Contoh 4.16Tantanganuntuk AndaPerhatikan gambar rangkaiankapasitor berikut.Tentukan:a.kapasitas pengganti antara titikx dan titik y,b.beda potensial antara titik x dany jika muatan pada kapasitor5F adalah 60C.yxC2C13F3F4F4F4F5F3FGambar 4.28Grafik perubahan potensial (V)sebagai fungsi perubahan muatanselama proses pengisianberlangsung.V (V)q(C)qVCGambar 4.27Susunan paralel kapasitorC1C2C3V1V2V3V++++dqQ&6?2:<2?[email protected]=6?6B8:[email protected]?C:2=A252<2A2C:[email protected],252=29A6?;E>=292?2D2E:?D68B2=>E2D2?-!O52B:[email protected]=C2>A2:A6B92D:<2?&2'&6   6?82?>6>6B92D:<2?!*67&2&&3 < 6?6B8:[email protected]?C:2=I2?8D6BC:>A2?52=2><2A2C:[email protected]52A2D5:[email protected]=69C63282:36B:<ED , -- -,- -,O
Medan Listrik, Potensial Listrik, dan Kapasitor99E23E29<2A2C:[email protected]>2C:?8 >2C:?8<2A2C:D2C?I252?5:CECE?C642B2C6B:<6>E5:2?5:9E3E?8<2?56?82?D682?82? 0 .6?DE<2?2 <2A2C:D2C[email protected]=3 6?6B8:I2?8D6BC:>A2?52=2>C:CD6> &:&':<6D29E: 0 2 [email protected]=      [email protected]=  [email protected]= 3 [email protected]=  ! 0  % Contoh 4.17?52D6=29>6?86D29E:[email protected]F2?56B"B22752B:3+462&7.938903)& =2DD6BC63ED>6?892C:=<2?>E2D2?C6;6?:C52=2>;E>=2936C2B .E82C?52252=29>6?42B::[email protected]>2C:>6?86?2:42B2<6B;22=2DD6BC63ED5:C6BD2:56?82?82>32B +292>:7E?8C: 7E?8C:C6D:2A328:2?52=2>2=2DD6BC63ED %:<2D6=29C6=6C2:AB6C6?D2C:<2?5:56A2?<6=2C Mari Mencari TahuKata Kunci• kapasitas kapasitor• kapasitor kertas• kapasitor variabel• kapasitor elektrolit• farad• kondensator• isolator• dielektrik•katode• anode -63E29<2A2C:[email protected] !5:9E3E?8<2?56?82?C63E29CE>36BD682?82? 09:?882D6B:C:A6?E9 &6>E5:2?<EDE3 <EDE3?I25:9E3E?8<2?<6<2A2C:[email protected] !I2?8D:52<36B>E2D2? #:DE?8=292 >E2D2?[email protected]=3 3652[email protected]?C:2=A252E;E?8 E;E?8C6D:2A<2A2C:[email protected]4 6?6B8:2<9:B[email protected]=5 A6?8EB2?82?6?6B8:<6D:<2<2A2C:[email protected]C2=:?836B9E3E?82?  -63E29<2A2C:[email protected]<6A:?8C6;2;2B36B36?DE<=:?8<2B2?56?82?B25:EC 4>52?;2B2<2?D2B2<6A:?8>> %:<25:9E3E?8<2?<632D6B2:09:DE?8=292 36C2B<2A2C:D2C?I23 36C2B>E2D2?A252<6A:?8<2A2C:[email protected]4 6?6B8:[email protected]?C:2=I2?8D6BC:>A2?52=2><2A2C:[email protected] Tes Kompetensi Subbab D*6/&0&31&-)&1&2'9091&8.-&3 .:823E29<2A2C:[email protected]I2?8<2A2C:D2C?I2>2C:?8 >2C:?8!!52?!5:CECE?C6B:=2=E5:9E3E?8<2?<6CE>36BD682?82?[email protected]=D #:DE?8=292 < 2A2C:D2C<2A2C:[email protected]A6?882?D:3 >E2D2?-52?3652[email protected]?C:2=C6D:2A<2A2C:[email protected]  .:823E29<2A2C:[email protected]56?82?<2A2C:D2C>2C:?8 >2C:?8!!52?!5:9E3E?8<2?C642B2A2B2=6=<65E2E;E?8?I25:9E3E?8<2?56?82?CE>36BD682?82? [email protected]=D #:DE?8=29 2 <2A2C:D2C[email protected]=3 3652[email protected]?C:2=C6D:2A<2A2C:[email protected]4 >E2D2?C6D:2A<2A2C:[email protected]5 >E2D2?[email protected]=<2A2C:[email protected]  .6?DE<2?<2A2C:D2CA6?882?D:2?D2B252?52B:>E2D2?[email protected]=?I252B:<2A2C:[email protected]I2?85:A2C2?8C6A6BD:A25282>32B36B:<ED;:<25:9E3E?8<2?<6CE>36BD682?82?[email protected]=D 5 mm10 cm2 4 V234ab4F24F6F2Fab3F2F4F2Fab5F12F4F24F
Mudah dan Aktif Belajar Fisika untuk Kelas XII100Rangkuman (E2D2?=:CDB:<D6B5:B:2D2C[email protected]@?I2?836B>E2D2?[email protected]:D:76=6<[email protected]?I2?836B>E2D2??682D:752?[email protected]?I2?8D:52<36B>E2D2?  %:<25E2>E2D2?I2?836B=2:?2?;6?:C36B:?D6B2<C:2<2?D6B;25:82I2D2B:< >6?2B:<2?D2B2<65E2>E2D2?D6BC63ED -632=:<?I2;:<25E2>E2D2?=:CDB:<C6;6?:C36B:?D6B2<C:2<2?D6B;25:82I2[email protected]=2< >[email protected]=2<  #E<E>@[email protected]>3>6?I2D2<2?329G236C2B82I2D2B:< >6?2B:<2D2E[email protected]=2< >[email protected]=2<2?D2B25E2>E2D2?=:CDB:<36B32?5:?8=EBEC56?82?92C:=<2=:36C2B<65E2>E2D2?52?36B32?5:?8D6B32=:<56?82?<E25B2D;2B2<2?D2B2<65E2>E2D2?D6BC63ED --'.56?82?'<@?CD2?D2@[email protected]>3  &E2D>652?=:CDB:<5:CE2DED:D:<5:567:?:C:<2?C63282:82I2@[email protected]>3A6BC2DE2?>E2D2?I2?85:2=2>:@=69C63E29>E2D2?5:D:D:<D6BC63ED - #E<E>"2ECC>6?I2D2<2?329G2;E>=2982B:C82I2I2?8<6=E2B52B:CE2DEA6B>E<22?D6BDEDEAC632?5:?856?82?;E>=29>E2D2?=:CDB:<I2?85:=:?8<EA:@=69A6B>E<22?D6BDEDEAD6BC63ED A6B>E<22?D6BDEDEA- &E2D>652?=:CDB:<I2?85:D:>3E=<2?@=69C63E29A6=2D<@?5E<[email protected]5:?I2D2<2?56?82?A6BC2>22?56?82?.B2A2D>E2D2? &E2D>652?=:CDB:<5:C6<:D2B[email protected]=2[email protected]?882252=292 5:52=2>[email protected]=2 <2B6?2- 3 5:A6B>E<22?[email protected]=2-'4 5:=E2BA6B>E<22?[email protected]=2-'. 652[email protected]?C:2==:CDB:<5:D:D:<%<2B6?2A6?82BE9>E2D2?5:?I2D2<2?56?82?A6BC2>22?%'. /C292E?DE<>6>:?529<2?C63E29>E2D2?=:CDB:<-52B:C2DED:D:<<6D:D:<=2:??I25:?I2D2<2?56?82?-O &2A2C:[email protected]252=29<@>[email protected]?6?=:CDB:<I2?836B7E?8C:E?DE<>6?I:>A2?>E2D2?52?6?6B8:[email protected]?C:2==:CDB:< &2A2C:[email protected]>6BEA2<2?5E2A6=2D<@?5E<[email protected]I2?85:A:?529<2?@=69CE2DE:[email protected][email protected]2D2EJ2D5:6=6<DB:< &2A2C:D2C<2A2C:[email protected]252=29<6>2>AE2?CE2DE<2A2C:[email protected]E?DE<>6>[email protected]=692D2E>6?I:>A2?>E2D2?=:CDB:< -56?82?<2A2C:D2?C:!2B25->E2D2?3652[email protected]?C:2=[email protected]=D  6C2B?I2<2A2C:D2C<2A2C:[email protected]56?82?3292?5:6=6<DB:<5:?I2D2<2?56?82?A6BC2>22? .56?82?.A6B32?5:?82?2?D2B2A6B>:D:F:D2C3292?52?A6B>:D:F:D2CF2<E>  %:<2*3E29<2A2C:[email protected]5:CECE?C6B:36C2B>E2D2?A252C6D:2A<2A2C:[email protected]252=29C2>2 -[email protected]--- -652[email protected]?C:2=A252E;E?8 E;E?8<2A2C:[email protected]A6?882?D:C2>256?82?;E>=29[email protected]=3652[email protected]?C:2=<2A2C:[email protected] mail protected] *6C2B<2A2C:D2C<2A2C:[email protected]A6?882?D:E?DE<*3E29<2A2C:[email protected]I2?85:CECE?C6B:252=29[email protected] *    %:<2*3E29<2A2C:[email protected]5:CECE?A2B2=6=36C2B3652[email protected]?C:2=A252C6D:2A<2A2C:[email protected]252=29C2>2 mail protected]6C2B>E2D2?[email protected]=<2A2C:[email protected]A6?882?D:C2>256?82?36C2B>E2D2?[email protected]=<2A2C:[email protected] -[email protected]---6C2B<2A2C:D2C<2A2C:[email protected]A6?882?D:E?DE<*3E29<2A2C:[email protected]I2?85:CECE?A2B2=6=252=29[email protected] *  6C2B6?6B8:=:CDB:<I2?8D6BC:>A2?52=2><2A2C:[email protected]252=29 --
Medan Listrik, Potensial Listrik, dan Kapasitor101Setelah mempelajari bab ini, Anda tentu menjadipaham tentang listrik statis, medan listrik, potensial listrik,energi potensial listrik, kapasitor dan jenis-jenisnya, sertabagaimana cara kapasitor bekerja. Dari semua materipada bab ini, bagian mana yang menurut Anda sulit untukdipahami? Coba Anda diskusikan dengan teman atauguru Fisika Anda.RefleksiPemasangan kapasitor pada sakelar-sakelar listrikyang memiliki daya tinggi dapat menghilangkanterjadinya percikan bunga api. Pemanfaatan ini bergunasekali untuk keamanan. Coba Anda tuliskan manfaat lainpenggunaan kapasitor.9&8&3.786.0>6?:>3E=<2?36BEA2Peta Konsep[email protected][email protected]A6BC2>22?<E2D>652??I2(652?':CDB:<>6?I:>A2?>6?I6323<2?652[email protected]?C:2=':CDB:<. ?6B8:[email protected]?C:2=':CDB:<,-.(E2D2?.:D:<(E2D2?.6B5:CDB:3EC:M @=2&@?5E<[email protected]M &2A2C:[email protected]
Mudah dan Aktif Belajar Fisika untuk Kelas XII102Tes Kompetensi Bab 4*6/&0&31&-5&)&'9091&8.-&3 !.1.-1&-7&1&-7&89/&:&'&3;&3,5&1.3,8*5&8 @=252?>2C:?8 >2C:?8>E2D2? 52?  %2B2<[email protected]=2252=29> %:<2<65E2[email protected]=2D6BC63ED36B2525:E52B2>2<2 2 6?6B8:[email protected]?C:2=[email protected]=2P ;@E=63 6?6B8:[email protected]?C:2=[email protected]=2P ;@E=64 ,[email protected]=2,[email protected]=25 ,[email protected]=2,[email protected]=2 6 6?6B8:[email protected]?C:2=[email protected]=2P ;@E=6 :<6D29E:3E2936?52D:D:<I2?836B>E2D2?I2:DE52? %:<2>6?2B:<>[email protected]=2<52?>6?2B:<C652?8<2?36B>E2D2??682D:7A6B?I2 D22?I2?836?2B252=29 2 >E2D2?[email protected]:D:7>E2D2??682D:73 >E2D2?[email protected]:D:7>E2D2?[email protected]:D:74 >E2D2??682D:7>E2D2?[email protected]:D:75 >E2D2??682D:7>E2D2??682D:76 >E2D2?[email protected]:D:7>E2D2??682D:7 -2DE2?>652?=:CDB:<52A2D5:?I2D2<2?52=2>N 2 ) 5 % )3 0 >6 ) 4 ) > E23E29<6A:?8C6;2;2B5:36B:>E2D2?I2?8C2>236C2B52?36B=2G2?2?;6?:C &E2D>652?=:CDB:<5:2?D2B25E2<6A:?8D6BC63EDN 2 36B32?5:?8=EBEC56?82?B2A2D>E2D2??I23 36B32?5:?8D6B32=:<56?82?B2A2D>E2D2??I24 36B32?5:?8D6B32=:<56?82?<E25B2D;2B2<2?D2B<6A:?85 36B32?5:?8=EBEC56?82?;2B2<<65E2<6A:?86 2B29?I2>6?E;E<6<6A:?8I2?836B>E2D2?[email protected]:D:7 -63E296=6<[email protected]?52=2>CE2DE>652?=:CDB:<D:52<>6?8 2=2>:82I2;:<26=6<[email protected]?D6BC63ED 2 36B86B2<52=2>2B29D682<=EBECD6B9252A>652?=:CDB:<3 36B86B2<C6;2;2B56?82?2B29>652?=:CDB:<4 36B86B2<56?82?2B29C6>32B2?85 36B86B2<>6=:?8<2B6 D:52<36B86B2< E2>E2D2?D:D:<C6;6?:C52?C2>236C2B--  36B252A252;2B2< 4>C2DEC2>2=2:? %:<2'P )> 36C2B82I2[email protected]=2<I2?85:2=2>:<65E2>E2D2?D6BC63ED252=29 2  )3 P )4 P O)5 P O)6 P ) +6B92D:<2?82>32B36B:<ED [email protected]@?I2?836B86B2<52B:<6A:?8<6<6A:?8C6A6BD:D2>A2<A25282>32BD6BC63ED>6>:=:<:<646A2D2?P> C %:<2;2B2<2?D2B2<6A:?852=2>F2<E> 4>>2CC2[email protected]@?  O<8>E2D2?[email protected]@? P O 3652[email protected]?C:2=<6A:?8C6;2;2BD6BC63ED252=29 2  05  03 06  04  0$!#   E23E2936?5236B>E2D2?O-52?-36B;2B2<.C2DEC2>2=2:? %:<2;2B2<.5:E329 E329>2<28B27:<9E3E?82?82I2@[email protected]>356?82?.252=29 2 Fr3 Fr4 Fr5 Frr6 dABF
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Mudah dan Aktif Belajar Fisika untuk Kelas XII104 +6B92D:<2?82>32B36B:<ED .6?DE<2?2 <E2D>652?5:D:D:<3 82I2I2?85:2=2>:>E2D2? +6B92D:<2?82>32B36B:<ED .6?DE<2?2 <2A2C:D2?C:A6?882?D:[email protected]=2?D2B2D:D:<252?3;:<2C6D:2A<2A2C:[email protected]>6>:=:<:< 2A2C:D2C3F3 >E2D2?A252C6D:2A<2A2C:[email protected];:<2D:D:<252?35:36B:3652[email protected]?C:2= [email protected]=D4 6?6B8:A252C6D:2A<2A2C:[email protected];:<252?/5:36B:3652[email protected]?C:2= 052?52?.5:36B:3652[email protected]?C:2= 0  -63E29<2A2C:[email protected]<2A2C:D2?C:?I2;:<25:6=6<DB:<?I2F2<E>52? ;:<25:6=6<DB:<?I2[email protected]=6? #:DE?8=29<@?CD2?D25:6=6<DB:<E>[email protected]=6?  +6B92D:<2?82>32B36B:<ED %:<2>E2D2?6=6<[email protected]? P O 52?>2CC26=6<[email protected]? P O <85:=6A2CD2?A2<646A2D2?2G2=D6A2D5:D:D:<D6?DE<2?=292 G2<DEI2?85:3EDE9<2?6=6<[email protected]?C2>A2:5:D6A:3 <646A2D2?C22DD:325:D6A: -63E296=6<[email protected]?-! P O ) P O <85:D6>32<<2?56?82?<646A2D2?P > C52=2>2B29C6;2;2B<E2D>652?=:CDB:< )  6B2A2;2B2<I2?85:D6>AE96=6<[email protected]?C636=E>36B96?D: @=2<64:=36B>E2D2? ?O ? ?52?O ?5:=6D2<<2?5:D:D:< D:D:<CE5EDC63E29A6BC68:I2?8>6>:=:<:A2?;2?85:[email protected]?2=  > 2 #:DE?8[email protected]?C:2==:CDB:<5:AEC2D 3 #:DE?836C2B>652?=:CDB:<5:AEC2D[email protected]=2<6>E5:2?82>32B<2?2B2952B:[email protected]?C:2=5:D:D:<AEC2D  &:&'1&-5*68&3;&&3'*6.098.3.)*3,&38*5&8 -63E29>E2D2?E;: P O36B;2B2<>>52B:>E2D2?CE>36BO P O 6B2A2EC292I2?892BEC5:=2<E<2?A252>E2D2?E;:282BD6BA:C29A252;2B2< >>52B:>E2D2?D6BC63ED E2<6A:?8[email protected]>I2?8C6;2;2B52?;2B2<?I2 4>C2DE52B:I2?8=2:?5:36B:>E2D2?=:CDB:<I2?836B=2G2?2?9:?8823652[email protected]?C:2= 0 6B2A282I2I2?85:2=2>:C63E296=6<[email protected]?I2?85:=6D2<<2?5:2?D2B2<6A:?8 .6?DE<2?<2A2C:D2CA6?882?D:2?D2B252?A252CECE?2? CECE?2?<2A2C:[email protected]36B:<ED:?: 2 3 4 5 &2A2C:[email protected] 5:9E3E?8<2? 56?82? CE>36BD682?82? 0C6=2?;ED?I2CE>36BD682?82?5:AEDEC52?<2A2C:[email protected]<6>E5:2?5:9E3E?8<2?A2B2=6=<6<2A2C:[email protected]2 6B2A2>E2D2?[email protected]=<2A2C:[email protected]D6BC63ED3 6B2A23652[email protected]?C:2=C6D:2A<2A2C:[email protected]4 6B2A26?6B8:I2?89:=2?8A252<2A2C:[email protected] <6D:<25:9E3E?8<2?56?82?<2A2C:[email protected]AB6 cm8 cmO4C3CabrsC1C2C3C4C5C6C7BAvVB – VA = 200 volt15 cmABCCCC CABCCCCCCAB40F12F13F6F6F28F16F12Fd=10 cm