Gambar Sampul Fisika · Bab 7 Kalor
Fisika · Bab 7 Kalor
Dudi Indrajit

24/08/2021 14:18:42

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A. KalorB. PerpindahanKalorKalor[email protected]@:0= EC9C3=G0 <[email protected] 381430:0= <4=9038 H0B ?030B [email protected]30= 60A !4B860 H0B [email protected] <4<8;8:8 :[email protected]:[email protected]: <0A8=6<0A8=6 :0=B4B0?8030[email protected]?0H0BG0=630?0B[email protected]EC9C3:[email protected]=0[email protected]AC7C30= :0;>@ <0B8;07 :4B8:0 =30 A430=6 <8=C< <8=C<0= G0=6 3830;0<=G0[email protected]?0B4A10BC(4<0:8=;0<04A10BC30;0<<8=C<0=0:0=<[email protected] 30= [email protected] EC9C3 #4=60?0 [email protected] 34<8:80= [email protected]:07 4A[email protected] B830: 78;0=6 <4;08=:0= [email protected] EC9C3#4=60?0 38 AC0BC B4<?0B 38 C<8 [email protected] 7C90= A0;9C #4=60?0 38=3>=4A80B830:[email protected]<CA8<A0;9C&0301018=8=300:0=<4<?4;[email protected]B4=B0=6 :0;>@ 8:0 =30 B4;07 <4<070<8 :>=A4?:>=A4? :0;>@[email protected]=G00=[email protected]0:0=<C307=3090E01%;47:[email protected]=08BC?4;[email protected];07101 8=8 34=60= AC=66C7AC=66C7menganalisis pengaruh kalor terhadap suatu zat;menganalisis cara perpindahan kalor;menerapkan asas Black dalam pemecahan masalah.Setelah mempelajari bab ini, Anda harus mampu:menerapkan konsep kalor dan prinsip konservasi energi pada berbagai perubahanenergi.Hasil yang harus Anda capai:147Perubahan musim yang terjadi dengan diikuti perubahan wujud daricair ke padat, atau sebaliknya (musim salju), merupakan fenomenaberlakunya konsep-konsep kalor yang terjadi di alam ini.Bab7Sumber: CD Image
148Mudah dan Aktif Belajar Fisika untuk Kelas X&#&-6..&.1&-"+"3*,0/4&1"-03,&3+","/-")40"-40"-#&3*,65%"-".#6,6-"5*)"/Tes Kompetensi Awal ?0G0=638A41CB34=60=?4<C080= (41CB:0=B860[email protected][email protected]?8=3070=:0;>@ ?0:07 A0<0 B8B8: 38387 [email protected] :4B8:0 3838387:0= 38?46C=C=60= 3810=38=6:0= 34=60= B8B8: 38387 [email protected] 38[email protected]?0=B08 4;0A:0=90E010==30A. Kalor&[email protected]=07:07 =30 <4;0:C:0= ?4=6C:[email protected]= AC7C #8A0;=G0 ?030 AC0BC [email protected]<><[email protected] :>;>< @0:A0 =30 <4=60<0B8 [email protected]= ?0=90=6 :>;>< A4106088=38:0B>@ 030=G0 [email protected]= AC7C (4AC=66C7=G0 [email protected]= AC7C 8BC [email protected]0:810B14=30G0=6A430=638C:[email protected]<4;4?0A:0=:0;>@0B0C<[email protected]<0:0;>@1.Pengertian Kalor!0;>@ <[email protected]?0:0= A0;07 A0BC 14=BC: [email protected] G0=6 30?0B [email protected]?8=307 [email protected]14=30 G0=6 A0BC :4 14=30 G0=6 ;08= 8:0 3C0 1C07 14=30 G0=6 AC7C=G0[email protected] 38A4=BC7:0= AC0BC A00B 0:0= [email protected] :4A4B8<10=60= [email protected]<0;AC7C=G0 A0<0 0; 8=8 [email protected] :[email protected]=0 030=G0 [email protected]?8=3070= :0;>@[email protected]14=30 G0=6 [email protected] B8=668 :4 14=30 G0=6 [email protected] @4=307!0;>@[email protected]34=60=AC7CE0;0C?C=:43C0=G0<4<8;8:87C1C=60=[email protected](C7C030;07[email protected]?0=0A0B0C38=68=AC0BC14=30A430=6:0=!"%'030;07$' .$ &$!$ ' (*)* $ ! $ .$ "$(C7C30=:0;>@30?0B 381430:0= 34=60= 94;0A ?030 [email protected] [email protected]= EC9C3 AC0BC H0B*=BC: <4=6C107 4A <4=9038 [email protected] [email protected];C:0= :0;>@ &030 [email protected][email protected]= EC9C3 8=8 4A [email protected] I [email protected] <4=9038 [email protected] [email protected] I 038 B830: 030 [email protected]= AC7C ?030 A00B 4A <[email protected] B4B0?8 381CBC7:0=:0;>@ C=BC: <4=6C107 EC9C3 4A [email protected](0BC0= ( C=BC: :0;>@ 030;07 9>C;4 38A8=6:0B  (0BC0= :0;>@ G0=6;08=030;07:0;>@80B0C:8;>:0;>@8)*!"%'383458=8A8:0=A410608$.!$. !"%' .$ &'"*!$ *$)*! #$!!$ (** ()* '# ' (('0 2.Kalor Jenis#8A0;:0=?030 <"[email protected]30= <"0;:>7>;[email protected]:0=:0;>@G0=6A0<0 )[email protected]=G0B0 :4=08:0= AC7C ?030 0;:>7>; ;4187 [email protected] [email protected]?030[email protected]4<8:80= 70;=G0 98:0 ?030  <" [email protected] 30=   <" [email protected] [email protected]:0= :0;>@G0=6 A0<0 10=G0:=G0 :4=08:0= AC7C ?030  <" [email protected] ;4187 [email protected] [email protected]?030 <"[email protected]&[email protected][email protected]<4=C=9C::0=70;70;A410608[email protected]:CB0 !0;>@ G0=6 [email protected]:0= ?030 H0B A410=38=6 34=60= :4=08:0= AC7C1 !0;>@G0=6381CBC7:0=C=BC:<4=08::0=AC7CH0BA410=38=6<0AA0H0B2 !0;>@G0=6381CBC7:0=C=BC:<4=08::0=AC7CH0B[email protected]=BC=694=8AH0B([email protected] <0B4<0B8A 38BC;8A A410608 [email protected]:CB[email protected]=60= 10=G0:=G0 :0;>@ G0=6 [email protected]:0= :0;>@8 0B0C 9>C;4#<0AA0H0B60B0C:6 :0;>@ 94=8A :0;6I 0B0C :6I [email protected]= AC7C I&34".""/<  30?0B 38BC;8A A410608 [email protected]:CB  #J #J To k o hJoseph Black, adalah seorangkimiawan Skotlandia yangmendukung teori tentang panas,yaitu bahwa suhu merupakankonsentrasi kalori dalam suatubenda. Ia kemudian menemukanilmu baru yang disebutkalorimetri. Ketika menyelidikitentang panas (kalori), ia mengirabahwa kapasitas panas merupakanjumlah panas yang dapatditampung oleh suatu benda.Padahal, ini sebenarnyamerupakan ukuran tentang jumlahenergi yang diperlukan untukmenaikkan suhu suatu bendadalam jumlah tertentu.Sumber:Jendela Iptek, 1996Joseph Black(1728–1799)
149Kalor3.Kapasitas Kalor&()(!"%'030;07$.!$.!"%'.$&'"*!$*$)*!#$!!$(** (*)* $ ((' 0  ([email protected] <0B4<0B8A [email protected]=G0B00= [email protected]38BC;8A A410608 [email protected]:CB 038:0;>@94=8A30?0B383458=8A8:0=A41060810=G0:=G0:0;>@G0=6[email protected];C:0=AC0BCH0BC=BC:<4=08::0=AC7C :6H0B[email protected][email protected] I"#&-  <4=C=9C::0= :0;>@ 94=8A [email protected]?0 H0B ?030 AC7C I 30= B4:0=0=B4B0? 0B<>[email protected]!4B8:0=30[email protected];0=380B0A[email protected]38?0=B083810E07[email protected]:#[email protected]=3030?0B<[email protected]:0= [email protected] :[email protected]=6 G0=6 [email protected]=90: [email protected] ?0=0A !4<C380= =30 [email protected];87<4=68=90:[email protected];0CB[email protected];0CB@4;0B85;418738=68=1C:0=&03070;[email protected]30=[email protected];0CBA0<0A0<0[email protected]:4=0[email protected]#[email protected]#8A0;=G0=30B8=90C :6[email protected];0CB30= :6[email protected]?0=B0838[email protected]=G0#[email protected]=30<0=0:07G0=6<4<8;8:8:0;>@94=8A;4187B8=668[email protected]0B0C[email protected]Mari Mencari TahuJ&030&34".""/<  030;07 :0?0A8B0A :0;>@ :0;I 0B0C !)[email protected]?0B [email protected]= [email protected]= [email protected] :0?0A8B0A :0;>@  30= :0;>@ 94=8A B4B0?8 [email protected] <0B4<0B8A :43C0=G0 <4<8;8:8 7C1C=60= A410608 [email protected]:CB[email protected]&34".""/< 30=&34".""/<  [email protected]>;47##J [email protected]=60=#<0AA0H0B:6 :0;>@ 94=8A  :6I4.Hukum Kekekalan Energi untuk Kalor=30 B4;07 <4<?4;[email protected] 107E0 [email protected] B830: 30?0B 3828?B0:0= 30=B830:[email protected]=07<CA=07B4B0?8[email protected]30?0B[email protected]14=BC:[email protected]A0BC14=BC:[email protected] :4 14=BC: [email protected] ;08= (410608 2>=B>7 [email protected] <4:0=8: 30?0B[email protected] <4=9038 [email protected] ;[email protected]: !4<C380= [email protected] ;[email protected]: 30?0B [email protected];068<4=9038[email protected]2070G030=[email protected]=G04<8:80=9C60[email protected]30;0<14=BC: :0;>@ [email protected]; [email protected] 14=BC: [email protected] ;08=Sumber: Physics, 1980"#&- !0;>@ 4=8A[email protected]?0-0B?030(C7C I30=)4:0=0= 0B<"-03+&/*4,(;!"5"%"5"-03+&/*4,(;!"5"*3;:>7>;4B8;'0:A0[email protected]4AJI[email protected] IC0? I030=<0=CA80&@>B48=         !C=8=60=;C<8=8C<)4 < 1 0 6 04A80B0C1090)8<07#[email protected]<[email protected]&[email protected]:!0GC(4=6      Kesetaraan kalori dan joule adalah1 kalori= 4,2 joule1 joule= 0,24 kalori1 kkal= 1.000 kaloriIngatlahTugas Anda 7.1Anda telah mengenal besarankalor jenis suatu benda. Diskusikandengan teman sekelas Anda jikakalor jenis suatu zat besar, apakahbenda akan cepat panas ataulambat panas?
150Mudah dan Aktif Belajar Fisika untuk Kelas X(410=G0: [email protected]<[email protected]38?0=0A:0=[email protected] I<4=9038 I 8:0<0AA094=8A[email protected]030;07 :0;6I0B0C   :6!B4=BC:0=010=G0:=G0:0;>@G0=6[email protected]<0[email protected][email protected]30;0<:0;>@8110=G0:=G0:0;>@G0=6[email protected]<0[email protected][email protected]30;0<9>C;4"8"#8:4B07C8# 6 :0;6I IJ I I0# 6 :0;6I I :0;>@8 03810=G0:=G0:0;>@G0=6[email protected]<0[email protected][email protected]030;07 :0;>@81[email protected]:[email protected]=:0;>@830=9>C;438:4B07C8107E0 :0;>@8  9>C;4A478=660 K  9>C;4  9>C;4Contoh 7.2;4?0A[email protected]<0#;4?0A#[email protected]<0(4;0=9CB=G0&34".""/<  38:4=0; A410608(( "!Jtermometerpengadukkalorimeterisolatorair(4?>B>=60;C<8=8C<[email protected]<0AA0 630=[email protected] I38<0AC::0=:430;0< 6[email protected]G0=6[email protected] I4=60=<4=60108:0=[email protected]:[email protected]=:0;>@34=60=;8=6:C=60=78BC=6AC7C0:[email protected]20<[email protected]=98:0:0;>@94=8A0;C<8=8C<  :6!30=:0;>@94=8A[email protected]   :6!"8"#8:4B07C8#[email protected] 6[email protected] I#; 6; I[email protected]   :6!;  :6!;4?0A[email protected]<0#[email protected][email protected]#  6   :6! IJ 6  :6!J I J) J I  I I 038AC7C0:[email protected]A4B4;07[email protected]:4A4B8<10=60=[email protected]<0;030;07 IContoh 7.1C:C< !4:4:0;0= mail protected] C=BC: :0;>@ 30?0B 380<0B8 34=60= <4=66C=0:0=!"%'#)' [email protected] B0<?0: ?030".#"3  (49C<;07 <0AA0H0B [email protected] 38?0=0A:0= !4<C380= H0B [email protected] [email protected] 38<0AC::0= :4 30;0<:0;>@8<[email protected](C7CH0B[email protected][email protected]38C:[email protected]34=60=[email protected]<><[email protected]30=3820B0B(4;0=9CB=G0 A49C<;07 <0AA0 H0B [email protected] 34=60= AC7C G0=6 ;4187 @4=30738<0AC::0= :4 30;0< :0;>@8<[email protected] 30= 3803C: 34=60= ?4=603C: 78=660:43C0H0B[email protected][email protected]<[email protected]30=<[email protected]!4<C380=AC7CH0B[email protected]G0=6[email protected]20<[email protected] 38C:[email protected] 30= 3820B0B (4;0<0 ?4=603C:0= [email protected];0=6AC=6 [email protected][email protected]?8=3070=:0;>@-0B[email protected]G0=6[email protected];4187B8=668<4;4?0A:0=:0;>@=G0A430=6:0= H0B [email protected] G0=6 [email protected] ;4187 @4=307 <[email protected]? :0;>@ [email protected] H0B[email protected] G0=6 [email protected] B8=668 A478=660 ?030 0:[email protected]=G0 <4=20?08 AC7C :4A4B8<10=60= G0=6 38A41CB 34=60=()#$ )'#"#[email protected]04&1)-"$,    J  9C<;07 :0;>@ G0=6 38;4?0A;4?0A A0<0 34=60= 9C<;07 :0;>@ G0=6 [email protected]<0 [email protected]<0 ([email protected]<0B4<0B8A [email protected]=G0B00= [email protected] 38BC;8A A410608 [email protected]:CBGambar 7.1Kalorimeter
151Kalor5.Perubahan Wujud Zat)4;07 =30 ?4;[email protected] 107E0 H0B 30?0B [email protected]=BC: B860 EC9C3 G08BC?030B [email protected] 30= 60A :810B [email protected] AC7C EC9C3 H0B 30?0B [email protected][email protected]EC9C3?030B<4=9038[email protected]30=[email protected][email protected]<4=903860A0B0CA410;8:=G0-0B A4;0;C <[email protected]<0 0B0C <4;4?0A:0= :0;>@ A4;0<0 [email protected]= EC9C3[email protected];0=6AC=6B4B0?8B830:[email protected]34=60=:4=08:0=0B0C[email protected]=0=AC7C(410608 2>=B>7 :4B8:0 4A A430=6 <[email protected] [email protected] [email protected]= EC9C3 [email protected]?030B <4=9038 [email protected] &030 [email protected] [email protected] 381CBC7:0= A49C<;07:0;>@B4B0?8 B830: [email protected] 34=60= :4=08:0= AC7C&4;[email protected] [email protected]< ?030".#"3  &[email protected]= EC9C3 [email protected] [email protected] :4 60A38A41CB#$*& &@>A4A A410;8:=G0 [email protected] 60A :4 [email protected] 38A41CB#$#*$&@>A4A [email protected]= EC9C3 [email protected] ?030B :4 60A 38A41CB#$.*"# &@>A4AA410;8:=G0 [email protected] 60A :4 ?030B 38A41CB#$.*"#a.Kalor Uap dan Kalor Embun 8:0 =30 <4=4B4A:0= [email protected] ?030 :C;8B B0=60= 10680= :C;8B G0=638B4B4A8 [email protected] 0:0= [email protected] 38=68= 0; [email protected] 38A4101:0= :0;>@ ?03010680= :C;8B B0=60= G0=6 38B4B4A8 [email protected] [email protected]? >;47 [email protected] C=BC:<4=6C0? 0=G0:=G0 :0;>@ G0=6 [email protected];C:0= C=BC: <4=6C0?:0= [email protected]A410=38=6 34=60= <0AA0 [email protected] 30= [email protected]=BC=6 ?030 :0;>@ ;0B4=C0?:0;>@ C0? [email protected] [email protected]"%' *&030;07!"%' .$ &'"*!$ *$)*! #$* ,* *  ! /)'#$ *&&))!$.30?C=!"%'#*$030;07:"%'.$"&( *$)*! #$* ,* *  ! *& #$  ' & ))! "*'$.!0;>@C0?AC0BCH0BA0<0[email protected]34=60=:0;>@4<1C=H0BB4A41CB#8A0;=G0:0;>@C0?@0:A0    :6:0;>@4<1C=@0:A0?C=    :6 8:0:0;>@C0?:0;>@4<1C=AC0BCH0B030;07C=BC:<4=6C0?:0=<4=64<1C=:0=H0BG0=6<0AA0=G0#0:0=<4<[email protected];C:0=:0;>@A410=G0:Gambar 7.2Diagram perubahan wujud zatGasCairPadatmencairmembekumenyublimmenyublimmenguapmengembun #*34=60=* 030;07 :0;>@ C0?  :6"#&-  <4<[email protected];870B:0= B8B8: 38387 30= :0;>@ C0? [email protected] H0B?030 B4:0=0=  0B<>[email protected] &4;[email protected] B014; [email protected] H0B <0=0:07 G0=6 <4<8;8:8 :0;>@ C0? [email protected]@JTugas Anda 7.2Seperempat kilogram es, dengansuhu –10°C, dicampur dengan 2 kgair yang suhunya 20°C. Diskusikandengan teman sebangku Anda,bagaimana fase akhir campurantersebut dan berapakah suhu akhircampuran tersebut?"#&- )8B8:838730=!0;>@*0?[email protected]-0B&030)4:0=0= 0B<!"5"-03%*%*),(J  J  J  J             *5*,%*%*); K K K K  K  K  K K  K  K  K K  K 4;8C<[email protected]>64=[email protected]>64=%:A864=;:>7>;'0:A0[email protected](C;[email protected])8<0778B0<=B8<>=&[email protected]:<0A)4 < 1 0 6 0Sumber: Physics, 1980
152Mudah dan Aktif Belajar Fisika untuk Kelas Xc.Perubahan Wujud Es Menjadi Uap 8:0 A49C<;07 <0AA0 4A G0=6 AC7C=G0 38 10E07 I 38?0=0A:0=[email protected]:0=:0;>@78=660AC7C=G0380B0A IA49C<;07<0AA04A[email protected][email protected] EC9C3 A4;[email protected]=G0 <4=9038 C0? &[email protected]= EC9C3 4A <4=9038C0? 30?0B 380<0B8 ?030".#"3 [email protected]=60=J  (49C<;07 :0;>@ [email protected]:0= :4?030 4A A478=660 AC7C 4A =08: [email protected] J)I<4=9038 I (4;[email protected] <0AA0 <0A87 [email protected]=BC: H0B ?030B G08BC 4AJ  (49C<;07 :0;>@ [email protected]:0= C=BC: <4=6C107 EC9C3 H0B A478=660 4A<4=9038 [email protected] 34=60= AC7C B4B0? G08BC IJ  (49C<;07:0;>@[email protected]:0=C=BC:<4=08::0=AC7C[email protected] I78=660[email protected]<4=38387?030AC7C I(4;[email protected]<0AA0<0A87[email protected]=BC:EC9C3H0B[email protected] G08BC[email protected]Gambar 7.3Pemanasan es pada tekanan 1atmosfer.EnergiABCDESuhu (°C)1000t1 #b.Kalor Lebur dan Kalor Beku(41>=6:074A38?0=0A:0=?030AC7C I30=B4:0=0=[email protected] 0B<>[email protected]4A<C;08<[email protected]&030A00B4A<[email protected]381CBC7:0=:0;>@(C7C:4B8:04A<4=[email protected] 38A41CB B8B8: ;[email protected] (410;8:=G0 98:0 [email protected] [email protected] =30 38=68=:0= [email protected]8BC 0:0= <4<14:C &[email protected] ?4<14:C0= 8=8 [email protected] 34=60= ?4;4?0A0=:0;>@ (C7C :4B8:0 [email protected] <4<14:C 38A41CB B8B8: 14:C 0=G0:=G0 :0;>@ G0=6381CBC7:0= 0B0C 38;4?0A:0= >;47 AC0BC H0B C=BC: <[email protected] ?030 B8B8:;[email protected]=G0 0B0C <4<14:C ?030 B8B8: ;[email protected]=G0 A410=38=6 34=60= <0AA0 H0B8BC 30= [email protected]=BC=6 ?030 :0;>@ ;[email protected] 14:C H0B [email protected]"%' "*'030;07!"%' .$ &'"*!$ *$)*! #$* ,* *  !/) &) #$  ' & ))! "*'$. 30?C=!"%' !*030;07:"%'.$ "&(!$ *$)*! #$* ,* *  ! /) ' #$  &) !0;>@;[email protected] AC0BC H0B A0<0 [email protected] 34=60= :0;>@ 14:C H0B [email protected] 8:0 :0;>@ ;[email protected] :0;>@ 14:C AC0BC H0B 030;07 C=BC: <4;[email protected]<4<14:C H0B G0=6 <0AA0=G0# ?030 B8B8: ;[email protected] B8B8: 14:C 0:0= <4<[email protected];C:0= :0;>@ A410=G0:J"#&- <4=C=9C::0=B8B8:;[email protected]30=:0;>@;[email protected][email protected]H0B?030B4:0=0=  0B<>[email protected] &4;[email protected] B014; [email protected] H0B <0=0:07 G0=6 <4<8;8:8B8B8: ;[email protected] [email protected]=307!"5*5*,&#63;4;8C<[email protected]>64=[email protected]>64=%:A864=;:>7>;'0:A0[email protected](C;[email protected])8<0778B0<=B8<>=&[email protected]:<0A)4<1060J J  J  J J               "#&- )8B8:"[email protected]30=!0;>@"[email protected][email protected]-0B?030)4:0=0= 0B<"-03&#63,( K K K K  K K K  K K K  K  K K Sumber: Physics for Scientist & Engineer, (2000).Sebanyak 320 gram campuran es danair pada suhu 0°C berada dalam bejanayang kapasitas kalornya dapatdiabaikan. Kemudian, dimasukkan 79guap air yang bersuhu 100°C ke dalambejana tersebut. Suhu akhir menjadi79°C. Jika kalor lebur es 79,0 kal/g dankalor penguapan air 540 kal/g, makabanyaknya air mula-mula adalah ...gram.a.4d. 65b.1 0e. 79c.3 5SPMB, 2002PembahasanDiketahui:mes + air = 320 gram, T = 0°Cmuap = 79 gram, T = 100°CKalor lebur es, L = 79,0 kal/gramKalor penguapan air , L = 540 kal/gramTakhir = 79°CKalor yang di lepas uap air (100°C)Qlepas= muap L + muap cT= (79) (540) + (79) (1) (100 – 79)= 79 (561) kaloriQterima= mes L + mes cT + mair cT= (320 – mair) 79 + (320 – mair) (1) (79 – 0) + mair (1) (79 – 0)= (640 – mair) 79Asas black :Qlepas = Qterima 79 (561) = (640 – mair) 79 mair = 79 gramJawaban : EPembahasan Soal
153Kalor830;0<A41C071490=0[email protected]?0B :6[email protected][email protected] I!430;0<1490=0[email protected]38<0AC::0=A4?>B>=64A[email protected]J IA410=G0:  :68:4B07C8:0;>@;[email protected]4A  K  :6 8:0[email protected]:[email protected]=:0;>@70=G0[email protected][email protected][email protected]30=4AB4=BC:0=AC7C0:[email protected]:4A4B8<10=60=[email protected]<0;"8"#8:4B07C8#[email protected] :6  K  :6[email protected] I[email protected]   :6I4AJ I4A   :6I#8A0;:0= 030;07:0;>@G0=638;4?0A:0=[email protected][email protected] IA0<?08 I#[email protected][email protected] :6   :6I I 9>C;4030;07:0;>@G0=6381CBC7:0=C=BC:<4=6C1074A[email protected]J I<4=90384A[email protected] I#4A4A  :6   :6I JJ     030;07:0;>@G0=6[email protected]?4AC=BC:<4;[email protected]#4A4A  :6  K  :6   !0;>@G0=6[email protected]?4A           )[email protected]=G0B0:0;>@G0=6[email protected]?4A;4187[email protected][email protected]?030:0;>@G0=638;4?0A:0=[email protected][email protected]@B8:0;>@G0=6381CBC7:0=4AC=BC:<[email protected];4187[email protected][email protected]?030:0;>@G0=638;4?0A:0=[email protected]A0<?08 I 03870=G0A410680=4AG0=6<[email protected]30=AC7C:4A4B8<10=60=[email protected]<0;030;07 IContoh 7.34.Pemuaian Zat(C0BC14=30108:?030B[email protected]<0C?C=60A[email protected]@80B0A[email protected]:4;[email protected]:4;A0=60B :428; G0=6 A4;0;C [email protected]@ 38A41CB <>;4:C; [email protected]: [email protected]<>;4:C;H0B ?030B A0=60B [email protected]:0B0= &030 H0B [email protected] [email protected]: [email protected]<>;4:C;=G0 060:@4=660=6 A430=6:0= ?030 60A [email protected]: [email protected]<>;4:C;=G0 A0=60B @4=660=6&[email protected]:0=".#"3  8:0 AC0BC 14=30 38?0=0A:0= <>;4:C;<>;4:C; 8BC [email protected]@ A4<0:8=24?0B [email protected]= [email protected]<>;4:C; [email protected] <4=G4101:0= <>;4:C;<>;4:C;A0;8=6 3>@>=6a.Pemuaian Zat Padat&4<C080= ?030 H0B ?030B 30?0B 380<0B8 <4;0;C8 [email protected]= ?0=90=6;C0A 30= D>;C<4  &.6"*"/1"/+"/((4CB0A:0E0B;>60<G0=6?0=90=6=G030=[email protected]38?0=0A:0=A0<?08AC7C<0:0:0E0B;>60<8BC0:0=<4<C08A478=660?0=90=6=G0<4=9038J  (49C<;07 :0;>@ [email protected]:0= C=BC: <4=6C107 EC9C3 H0B A478=660 H0B[email protected]G0=6<4=38387[email protected]<4=9038C0??030AC7CB4B0?G08BC IGambar 7.4Partikel-partikel pada(a) zat padat(b) cair(c) gas.(a)(b)(c)
154Mudah dan Aktif Belajar Fisika untuk Kelas X[email protected]@:0=,5*7*5"4*4*,"  38 0B0A [email protected]?0 :>458A84= <C08?0=90=6 :0E0B B4<1060 0=38=6:0= 70A8;=G0 34=60="#&-  [email protected]:CB8=8G0=6<4<C0B:>458A84=<C08?0=90=6[email protected]?01070=?030AC7C I&[email protected]:0=".#"3 J&[email protected]<1070= ?0=90=6 :0E0B 30?0B 38B4=BC:0= 34=60= [email protected]<00=A410608 [email protected]:CBJ&030&34".""/< [email protected] 030;07 :>458A84= <C08 ?0=90=6[email protected]&34".""/<30=&34".""/< [email protected]>;47J  J 0B0C. J/[email protected]=30;4187<4<070<8?4<C080=?0=90=6;0:C:0=;07:4680B0=[email protected]:CBJ Gambar 7.5Pemuaian panjang pada kawat logam.Aktivitas Fisika 7.1Pemuaian PanjangTujuan PercobaanMenentukan koefisien muai panjang suatu kabel konduktorAlat-Alat Percobaan1.Kabel (bahan uji: kawat tembaga dan kawat besi) diameter 1,5 mm2.Statif3.Beban (massa 5–50 gram)4.Mistar tegak (100 cm)5.Amperemeter digital6.Termometer digitalLangkah-Langkah Percobaan1.Susun alat seperti pada gambar berikut.2.Ikatkan kedua ujung kabel (kawat)pada batang peyangga bagian atas.3.Gantungkan beban bermassa 50 grampada kawat, tepat di tengah kawat.4.Tempatkan mistar sejajar dengan be-ban untuk mengetahui besar perubah-an yang dapat terjadi.5.Hubungkan amperemeter, sumbertegangan dan termometer sepertipada gambar.6.Catat awal 0 dan T0 kabel danposisi beban x0 dan y0.7.Catat perubahan yang terjadi pada kawat x, y, dan T setiap perubahantegangan yang dinaikkan.8.Gunakan perhitungan metode grafik untuk menentukan koefisien muaipanjangnya.9.Bandingkan koefisien muai panjang antara kedua kawat tersebut, apakahsama untuk kedua bahan kawat tersebut? Menurut Anda, mengapakoefisiennya berbeda/sama?10.Apa kesimpulan yang Anda peroleh dari percobaan tersebut?)2040 60801000amperemetersumber teganganx0y0+ –+ –kabelmistarstatifbebanstatiftermometerdigitalInformasiDi toko peralatan elektronik yangmenjual kabel (penghubung),terdapat berbagai jenis merekdagang. Untuk memperoleh kabelyang baik dapat dilakukan percobaanseperti pada Aktivitas 7.1 untukmembandingkan sifat termalantara merek yang satu dan yanglainnya.Kabel penghubung yang baiksebagai konduktor adalah kabelyang menghantarkan listrik secarabaik sekalipun pada suhu yangtinggi. Ini artinya bahwa koefisienmuai panjangnya relatif kecilnilainya. Dengan demikian, Andadapat memilih untukmenggunakan kabel berdasarkankualitasnya.In wire selling market, there is avarious kind of trade mark. Toobtain wire we can do an activitiesas in Physics Activity 7.1 tocompare thermal propertiesbetween one trademark to others.Good wire as a conductor is awire that conducting electricitygood enough even in hightemperature. Its mean that the linearexpansion coefficient relativelysmall. By that, you can choose touse wire according to its quality.untuk AndaInformation for You
155Kalor!41CBC70= ?4=64B07C0= <4=64=08 :>458A84= <C08 ?0=90=6 AC0BC1070= 030;07 C=BC: <4<[email protected]=6:0= ?4=66C=00= 1070= [email protected]#8A0;=G0?4<8;870=1070=30=C:[email protected]=G0=6386C=0:0=C=BC::>[email protected]:A894<10B0=&030A0;07A0BCC9C=6:>[email protected]:A894<10B0=<>[email protected]=[email protected]:0=@>301090G0=6 30?0B [email protected][email protected] 1410A !4B8:0 94<10B0= <4<C08 0:810B ?0=0A [email protected]94<10B0= 30?0B <[email protected]::0= @>30 1090 [email protected] &030 C9C=6 G0=6;08=9C60[email protected]:0=24;07G0=6<4<C=6:8=:0=[email protected]94<10B0=30?0B[email protected]@0:Gambar 7.6Pada salah satu ujung jembatan ini,dipasang roda dan diberi celahuntuk memberi ruangan ketikajembatan memuai.sungaibajaroda"#&- !>458A84=#C08&0=90=6[email protected]-0B?030(C7C I!"50&'*4*&/6"*"/+"/(;;C<8=8C<!C=8=60=30=[email protected]=66C4B>=30=10BC!020180A0!020[email protected])8<074A8[email protected]090#[email protected]<[email protected])4 < 1 0 6 0 K J K J  K JK J K J K J  K J  K J  K J  K JJ K J K JSumber: Physics, 1980&030AC7C I?0=90=6:0E0B14A8030;07 <[email protected]?0:07?0=90=6:0E0B14A8[email protected]?030AC7C I98:0:>458A84=<C08?0=90=614A8  K JI"8"#8:4B07C8 I I> <  K JIJ . J/ <.   K JI IJ I/  < 038?0=90=6:0E0B14A8[email protected]?030AC7C I030;07  <Contoh 7.4  &.6"*"/6"4(4:4?8=6 ;>60< G0=6 ?0=90=6=G0- 30= ;[email protected]=G0. 0:0= <4=60;0<8<C08 ;C0A 98:0 38?0=0A:0= &4<C080= ;C0A AC0BC H0B [email protected]=BC=6 :4?030:>458A84= <C08 ;C0A G0=6 [email protected] ;0<10=6 #C08 ;C0A [email protected]=BC: [email protected]3C0 ?4<C080= G08BC [email protected]<1070= ?0=90=6 30= [email protected]<1070= ;[email protected]:810B=G0[email protected]:>458A84=<C08;C0AA0<034=60=3C0:0;8:>458A84=<C08 ?0=90=6 G08BC  8:0 A4:4?8=6 ;>60< G0=6 ;C0A=G0 30= AC7C=G0 38?0=0A:0=A0<?08 AC7C ;>60< [email protected] 0:0= <4<C08 A478=660 ;C0A=G0 <4=9038[email protected]=G0[email protected]<1070=;C0A:4?8=6;>60<[email protected]30?0B38BC;8A:0=30;0< [email protected]<00= [email protected]:CB#8A0;=G0 ;C0A [email protected]J 
156Mudah dan Aktif Belajar Fisika untuk Kelas X(4:4?8=60;C<8=8C<34=60=?0=90=6 2<30=;[email protected] 2<38?0=0A:0=[email protected] IA0<?08 I 8:0:>458A84=<C08?0=90=60;C<8=8C<[email protected]030;07 K IB4=BC:0=;C0A:4?8=60;C<8=8C<A4B4;0738?0=0A:0="8"#8:4B07C8 2<K 2<  2< 2  K JIK JI IJ I I<0:0   2<. K JIK I/  2< 038;C0A:4?8=60;C<8=8C<A4B4;0738?0=0A:0=030;07  2<Contoh 7.5  &.6"*"/ 0-6.&&4<C080= D>;C<4 14=30 [email protected]=BC=6 :4?030 :>458A84= <C08 D>;C<4G0=6[email protected];0<10=6&4<C080=D>;C<4[email protected]=BC:[email protected]B860?4<C080=G08BC[email protected]<1070=?0=90=6[email protected]<1070=;[email protected]30=[email protected]<1070=B8=668:810B=G0[email protected]:>458A84=<C08D>;C<4A0<034=60=B860:0;8:>458A84= <C08 ?0=90=6 G08BC J  8:0A41C0714=30[email protected]=BC:10;>:G0=6D>;C<4=G0>30=AC7C=G038?0=0A:0=A0<?08AC7C)14=30[email protected]0:0=<4<C08A478=660D>;C<4=G0<4=9038[email protected]=G0 [email protected]<1070= D>;C<4 14=30 [email protected]=BC: @C0=6 30?0B 38BC;8A30;0< 14=BC: [email protected]<00= [email protected]:CB#8A0;=G0 D>;C<4 :C1CAJ 4=60=<4<0AC::0=[email protected]0VVV<0:0&34".""/< <4=9038 4=60=<4<0AC::0=[email protected]AJ><0:0&34".""/< <4=9038J 0B0C J J J  Gambar 7.7Pemuaian luas pada keping logam.02Gambar 7.8Pemuaian volume pada bendaberbentuk balok.2020203202020J 0000B0C J J 
157Kalor(41C0714A8[email protected]>;C<4 <38?0=0A:0=[email protected] IA0<?08  I 8:0<0AA094=8A14A8?030AC7C I030;07 :6<30=:>458A84=<C08?0=90=6=G0  K JI78BC=6;07<0AA094=8A14A8?030AC7C  I"8"#8:4B07C8 < :6<3   K J  K JI   I+>;C<414A8A4B4;0738?0=0A:0=030;07  <.   K JI  I/  <(4B4;0738?0=0A:0=D>;C<414=30[email protected]B4B0?8<0AA0=G0B4B0?37.200 kg1,033 mmV:6< 038<0AA094=8A14A8<4=9038:6<Contoh 7.6b.Pemuaian Zat Cair&030C<C<=G0?4<C080=H0B[email protected]70=G030?0B380<0B8<4;0;C8[email protected]0= D>;C<4=G0 8:0 A41C07 1490=0 64;0A G0=6 [email protected] [email protected] 70<[email protected] ?4=C738?0=0A:0= A4B4;07 :4=08:0= AC7C [email protected] 0:0= BC<?07 &[email protected] [email protected]30?0B [email protected]=6:0= A410608 [email protected]:CB'C0=6 [email protected]: [email protected]:4; ?030 H0B [email protected] ;4187 [email protected] [email protected]?030 @C0=6 [email protected]:[email protected]:4; ?030 H0B ?030B 8:0 :43C0 H0B 8BC <4=60;0<8 ?4<0=0A0= [email protected][email protected]<00= [email protected]:4; ?030 H0B [email protected] ;4187 ;4;C0A0 [email protected]@0: 3810=38=6:0=34=60= [email protected]:4; H0B ?030B %;47 :[email protected]=0 8BC D>;C<4 [email protected] ;4187 24?0B [email protected]B0<107[email protected]?030D>;C<41490=064;0AA478=660[email protected]0:0=BC<?07&[email protected][email protected] <4=C=9C::0= 107E0 :>458A84= <C08 D>;C<4 H0B [email protected] ;4187 [email protected][email protected]?030 :>458A84= <C08 D>;C<4 H0B ?030Bc.Anomali Air)4;07 =30 :4B07C8 107E0 98:0 H0B ?030B H0B [email protected] 30= 60A 38?0=0A:0=H0BH0B [email protected] 0:0= <4<C08 [email protected]=6 34=60= :4=08:0= AC7C &030?4<0=0A0= [email protected] 030 70; <[email protected]: G0=6 30?0B 380<0B8 #8A0;:0= =30<4<0=0A:0= [email protected] [email protected] I A410=G0:   2< 8 [email protected] AC7C I30= ID>;C<4[email protected]0:0=<4=GCACBB4B0?8<0AA0=G0B4B0?A478=660<0AA094=8A=G0=08: 8:0?4<0=0A0=[email protected]:0=A0<?08380B0A ID>;C<4[email protected]0:0= <4<C08 [email protected] H0BH0B G0=6 ;08= (850B ?4<C080= [email protected] G0=6 B830:[email protected]@ 8=8 38A41CB$%#" ' [email protected] [email protected];870B:0= [email protected]: ?030".#"3[email protected][email protected]:[email protected]B0<?0:107E0[email protected] IA0<?08 ID>;C<4[email protected][email protected]<4=GCACBA0<?08:[email protected]=6[email protected]  2<!4<C380=380B0AAC7C ID>;C<4 [email protected] <4<C08*=BC: <0AA0 G0=6 A0<0 ?030 AC7C I D>;C<4 4A ;4187 [email protected][email protected]?030D>;C<4[email protected][email protected]@B8<0AA094=8A4A;4187:428;[email protected]?030<0AA094=8A [email protected] :[email protected]=0 <0AA0 94=8A [email protected]=38=6 [email protected];8: 34=60= D>;C<4# BC;07 A4101=G0 1>=6:070= 4A 30?0B <4=60?C=6 38 0B0A [email protected]Gambar 7.9Grafik peristiwa anomali air1.00001.00021.00041.00061.00081.00101.00121.00141.0016181612840Suhu (°C)V olume (cm3)Sumber: Physics, 1980Kata Kuncikalorenergikalor jeniskapasitas kalorhukum kekekalan energi untukkalortitik didihkalor uapkalor embunkalor leburkalor bekukoefisien muai panjangkoefisien muai volumekoefisien muai luas
158Mudah dan Aktif Belajar Fisika untuk Kelas Xd.Pemuaian Gas&030 "$26&4)"3-&4 <4;0:C:0= [email protected]>100= G0=6 <4=C=9C::0=107E0A4<C060A<4<C0834=60=:>458A84=<C08G0=6A0<0G08BCA4[email protected]   #[email protected]=G0 98:0 A4<C0 60A 38?0=0A:0= D>;C<4 30=B4:0=0==G0 [email protected]  &.6"*"/("41"%"5&,"/"/5&5"1&[email protected]:0=".#"3 (41C07 B01C=6 :0;4=6 BCBC?=G0 [email protected]?8?0 :428; G0=6 C9C=6=G0 38?0A0=68 10;>= :4<?4A 8:0 B01C=6 [email protected]38?0=0A:0= AC7C 60A G0=6 [email protected] 38 30;0< B01C=6 0:0= =08: &030 :40300= 8BC [email protected]:4; 60A [email protected]@0: A0;8=6 [email protected]:0= :4 A460;0 [email protected] 30=<0AC: :4 30;0< 10;>= <4;0;C8 ?8?0 A478=660 10;>= <4<[email protected] &[email protected][email protected] <4=C=9C::0= B4;07 [email protected] ?4<C080= 60A 38 30;0< B01C=6 ?030B4:0=0= B4B0? A0<0 34=60= B4:0=0= [email protected] 38 ;[email protected] B01C=6@058: AC7C [email protected]? D>;C<4 ?030 [email protected]>A4A ?4<0=0A0= 60A 34=60=B4:0=0= B4B0? B0<?0: ?030".#"3 [email protected]60<[email protected][email protected]B0<?0:107E098:0B4:0=0=60AB4B0?D>;C<460A [email protected]=38=6 ;[email protected] 34=60= AC7C=G0 (4;0=9CB=G0 [email protected]=G0B00= 8=8 38A41CB C:C< [email protected];4A([email protected] <0B4<0B8A 7C:C< 8=8 38BC;8A  0B0CJ [email protected]=60=D>;C<40E0;< D>;C<4 60A A4B4;07 38?0=0A:0= < AC7C 0E0; ! AC7C 60A A4B4;07 38?0=0A:0= ![email protected]=G0 [email protected]<1070= D>;C<4 60A A00B 38?0=0A:0= <4<4=C78 [email protected]A0<00=G0=6A0<034=60=[email protected]=G0[email protected]<1070=D>;C<4H0B?030BG08BC) J %;47 :[email protected]=030=1273<0:0)     &."/"4"/("41"%"70-6.&5&5"1&[email protected]:0=".#"3  &030 10680= C9C=6 ?8?0 38BCBC? @0?0B34=60= AC<10B [email protected];>= 8:0 B01C=6 ?030".#"3 38?0=0A:0=D>;C<4 60A B4B0? :810B=G0 B4:0=0= 60A [email protected]<107 [email protected] 038?030?4<0=0A0= 8=8 D>;C<4 60A B4B0? A430=6:0= B4:0=0==G0 [email protected]=30 30?0B <4=64B07C8 7C1C=60= [email protected] :4=08:0= AC7C 30= B4:0=0= ?030 ?4<0=0A0= 60A ?030 D>;C<4 B4B0? 34=60= <4;0:C:0=[email protected]>100= [email protected]:CBJ Gambar 7.10Gas dipanaskan pada tekanan tetappipabalontabungkalengbalonsebelummemuaibunsenGambar 7.11Volume gas sebagai fungsi dari suhupada pemanasan gas dengan tekanantetap.0100200300400500VT(K)Gambar 7.12Gas dipanaskan pada volume tetappipasumbattabung
159KalorAktivitas Fisika 7.2Hubungan Suhu dan TekananTujuan PercobaanMengetahui hubungan antara kenaikan suhu dan tekanan.Alat-Alat PercobaanAlat ukur Bourdon, termometer raksa, tabung gas, pembakar bunsen, dan kakitiga.Langkah-Langkah Percobaan1.Rancanglah peralatan tersebut seperti pada Gambar 7.13. Pastikan tidak adakebocoran gas dalam tabung.2.Setelah terjadi kesetimbangan termal antara termometer dan gas dalamtabung, catat suhu awal gas (terlihat pada termometer) dan tekanan udara(terlihat pada alat Bourdon).3.Panaskan tabung dengan pembakar bunsen. Catat kenaikan suhu udara dantekanan udara dalam tabung pada suatu tabel.4.Dari tabel tersebut, buatlah grafik suhu terhadap tekanan gas.5.Buatlah kesimpulan dari kegiatan ini.Gambar 7.13Perangkat percobaan untukmengetahui hubungan antarakenaikan suhu dan tekanan.Bourdontermometerraksabunsenkakitiga&[email protected]>100= [email protected]?0 34=60= :4680B0= [email protected] [email protected]=07 38;0:C:0= [email protected]07;8 8A8:0 [email protected] 70A8; [email protected]>100= G0=6 <[email protected]:0 ;0:C:0= [email protected]>;47 [email protected]:B4:0=0=60A[email protected]?AC7C?030D>;C<4B4B0?[email protected]=BC:[email protected];[email protected];870B:4<10;8".#"3 ([email protected] <0B4<0B8:0 [email protected] 8=8 <4<4=C78 [email protected]<00=&  &0B0C&&[email protected]=60=& B4:0=0= 60A 0B<AC7C60A! :>=AB0=B0[email protected] [email protected]<00=&  38:4B07C8 107E0 B4:0=0= 60A [email protected]=38=6;[email protected] 34=60= AC7C=G0 ?030 D>;C<4 B4B0? (4;0=9CB=G0 [email protected]=G0B00=[email protected] 38A41CB C:C< 0G"CAA02J Gambar 7.14Grafik tekanan terhadap suhuT(K)p(Pa)Tes Kompetensi Subbab A&3+","/-")%"-".#6,6-"5*)"/ 8BC=610=G0::0;>@G0=6[email protected];C:0=C=BC:<4=6C1070 :64A[email protected] I<4=9038[email protected] I1 64A[email protected] I<4=9038C0? I (41C0764;0A[email protected] 6[email protected]?030 I[email protected]?0[email protected]<4AG0=6 AC7C=G0 J I [email protected] 3820<[email protected] :4 30;0< [email protected]A478=660AC7C0:[email protected]20<[email protected]=4A30=[email protected]<4=9038 I38:4B07C8 :0;>@ 94=8A [email protected]   :6 ! 108:0=[email protected]:[email protected]=:0;>@34=60=64;0A &0301490=0G0=6[email protected] 6[email protected][email protected] I38<0AC::0= 4A 10;>: G0=6 <0AA0=G0  6 [email protected] J I8BC=6;07AC7C0:[email protected]20<[email protected]=30=<0AA04AG0=6<4;[email protected] !4B8=6680=[email protected][email protected]=38:4B07C8 < 8:0A4;[email protected][email protected]<4:0=8:38C107<4=9038[email protected]:0;>@:0;>@94=8A[email protected]   :6!30=  <A78BC=6;07:4=08:0=AC7C[email protected][email protected]=A4B4;0790BC7&4BC=9C: 6C=0:0= [email protected]<00= [email protected] ?>B4=A80; [email protected]:0;>@C=BC:<4=08::0=AC7C[email protected]?0 10=G0:=G0 :0;>@ G0=6 [email protected];C:0= C=BC:<4=6C1074AJ>G0=6<0AA0=G0 [email protected]<<4=9038[email protected] >98:0:0;>@94=8A4A :0;6I:0;>@94=8A[email protected] :0;[email protected]I30=:0;>@;[email protected]4A :0;6&[email protected]:0=60<[email protected][email protected]:CB–5°C0°C0°C20°C
160Mudah dan Aktif Belajar Fisika untuk Kelas XB. Perpindahan Kalor 8:08=68=<4<0A0:[email protected][email protected];C:0=:0;>@G0=6[email protected];[email protected]0?8:><?>@&030?4<0=0A0=A4?0=28[email protected]<C;0<C;0:0;>@[email protected]0?8:><?>@[email protected]?8=307:4?0=28B4<?0B[email protected]:4<C380=:0;>@[email protected]?0=28[email protected][email protected]?8=307:4[email protected]&[email protected]?8=3070=:0;>@[email protected][email protected]14=30[email protected]B8=668?0=0A:414=30[email protected] ;4187 @4=307 38=68= 4=30 G0=6 ?0=0A <4<[email protected]:0= :0;>@ :4?030 14=30 G0=6 38=68= (40=308=G0 :0;>@ B830: 30?0B [email protected]?8=3070:0=AC;8BC=BC:<4<0A0:[email protected]A4101:0;>@[email protected]0?8:><?>@B830:30?0B[email protected]?8=307:4 [email protected]30 B860 14=BC: [email protected]?8=3070= :0;>@ G08BC!%$*!( [email protected]=!%$+!( 0;[email protected]= 30='( [email protected]=1.Perpindahan Kalor Secara Konduksi#8A0;:0= =30 <4<0=0A:0= A0;07 A0BC C9C=6 10B0=6 ;>60< [email protected]".#"3 )4=BC=G0[email protected]:4;[email protected]:4;?030C9C=6;>60<G0=638?0=0A8[email protected]@ ;4187 24?0B (4<0:8= [email protected] 9C<;07 :0;>@ G0=6 [email protected]:0= :4?030C9C=6 ;>60< 8BC A4<0:8= 24?0B [email protected]= [email protected]:4;=G0 (410680= [email protected]:8=4B8: G0=6 38<8;8:8 [email protected]:4; G0=6 [email protected]@ [email protected] [email protected]:0=:4?030[email protected]:4;[email protected]:4; 38 34:0B=G0 <4;0;C8 BC<1C:0= :810B=G0 [email protected]:4;[email protected]:4; G0=6 38BC<1C: 8BC 8:CB [email protected]@ 34<8:80= [email protected]=G0 78=660[email protected]= [email protected]:4; A0<?08 :4 C9C=6 ;>60< G0=6 B830: 38?0=0A8&[email protected]<10B0= [email protected]= [email protected]:4; [email protected] [email protected] 34=60= [email protected]<10B0=:0;>@ [email protected] C9C=6 ;>60< G0=6 38?0=0A8 A0<?08 :4 C9C=6 ;>60< G0=6B830:38?0=0A8 :810B=G0 C9C=6 ;>60< G0=6 B830: 38?0=0A8 <4=9038 ?0=0A'0<10B0= :0;>@ 8=8 B830: [email protected] 34=60= [email protected]?8=3070= [email protected]:4;[email protected]:4;;>60<'&$$ !"%' #""* /)&'$)' "%# $$ )! (')&'&$$ &')!"&')!" /) )'(*) (' &'#$$38A41CB$)'$0B0C !%$*!(".#"3 <4<[email protected];870B:0= A410B0=6 ;>60< 34=60= ;C0A ?4=0<?0=6 30= ?0=90=6 10B0=6 38?0=0A:0= A0;07 A0BC C9C=6=G0 &030 [email protected][email protected] :0;>@ 0:0= <[email protected]<10B :4 C9C=6 A414;07 :0=0= G0=6 AC7C=G0;4187 @4=307 [email protected]@:0= ?4=4;8B80= G0=6 B4;07 38;0:C:0= [email protected]>;47107E0 [email protected]?8=3070= :0;>@ [email protected] :>=3C:A8 [email protected]=BC=6 ?030 94=8A ;>60<;C0A ?4=0<?0=6 [email protected] :0;>@ [email protected]= AC7C [email protected] C9C=6C9C=6;>60<B4<?0B:0;>@<[email protected]<10B[email protected]?0=90=690;0=G0=638;0;C8>;47:0;>@&[email protected]?8=3070= :0;>@ A4B80? A0BC0= E0:BC [email protected]<CA:0= A410608 [email protected]:CBGambar 7.15Contoh perpindahan kalor secarakonduksi.Gambar 7.16Hantaran kalorT1T2A ! JJ  ! J [email protected]=60= :0;>@ G0=6 <[email protected]<10B [email protected]= E0:BC  A 0B0C E0BB! :>458A84= :>=3C:A8 [email protected]<0; H0B  <A! 0B0C ,<! ;C0A ?4=0<?0=6 10B0=6 < ?0=90=6 10B0=6 <
161Kalor"#&- 30="#&- <4<[email protected];870B:0= :>458A84= :>=3C:A8 [email protected]<0;H0B 1C:0= ;>60< 30= ;>60<"."")"/.4;A0B0<[email protected]4B>=!020!0GC:[email protected]=601CA([email protected]>5>0<!08=B410;*[email protected]          "#&- !>458A84=!>=3C:A8)[email protected]<0;-0BC:0=">60<'0B0'0B0"."")"/.4;&[email protected]:)4 < 1 0 6 0;C<8=8C<!C=8=60=)8<10;090'0:A0        "#&-!>458A84=!>=3C:A8)[email protected]<0;">60<'0B0'0B02.Perpindahan Kalor Secara Konveksi&030 A00B =30 <4<0=0A:0= [email protected] 38 30;0< ?0=28 :0;>@ 0:0=[email protected]?8=307 [email protected]  [email protected] ?0=28 :4 [email protected]<C:00= [email protected] [email protected] :>=D4:A8&[email protected]?8=3070= :0;>@ [email protected] :>=D4:A8 [email protected] [email protected]:0= <0AA0 0B0C 6[email protected]:0=[email protected]:4;[email protected]:4; H0B [email protected][email protected]=G0 !>=D4:A8 70=G0 [email protected] ?030 H0B G0=630?0B <4=60;[email protected] 5;C83030 3C0 [email protected] [email protected]?8=3070= :0;>@ <4;0;C8 [email protected]= :>=D4:A8 G08BC:>=D4:A8 [email protected] 0;0<807 30= :>=D4:A8 ?0:A0a.Konveksi Alamiah#8A0;:0==30<4<0=0A:0=A4?0=28[email protected][email protected]?030".#"3 (4B4;07 [email protected] 38 10680= 10E07 ?0=28 <[email protected]<0 :0;>@ [email protected] [email protected]0:0=<4<C08 A478=660 <0AA0 94=8A=G0 ;4187 :428; [email protected]?030 <0AA0 94=8A[email protected]3810680= 0B0A &[email protected]= <0AA0 94=8A [email protected] <4=60:810B:0= [email protected]:4;[email protected]:4; [email protected] G0=6 [email protected]<0AA0 94=8A ;4187 :428; 0:0= [email protected]@0: :4 0B0A)4<?0BG0=638B8=660;:0=[email protected]:4;[email protected]G0=6[email protected]<0AA094=8A;4187:428;0:0= [email protected] >;47 [email protected]:4; [email protected] G0=6 [email protected]<0AA0 94=8A ;4187 [email protected]&[email protected][email protected] [email protected];0=6AC=6 [email protected]<[email protected] A478=660 [email protected]:4;[email protected]:4; [email protected] 30;0<?0=28 [email protected][email protected] =08: 30= [email protected]= ;[email protected]=0;[email protected]= [email protected]:4; G0=6 [email protected]@0:[email protected] [email protected] 34=60= [email protected]?8=3070= :0;>@ &[email protected]?8=3070= :0;>@ 34=60=<4=60;[email protected]:0= [email protected]:4;[email protected]:4; [email protected] [email protected] 8=8 38A41CB!%$+!( "#!>=D4:A8 0;0<807 10=G0: 389C<?08 38 [email protected]:[email protected]: G0=6 <4=66C=0:0=[email protected]>1>=60A0?0A70A8;?4<10:[email protected]=<4<8;8:8<0AA094=8A;4187:428; [email protected]?030 <0AA0 94=8A [email protected] 38 A4:[email protected]=G0 :810B=G0 60A 70A8;?4<10:[email protected]= 0:0= <4=60;[email protected] :4 0B0A )4<?0B G0=6 38B8=660;:0= >;4760A70A8;?4<10:[email protected]=0:0=388A8>;47[email protected]A4:[email protected]G0=6<4<8;8:8<0AA094=8A;4187 [email protected] [email protected]?030 <0AA0 94=8A 60A 70A8; ?4<10:[email protected]==68= ;0CB 30= 0=68= [email protected] [email protected] [email protected]@:0= :>=D4:A8 0;0<807[email protected] =68= ;0CB 30= 0=68= [email protected] G0=6 38<0=500B:0= =4;0G0= C=BC:[email protected];[email protected][email protected]<4;0;C8:>=D4:A80;0<807[email protected]38<0=0?0=0A38?8=307:0= [email protected] AC0BC B4<?0B :4 B4<?0B ;08= 34=60= [email protected]@0:0= [email protected]:4;G0=6Berapa kalor yang diperlukan untukmengubah 500 g es dari –10°Cmenjadi uap bersuhu 120°C (kalorlebur, dan kalor uap dapat dilihatpada Tabel 7.2 dan Tabel 7.3).Tantanganuntuk AndaGambar 7.17Peristiwa konveksi alamiahSumber: Fisika Universitas, 2002Sumber: Fisika Universitas, 2002
162Mudah dan Aktif Belajar Fisika untuk Kelas X38?8=307:0= &030 A80=6 [email protected] [email protected]= ;4187 24?0B ?0=0A [email protected]?030 ;0CBA478=660 [email protected] ?0=0A 38 0B0A [email protected]= =08: 30= B4<?0B=G0 3860=B8:0=[email protected]38=68=[email protected]0B0A;0CB8=8G0=638A41CB0=68=;0CB&030<0;0<[email protected][email protected] A410;8:=G0 [email protected]= ;4187 24?0B 38=68= [email protected]?030 ;0CB A478=660[email protected] 38 0B0A ;0CB =08: 30= B4<?0B=G0 3860=B8:0= >;47 [email protected] [email protected] 0B0A[email protected]= G0=6 38A41CB 0=68= [email protected]b.Konveksi Paksa!>=D4:A8 ?0:A0 10=G0: 386C=0:0= ?030 A8AB4< ?4=38=68= <4A8=<8A0;=G0?030<4A8=<>18;<4A8=:0?0;;0CB<4A8=384A4;AB0A8>[email protected]30=:8?0A 0=68=!>=D4:A8 ?0:A0 [email protected] ?030".#"3 38?0:08 30;0< A8AB4<?4=38=68=<4A8=<>18;[email protected]<4=60;[email protected]38A4:[email protected]@C0=6<4A8=<4;0;C8?8?0?8?0 3810=BC >;47 A41C07 ?><?0 [email protected] ,)' &*#& !0;>@ G0=6 [email protected]<0<4A8= <>18; [email protected] 70A8; [email protected]>A4A ?4<10:[email protected]= <4=20?08 AC7C  I&030AC7C 8=8 <4<C=6:8=:0= <4A8= <>18; <4<C08 <4;41878 10B0A :40<0=0=30=<4=60:810B:0=10680=10680=<4A8=<>18;<4=9038;4<07[email protected]:0=[email protected]<0 G0=6 [email protected]=6 389C<?08 030;07 ?030 :>? A8;[email protected] <4A8= <4=9038<4;4=6:C=6 &[email protected] [email protected]:CB=G0 D8A:>A8B0A <8=G0: ?4;C<0A <4=9038@4=307 [email protected]&0=0A ?030 <4A8= <>18; [email protected]?8=307 >;47 [email protected]:C;0A8 [email protected] <4=C9C :4 @0380B>@ *[email protected] 38=68= [email protected] ;[email protected] <4A8= [email protected]: >;47 A41C07 :8?0A C=BC:<4=38=68=:0= [email protected] ?030 @0380B>@ A478=660 [email protected] G0=6 38=68= 8=8 :4<10;8<4=60;[email protected] 30= [email protected]=BC70= 34=60= 1;>:1;>: <4A8= C=BC: <4=6C;0=6[email protected]:C;0A8 [email protected]:CB=G0 038 5C=6A8 @0380B>@ 030;07 <4=9060 AC7C <4A8=[email protected] B830: <4;0<?0C8 10B0A ?0=0A G0=6 388H8=:0= C<;07 [email protected] :0;>@ [email protected] A0BC0= E0:BC G0=6 [email protected]<0 >;47 5;C830A4:[email protected]=G0 [email protected] :>=D4:A8 030;07 A410=38=6 34=60= ;C0A [email protected]<C:00=14=30 G0=6 [email protected]=BC70= 34=60= 5;C830 34=60= 1430 AC7Ct ([email protected]<0B4<0B8A 38BC;8AQt  0B0CJ   [email protected]=60= 9C<;07 :0;>@ [email protected] A0BC0= E0:BC  A :>458A84= :>=D4:A8 [email protected]<0;  A<I ;C0A ?4=0<?0=6 [email protected]?8=3070= :0;>@ <t [email protected]= AC7C G0=6 38?0=0A8 34=60= AC7C 5;C830 I$8;08 :>458A84= :>=D4:A8 [email protected]<0; [email protected]=BC=6 ?030 14=BC: 30= :43C3C:0= [email protected]<C:00= [email protected] 94=8A 5;C830 G0=6 [email protected]=BC70= 34=60= [email protected]<C:00=J (C7C[email protected]30;0<A41C07@C0=60=[email protected] IA430=6:0=AC7C[email protected]<C:00=94=34;0?030@C0=60=[email protected] I[email protected]?0;09C:0;>@G0=6[email protected]<0>;4794=34;0:020A4;C0A <98:0:>458A84=:>=D4:A8[email protected]A00B8BCK J :0;A<IContoh 7.7pipa-pipakecilkipaspompa airsaluranair dalammesinGambar 7.18Sistem peredaran pendingin air padamobil.Misalkan Anda menyeduhsecangkir kopi dengan air panas,lalu Anda mengaduknya dengansendok yang terbuat dari logam.Mengapa sendok itu terasa lebihpanas dibandingkan jika Andamengaduknya menggunakansendok yang terbuat dari plastik?Tantanganuntuk Anda
163Kalor3.Perpindahan Kalor secara Radiasi&0=0A<[email protected]<[email protected]?0:0=AC<[email protected][email protected][email protected]@1068:4;0=6AC=60=783C?<0:7;C:381C<8&0=0A[email protected]<[email protected]A0<?08:4C<8B830:<4;0;C8[email protected]= :>=3C:A8 0B0C?C= 0;[email protected]= :>=D4:A8 A4101 :>=3C:A8 30=:>=D4:A8 <4<[email protected];C:0= H0B [email protected][email protected] A430=6:0= [email protected] #[email protected] 30=C<8[email protected]?0B@C0=670<?00B0C34=60=:0B0;08=B830:030H0B[email protected][email protected]&0=0A :0;>@ [email protected] #[email protected] A0<?08 :4 C<8 [email protected] [email protected] @0380A8[email protected]=!0;>@[email protected]#[email protected]A0<?08:4C<830;0<14=BC:64;><10=64;4:[email protected]><06=4B8: 038'( 030;07&'&$$ !"%' "# $)*!"%#$ "!)'%#$)!&[email protected]<C:00= 14=30 G0=6 [email protected]@=0 78B0< 30?0B <[email protected]? 30= <4<[email protected]:0=[email protected]:0;>@@0380A834=60=108:A430=6:0=[email protected]<C:00=14=30[email protected]@=0?CB87<[email protected]?30=<4<[email protected]:0=:0;>@@0380A834=60=[email protected]:&0=4; [email protected] (%"' &$" 386C=0:0= C=BC: <[email protected]? 30= <4<[email protected]:0=@0380A8[email protected]#[email protected]%;47:[email protected]=08BC1830=6;>60<[email protected]>=660=G0[email protected][email protected]=0 78B0< mail protected] :0;>@ @0380A8 38<0=500B:0= C=BC: <4<0=0A:0=[email protected]#>18;<>18; B0=6:8 ?4=60=6:CB <8=G0: ?030 10680= 0B0A B0=6:8 3820B34=60=[email protected]=0?CB870;[email protected]38<0:AC3:0=6C=0<[email protected]?4=G4@0?0= [email protected] ?0=0A [email protected] :>=D4:A8 >;47 <8=G0:&[email protected]<C:00= 14=30 78B0< ;4187 10=G0: <[email protected]? 30= <4<[email protected]:0=[email protected] :0;>@ A410;8:=G0 [email protected]<C:00= 14=30 [email protected]@=0 ?CB87 ;4187 A438:8B<[email protected]? 30= <4<[email protected]:0= :0;>@ @0380A8a.Api Unggun&[email protected]=07:07 =30 <4;0:C:0=#&$ 38 [email protected] ?46C=C=60= (C307<4=9038 70; G0=6 180A0 38 30;0< [email protected]:4<070= <4<1C0B 0?8 C=66C= ?8C=66C= 381C0B [email protected] @0=B8=6@0=B8=6 ?>7>= :[email protected]=6 G0=6 3810:[email protected] (4B4;07 381C0B 0?8 C=66C= B4=BC =30 <4=9038 <[email protected] 70=60B E0;0C?C= BC1C7=30 B830: [email protected]=BC70= 34=60= 0?8 &0=0A 0?8 <4=60;[email protected] <4;0;C8 [email protected];4187 10=G0: [email protected] @0380A8 [email protected] 0?8 C=66C= <4=64=08 BC1C7 =30[email protected]?030 [email protected] :>=D4:A8b.Rumah Kaca)830:A4<C064;><10=6@0380A8[email protected]#[email protected]30?0B<[email protected]<10B<0AC::430;0<@C<07:0200=G02070G0B0<?0:G0=630?0B<[email protected]<10B38=38=6:020 0B0C ?;0AB8: A430=6:0= [email protected] C;[email protected]>;4B 30= [email protected] [email protected] <[email protected] 38?0=BC;:0=:4<10;8>;4738=38=6:020mail protected]:0;>@@0380A8[email protected]2070G0B0<?0:[email protected]? >;47 B0=07 30= B0=0<0= 38 30;0< @C0=6 @C<07 :020 (410;8:=G0B0=07 30= B0=0<0= 0:0= <4<[email protected]:0= :4<10;8 64;><10=6 @0380A8 [email protected]?0[email protected] [email protected]<[email protected] &0=90=6 64;><10=6 G0=6 ;4187 [email protected] <4=G4101:0=64;><10=6[email protected]<[email protected][email protected][email protected]=6:0?>;4738=38=6:020A478=660AC7C@C0=60=<4=9038 ;4187 70=60B 30= B0=0<0= 30?0B 783C? 34=60= [email protected]"8"#)J) IJ I I <K J :0;A<I  K J :0;A<I < I  :0; 038;09C:0;>@G0=6[email protected]<0>;4794=34;0:020  :0;InformasiAlat Penukar KalorSeperti namanya, alat penukarkalor adalah seperangkatinstrumen di mana terjadipertukaran kalor antara dua aliranfluida bergerak tanpa pencampur-an. Alat penukar kalor banyakdigunakan diberbagai industridengan berbagai model.Bentuk paling sederhana darialat penukar kalor adalah penukarkalor pipa ganda, yakni tersusunoleh dua pipa konsentris dengandiameter berbeda. Satu fluidamengalir di dalam pipa, dan fluidalainnya mengalir pada pipa yangmenembus ruang antara pipa.Kalor dipindahkan dari fluida yangpanas ke fluida yang dinginmelalui dinding pemisahnya.Terkadang pipa yang berada didalam dibuat dua putaran di dalamselongsong untuk menambahpertukaran kalor.As the name implies, heatexchangers are devices where twomoving fluid streams exchangeheat without mixing. Heatexchanger are widely used invarious industries, and they come innumerous designs.The simplest form of a heatexchanger is a double tube heatexchanger. It is composed of twoconcentric pipes of differentdiameters. One fluids flows in theinner pipes, and the other in theannular space between the twopipes. Heat is transferred from thehot fluid to the cold one throughthe wall separating them.Sometimes the inner tube makes acouple of turn inside the shell toincrease the heat transfer area.Sumber: Thermodynamics, 1998untuk AndaInformation for You
164Mudah dan Aktif Belajar Fisika untuk Kelas X*0? [email protected] G0=6 38:4;[email protected]:0= >;47 B0=07 30= B0=0<0= <4=G4101:0=?4=6C0?0= [email protected][email protected]=6:0? >;47 38=38=6 :020 ;[email protected]= C0? [email protected] :4 0B0A [email protected]:>=D4:A8 B830: [email protected];0= A478=660 C0? [email protected] :4<10;8 90BC7 :4 30;0<B0=0730= B0=0<0= 30;0< 14=BC: H0B [email protected] &030 0:[email protected]=G0 :4;4<1010= [email protected]30;0< @C<07 :020 30?0B [email protected] A4?0=90=6 @0380A8 :0;>@ #[email protected] [email protected];0=6AC=6c.Radiasi Benda Hitam04&1)5&'"/   J   30=6%8*(0-5:."//   J  <4=G0B0:0= 107E0 [email protected]=G0 [email protected] G0=6 [email protected]:0= >;47 AC0BC[email protected]<C:00= [email protected] A0BC0= E0:BC [email protected] A0BC0= ;C0A A410=38=6 34=60= ?0=6:0B4<?0B AC7C [email protected]<C:00= 8BC 30?0B 38BC;8A 34=60= [email protected]<00= [email protected]=60=[email protected]G0=6[email protected]:0=0B0C[email protected]?[email protected]A0BC0=E0:BC[email protected]A0BC0=;C0A  A< 0B0C E0BB<:>=AB0=B0C<C<(B450=>;BH<0==K JE0BB<! AC7C <CB;0: ! 4<8A8D8B0A [email protected]<C:00= B830: [email protected]=*=BC: 14=30 78B0< A4<[email protected]=0 [email protected]   14=3014=30 ;08= [email protected]:>458A84=4<8A8D8B0A=G0;4187:428;[email protected]?030A0BCA430=6:0=C=BC:14=30[email protected]@=0?CB87A4<[email protected]=0 [email protected][email protected]=BC=6 ?030 :40300= [email protected]<C:00= 14=30 G08BC :4:[email protected]==G0 [email protected] [email protected]=0 [email protected] 14=30 mail protected]G0=6[email protected]:0= >;47 A41C07 14=30 30;0< A0BC0= 9>C;4 38B4=BC:0= 34=60=[email protected]<00=J   )J [email protected]=60= [email protected] G0=6 [email protected]:0= >;47 [email protected]<C:00= 14=30   ;C0A [email protected]<C:000= 14=30 <) ;0<0 E0:BC 4<8A8 [email protected] A4:>= 8:03810=38=6:0=[email protected]?;8=6:C=60=G0=6[email protected][email protected]<00==G0 0:0= <4=9038J (41C0714=30<4<8;8:8[email protected]<C:00=78B0<A4<[email protected]=0[email protected] I"C0A[email protected]<C:00= 2<<4<[email protected]:0=[email protected]:4;8=6:C=60=G0=6[email protected] I)4=BC:0=[email protected][email protected]A0BC0=E0:BCG0=6[email protected]:0=14=30[email protected]"8"# 14=3078B0<    !    ! 2< K J <Contoh 7.8 J  )&[email protected]?0= :>=A4? @0380A8 30;0< :4783C?0= [email protected][email protected] 10=G0: 389C<?082>=B>7=G0?4<10:[email protected]=?0300;0B?4<0=660=6%+$[email protected]=60=:>?8 30= B4<10:0C 30= A8AB4< ?4=38=68= 0B0C ?4<0=0A0= @C<07Seorang petinju profesional setelahselesai bertanding berada di ruanganyang bersuhu 15°C. Berapa laju energiyang dikeluarkan tubuhnya jika suhutubuhnya saat itu 34°C, emisivitasnya0,7, dan luas tubuhnya yangberhubungan langsung dengan udaraadalah 1,5 m2?Tantanganuntuk Anda
165Kalor K JE0BB<!)    K J. J / K J  , 038[email protected][email protected][email protected]A0BC0=E0:BCG0=6[email protected]:0=>;4714=30[email protected]030;07 ,&030AC7C  !A41C0714=30<4<[email protected]:0=[email protected][email protected]   A[email protected]?0[email protected]G0=6[email protected]:0=14=30[email protected]?030AC7C  !"8"#8:4B07C8   A  !  !              A 038[email protected]G0=6[email protected]:0=14=30?030AC7C  !030;07   AContoh 7.9Tes Kompetensi Subbab B&3+","/-")%"-".#6,6-"5*)"/ )47?0=0A[email protected]I38BC0=6:0=:430;0<3C01C07B4:>G0=6A0BCB4:>:[email protected]<8:[email protected]=078B0< 30=A0BC=G0;068B4:><4=68;0B   8:0AC7C@C0=6 I[email protected]?0:424?0B0=78;0=6=G0:0;>@ [email protected] A4B80? B4:> :4 ;8=6:C=60= 98:0 ;C0A[email protected]<C:00=B4:>030;07 K J < &4=603C: [email protected] [email protected] 0;C<8=8C< 34=60= ;C0A?4=0<?0=6<<30=?0=90=6 2< 8:0AC7C[email protected]30;0<1490=0 IAC7C38C9C=6?4=603C: I30=:>=3C:B8D8B0A[email protected]<0; ,<IB4=BC:0=0:424?0B0=0;[email protected]=:0;>@?0300;[email protected]=:0;>@?030?4=603C:1:0;>@G0=6<4=60;[email protected]<4;0;C8?4=603C:A4;0<0 90< !>?8 ?0=0A [email protected] I 38BC0=6:0= :4 30;0<20=6:[email protected]:[email protected]<8:[email protected]=02>:4;0B  8:0AC7C@C0=6 IB4=BC:0=:424?0B0=78;0=6=G0:0;>@[email protected]20=6:[email protected]:4;8=6:C=60=;C0A20=6:[email protected] 2<  A0A;02:<4=G0B0:0=107E09C<;07:0;>@G0=6 38;4?0A ?030 AC0BC A8AB4< 0:0= A0<034=60= 9C<;07 :0;>@ G0=6 [email protected]<0 &4<C080=?030H0B?030B30?0B380<0B8<4;0;C8 [email protected]= ?0=90=6 ;C0A 30= D>;C<4 &030 C<C<=G0 ?4<C080= H0B [email protected] 70=G030?0B 380<0B8 <4;0;C8 [email protected]= D>;C<4A090Rangkuman  !0;>@ 030;07 [email protected] G0=6 38?8=307:0= [email protected]AC0BC 14=30 :4 14=30 G0=6 ;08=  !0;>@ 94=8A 30?0B 383458=8A8:0= A41060810=G0:=G0 :0;>@ G0=6 [email protected];C:0= AC0BC H0BC=BC: <4=08::0= AC7C  :6 H0B [email protected][email protected] I  !0?0A8B0A :0;>@ 030;07 10=G0:=G0 G0=6[email protected];C:0= C=BC: <4=08::0= AC7C 14=30[email protected] IKata Kuncikonduksikonveksiradiasirumah kacaradiasi benda hitam
166Mudah dan Aktif Belajar Fisika untuk Kelas X !0;>@030;07[email protected]G0=638?8=307:0=[email protected]AC0BC 14=30 :4 14=30 G0=6 ;08= 30 B860 14=BC: [email protected]?8=3070= :0;>@ G08BC:>=3C:A8 :>=D4:A8 30= @0380A8 &[email protected]?8=3070= :0;>@ <4;0;C8 H0B [email protected][email protected]34=60=B830:[email protected][email protected]?8=3070=[email protected]:4;[email protected]:4;H0B[email protected][email protected][email protected]<0=4=38A41CB[email protected]= 0B0C :>=3C:A8  &[email protected]?8=3070= :0;>@ [email protected] :>=D4:A8 0;[email protected]=[email protected]  [email protected]:0= <0AA0 0B0C [email protected]:0= [email protected]:4;[email protected][email protected]=G0 5;C830  '0380A8 030;07 [email protected]?8=3070= :0;>@ 30;0<14=BC: 64;><10=6 4;4:[email protected]><06=4B8:30?0B[email protected]?8=307[email protected]!>=3C:A8[email protected]=!>=D4:A8;[email protected]='0380A8&[email protected]=30?0B<4=G4101:0="-03&[email protected]=,C 9 C 32>=B>7[email protected]=G0&4<C080=4=30A478=660 [email protected]&[email protected]=(C7C#4;[email protected]#4<14:C#4=6C0?#4=64<1C=#4=GC1;8<94=8A=G0&4<C080=+>;C<4&4<C080=&0=90=6&4<C080="C0APeta KonsepSetelah Anda mempelajari bab ini, tentunya Andatelah memahami tentang perubahan wujud zat akibatperubahan kalor. Dapatkah Anda menerangkanmengenai cara perpindahan kalor pada suatu zat?RefleksiBagaimana dari cara perpindahan tersebut yang belumAnda pahami? Diskusikan dengan teman Anda tentangmateri yang belum Anda pahami tersebut. Jika masihmenemui kesulitan, bertanyalah kepada guru Fisika Anda.
167Kalor 0;0< A8AB4< A0BC0= [email protected]=0A8>=0; [email protected]= AC7C<4<8;8:8A0BC0=0=4EB>=3 :4;D8=1E0BB4:0;>@829>C;4 0;0<1>B>;[email protected]<>A[email protected]?0B [email protected]<:>?8?030AC7C I8B0<107:0=ACACA410=G0: [email protected]<[email protected]I 8:0B830:030:0;>@20<[email protected]=<0C?C=:0;>@G0=6[email protected]@0?1>B>;[email protected]<>A[email protected]:>?8ACAC :0;6I(C7C20<[email protected]==G0030;070I3  I1 I4 I2 I (C7CA410B0=61090G0=6?0=90=6=G0 <38B8=6:0B:0=[email protected] I<4=9038 IA478=660?0=90=6=G0[email protected]<107 <8;8<[email protected]&[email protected]<1070=?0=90=6AC0BC10B0=61090G0=6?0=90=6=G0 2<98:038?0=0A:0=[email protected] IA0<?08 I030;070  <<3  <<1  <<4  <<2  << (41C071>;0[email protected]>=660[email protected][email protected][email protected]=66C34=60=:>458A84=<C08;[email protected] K J<I&030 I[email protected][email protected]=G0 < 8:01>;0[email protected]38?0=0A:0=A0<?08 I[email protected]<1070=;C0A[email protected]<C:00=1>;0030;07[email protected]30;0<<0  K J 3  K J 1  K J 4  K J 2  K J 30=[email protected]@CB[email protected]030;07:>458A84=<C08?0=90=6:>458A84=<C08;C0A30=:>458A84=<C08D>;C<4[email protected]:CB8=8 G0=6 <4=C=9C::0= 7C1C=60= G0=6 [email protected] [email protected]:4B860=G0030;070 3  1 4 2 (410B0=614A8<C;0<C;0?0=90=6=G0038?0=0A:0=[email protected]AC7C)<4=9038) 8:0:>458A84=<C08?0=90=610B0=6 [email protected] [email protected]<1070= ?0=90=6 10B0=6030;070)1J))02J))03J))04) *-*)-")4"-")4"56+"8"#"/9"/(1"-*/(5&1"5%"/,&3+","/-")1"%"#6,6-"5*)"/&4;0BB8?8A[email protected];>60<?0=90=6=G0 2<30=;[email protected]=G0 2<?030AC7C I 8:0?4;0B[email protected]38?0=0A:0=A0<?0834=60=AC7C I[email protected]=G0B0;C0A=G0   2<!>458A84=<C08?0=90=6;>60<[email protected]030;070  K JI3  K JI1  K JI4 K JI2 K JI &030AC7C I<0AA094=8A4<0A  :6<:>458A84=<C08?0=90=64<0A  K JI#0AA094=8A4<0A[email protected]?030AC7C I030;070  :6<3   :6<1  :6<4  :6<2   :6< 0A30;0<@C0=6[email protected]?A410=G0:"B4:0=0==G038C107<4=9038 :0;8A4<C;0?030AC7CG0=6A0<0+>;C<460A0:0=[email protected]<4=90380 "3 "1 "4  "2 "  (C0BC60A8340;A410=G0: "?030B4:0=0= 0B<30=AC7C I!4<C380=60A[email protected]38?0=0A:0=78=660AC7C=G0 I30=D>;C<4=G0  ")4:0=0=60AA4:[email protected]=6030;070 0B<3  0B<1  0B<4 0B<2 0B<  (0BC0=:0;>@94=8A30;0<(030;070:0;I3 9>C;4!1:0;6I49>C;4:6!2::0;:6I  C<;07?0=0AG0=6[email protected];C:0=C=BC:<4=08::0=AC7C I?030[email protected]<[email protected]030;070 :0;3 :0;1 :0;4 :0;2 :0;  &0=0A94=8AAC0BC14=3038B4=BC:0=>;47094=8A14=30=G01:4=08:0=AC7C14=302D>;C<414=303 <0AA014=304;C0A[email protected]<C:00=14=30  8 30;0< 64;0A [email protected]  6 [email protected] [email protected] I 38<0AC::0= 64A[email protected]J I:0;>@94=8A4A[email protected] :0;6I 8:070=G0[email protected][email protected]:[email protected]=:0;>@[email protected][email protected]30=4AA4B4;07[email protected]:4A4B8<10=60=0:0=38[email protected]>;470A4;[email protected]4A<[email protected]30=AC7C=G0380B0A I1A4;[email protected]4A<[email protected]30=AC7C=G0 I2B830:A4;[email protected]4A<[email protected]30=AC7C=G0 I3 AC7CA4;[email protected]A8AB4<3810E07 I4A410680=[email protected]<4<14:C30=AC7CA4;[email protected]A8AB4< ITes Kompetensi Bab 7
168Mudah dan Aktif Belajar Fisika untuk Kelas X "8"#-")1&35"/9""/#&3*,65*/*%&/("/5&1"5  C0 1C07 1>;0 ;>60< G0=6 A494=8A <0A8=6<0A8=6[email protected] I38<0AC::0=:430;0<[email protected]G0=6AC7C=G0 I!43C0=G0<4=20?08:4A4B8<10=60=[email protected]<0;?030AC7C I 8:0<0AA0A4B80?1>;0 :630= :6:0;>@94=8A;>60<030;07  K  :6!30=:0;>@94=8A[email protected]030;07  K  :6!A4;8A87:0;>@G0=6[email protected]<0:43C01>;0030;070   K  3  K  1  K  4K  2   K   )[email protected]=G0[email protected]?8=3070=:0;>@?030AC0BCH0B:[email protected]=0[email protected]=0B><0B><=G038A41CB0@0380A83 :>=3C:A81:>=D4:A84@>B0A82[email protected]=A;0A8  "4<?4=6B4<1060B410;=G0 2<30=;C0A?4=0<?0=6=G0 <&[email protected]<C:00=G0=6A0BC<4<8;8:8AC7C   ! A430=6:0= G0=6 ;08= [email protected]   ! 8:0:>=3C:B8D8B0A[email protected]<0;B4<1060   <A![email protected]=G0:0;>@G0=6<[email protected]<10BB80?A4:>=030;070K  3 K  1K  4  K  2 K   8:0AC7C14=30G0=6[email protected][email protected]<4=9038 :0;8A4<C;0[email protected]G0=6[email protected]:0=B80?34B8:B80?A0BC0=;C0A<4=90380 :0;8A4<C;03 :0;8A4<C;01 :0;8A4<C;04 :0;8A4<C;02:0;8A4<C;0  >;0G0=6[email protected]<C:00==G078B0<A4<[email protected]=0<4<8;8:8AC7C :>=AB0=   ! [email protected]=G0 [email protected] G0=6[email protected]:0=B80?34B8:>;47[email protected]<C:00=1>;0[email protected]98:0:>=AB0=B0(B450=>;BH<0==K J,<!030;070K ,<1K ,<2  K ,<3  K ,<4  K ,<  C014=3078B0<G0=6A494=8A<0A8=6<0A8=6[email protected] I 30= I 8:0 :43C0 14=30 [email protected]<4<[email protected]:0=[email protected]30;0<14=BC:@0380A8[email protected]=38=60=9C<;07[email protected][email protected]34B8:G0=6[email protected]:0=030;070  3  1  4 2   &030AC7C IA41C07:C1CA7><>64=?0=90=6@CAC:@CAC:=G0 2< 8:0:>458A84=<C08?0=90=6:C1CA8BC  I[email protected]?0:07D>;C<4:C1CA?030AC7C I C0@4;1090<0A8=6<0A8=6?0=90=6=G0 <?030AC7C I0:0=38A0<1C=6C=BC:<4<14=BC:AC0BC;8=B0A0=:[email protected] 8:0AC7C<0:A8<C<=G0 I[email protected]?0:07;[email protected]24;07 <8=8<C< G0=6 [email protected] 38A4380:0= 38 [email protected]A0<1C=60=@4; &030AC7C IA41C071>B>;[email protected]?4=C7[email protected]=G0=6D>;C<4=G0 22 8:0:>458A84=<C08D>;C<41>B>;30=[email protected]=[email protected]@CB[email protected]  I30=  I[email protected]?0:07[email protected]=G0=6BC<?0798:038?0=0A:0=A0<?08 I 8:4B07C8?0=0A94=8A4A :0;6I?0=0A94=8A[email protected] :0;6I30=:0;>@;[email protected]4A :0;68BC=6;07AC7C0:[email protected]20<[email protected]= 64AG0=6AC7C=G0JI[email protected]30;0<:0;>@8<[email protected]G0=6:0?0A8B0A?0=0A=G0 :0;I38BC0=68 6[email protected]G0=6[email protected] IC0?C;C7[email protected]<AC0BCH0B[email protected]:0;>@  :0;A478=660AC7C14=30[email protected][email protected][email protected] I<4=9038 I[email protected]?0:07 :0;>@ G0=6 38;4?0A:0= [email protected] AC7C 14=30[email protected]=[email protected] I<4=9038 I (C7C ?030 :43C0 [email protected]<C:00= :4?8=6 14A8 G0=6<4<8;8:8;C0A 2<30=B410; 2<030;07 I30= I 8:0 :>=3C:B8D8B0A 14A8    :0;A2<IB4=BC:0=?0=0AG0=6[email protected]:0=B80?<4=8B(41C07;C10=6:428;?03038=38=6BC=6:C<[email protected]?0814=3078B0< 8:0;C0A;C10=6 2<30=AC7C=G0A0<034=60=AC7CBC=6:CG08BC  I[email protected]?0:0;>@G0=6[email protected]:0=;C10=6A4B80?A4:>=>;0G0=6@038CA=G0 2<<4<8;8:84<8A8D8B0A >;0[email protected]<[email protected]?[email protected]:0;>@[email protected];8=6:C=60==G0 34=60= ;09C  J/s [email protected]?0 AC7C 1>;0 8BCA4:[email protected]=6